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of the differences which have lately arisen, and desiring to strengthen their former friendly relations, have agreed to conclude a convention to this effect, and have named for plenipotentiaries to wit, Mr. Paul Emile Miot, rear-admiral commanding in chief the naval division of the Indian Ocean, and Mr. Salvator Patrimonio, minister plenipotentiary for the French Republic, and General Digby Willoughby, general officer commanding the Malagasy forces and minister plenipotentiary for the Government of Her Majesty the Queen of Madagascar, who, after having exchanged their full powers, found in good and due form, have agreed upon the following articles, subject to their ratification:

(1) The Government of the French Republic will represent Madagascar in all its foreign relations. The Malagasies abroad will be placed under the protection of France.

(2) A resident representing the Government of the Republic will control the foreign relations of Madagascar, without interfering in the internal administration of the country.

(3) He will reside at Antananarivo, with a military guard, and will be entitled to be received in private personal audience by the Queen.

(4) The Malagasy authorities under the Queen will not intervene in questions arising between French subjects or between French and foreign subjects. Actions at law between Frenchmen and Malagasies will be tried by the resident, assisted by a Malagasy judge.

(5) Frenchmen will live under French laws as regards the punishment of crimes and offenses committed in Madagascar.

(6) French subjects may freely reside, travel, and carry on trade throughout the Queen's dominions. They will be entitled to lease for undetermined periods or to take leases for long periods, renewable at the sole pleasure of the contracting parties, land, houses, shops, and all other descriptions of real property, and may freely engage and take into their service, on any footing, any Malagasy subject who may be unhindered by previous engagements. Leases and contracts with work-people will be certified in due form before the French resident and the magistrates of the country, and the strict execution of the provisions of such instruments will be guaranteed by the Government. At the death of a Frenchman who may have been the tenant of any landed or house property, his heirs will have the benefit of the remaining term of the lease concluded by the deceased, with the power of renewing the same. Frenchmen will only be called upon for the land tax paid by the Malagasies.

No person shall have access to the property or enter the establishments or houses occupied by Frenchmen, or by any person in their service, except with the sanction of the French resident.

(7) The Queen expressly confirms the guarantees stipulated by the treaty of August 7, 1885, in favor of liberty of conscience and religious toleration.

(8) The Queen's Government undertakes to pay the sum of 10,000,000 francs, to be applied in the settlement of French claims liquidated before the last war, and in compensation for the damages suffered by foreign subjects by reason of that war. The investigation and settlement of these indemnities is left to the French Government.

(9) Until payment in full of the above-mentioned sum French troops will occupy Tamatave.

(10) No claim will be admitted in connection with the measures taken up to the present by the French military authorities.

(11) The Government of the French Republic undertakes to lend assistance to the Queen in the defense of her states.

(12) The Queen will continue as heretofore to preside over the internal administration of the whole island.

(13) In consideration of these engagements, the French Republic agrees to desist from any renewal of its demand for a war indemnity.

(14) The Government of the French Republic, in order to aid the advance of the Malagasy Government and people on the path of civilization and progress, undertakes to place at the Queen's disposal the military instructors, engineers, professors, and artisan foremen whose services may be applied for.

(15) The Queen expressly undertakes to treat with good will the Sakalavas and Antankares, agreeably to the information on this subject furnished by the French Government. The Government of the Republic reserves to itself the right of occupying the Bay of Diego Suarez, and of creating there the establishments that it may consider desirable.

(16) The President of the French Republic and the Queen grant a general and complete amnesty, accompanied by the raising of all sequestrations placed upon their property, to their respective subjects, who prior to the conclusion of peace compromised themselves by serving the other contracting party.

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(17) The actually existing treaties and conventions between the French Republic and the Queen are expressly confirmed in so far as they may not be contrary to stipulations of the present treaty.

(18) The present treaty has been drawn up in French and Malagasy, the two versions having exactly the same sense, so that the two texts may be legally cited in every respect.

(19) The present treaty shall be ratified within a period of three months.

Made in duplicate on board the Naüïda, in the harbor of Tamatave, December 17, 1885.

The rear-admiral commanding in chief the naval division of the Indian Ocean,

E. Miot.

The minister plenipotentiary of the French Republic,


The minister plenipotentiary of Her Majesty the Queen of Madagascar, general officer commanding the Malagasy forces,


(Madagascar has lately been formally annexed by France.)


(Lee-Warner, The Protected Princes of India, p. 166) Whereas the British Government has now been for a long period in possession of the territories of Mysore, and has introduced into the said territories an approved system of administration : And whereas, on the death of the late Mahárája, the said Government, being desirous that the said territories should be administered by an Indian dynasty under such restrictions and conditions as might be necessary for ensuring the maintenance of the system of administration so introduced, declared that if Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur, the adopted son of the late Mahárája, should, on attaining the age of eighteen years, be found qualified for the position of ruler of the said territories, the government thereof should be entrusted to him, subject to such conditions and restrictions as might be thereafter determined: And whereas the said Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur has now attained the said age of eighteen years, and appears to the British Government qualified for the position aforesaid, and is about to be entrusted with the government of the said territories : And whereas it is expedient to grant to the said Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur a written instrument defining the conditions subject to which he will be so entrusted: It is hereby declared as follows:

(1) The Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur shall, on the twenty-fifth day of March, 1881, be placed in possession of the territories of Mysore, and installed in the administration thereof.

(2) The said Maharaja Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur, and those who succeed him in manner hereinafter provided, shall be entitled to hold possession of and administer the said territories as long as he and they fulfil the conditions hereinafter prescribed.

(3) The succession to the administration of the said territories shall devolve upon the lineal descendants of the said Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur, whether by blood or adoption, according to the rules and usages of his family, except in case of disqualification through manifest unfitness to rule.

Provided that no succession shall be valid until it has been recognized by the Governor-General in Council.

In the event of a failure of lineal descendants, by blood and adoption, of the said Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur, it shall be within the discretion of the Governor-General in Council to select as a successor any member of any collateral branch of the family whom he thinks fit.

(4) The Mahárája Chamrajendra Wadiar Bahadur and his successors (hereinafter called the Mahárája of Mysore) shall at all times remain faithful in allegiance and subordination to Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and Empress of India, her heirs and successors, and perform all the duties which, in virtue of such allegiance and subordination, may be demanded of them.

(5) The British Government having undertaken to defend and protect the said territories against all external enemies, and to relieve the Mahárája of Mysore of the obligation to keep troops ready to serve with the British army when required, there shall, in consideration of such undertaking, be paid from the revenues of the said territories to the British Government an annual sum of Government rupees thirty-five lákhs in two halfyearly instalments, commencing from the said twenty-fifth day of March, 1881.

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(6) From the date of the Mahárája's taking possession of the territories of Mysore the British sovereignty in the island of Seringapatam shall cease and determine, and the said island shall become part of the said territories, and be held by the Mahárája upon the same conditions as those subject to which he holds the rest of the said territories.

(7) The Mahárája of Mysore shall not, without the previous sanction of the Governor-General in Council, build any new fortresses or strongholds, or repair the defences of any existing fortresses or strongholds in the said territories.

(8) The Mahárája of Mysore shall not, without the permission of the Governor-General in Council, import or permit to be imported into the said territories arms, ammunition, or military stores, and shall prohibit the manufacture of arms, ammunition, and military stores throughout the said territories, or at any specified place therein, whenever required by the Governor-General in Council to do so.

(9) The Mahárája of Mysore shall not object to the maintenance or establishment of British cantonments in the said territories, whenever and wherever the Governor-General in Council may consider such cantonments necessary. He shall grant free of all charge such land as may be required for such cantonments, and shall renounce all jurisdiction within the land so granted. He shall carry out in the lands adjoining British cantonments in the said territories such sanitary measures as the Governor-General in Council may declare to be necessary. He shall give every facility for the provision of supplies and articles required for the troops in such cantonments, and on goods imported or purchased for that purpose no duties or taxes of any kind shall be levied without the assent of the British Government.

(10) The military force employed in the Mysore state for the maintenance of internal order and the Mahárája's personal dignity, and for any other purposes approved by the Governor-General in Council, shall not exceed the strength which the Governor-General in Council may from time to time fix. The directions of the Governor-General in Council in respect to the enlistment, organization, equipment, and drill of troops shall at all times be complied with.

(11) The Mahárája of Mysore shall abstain from interference in the affairs of any other state or power, and shall have no com

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