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not move a step further. The rest of the party we arrived at Hammanat. Our guide had rewere by this time nearly out of sight, and as I mained behind, and we could only see a woman was afraid lest I should lose the road, I dismount- tending a few sheep, though what they could get ed and ran towards them, half determined rather to eat we were unable to discover. We made to walk the whole way than to have any more several ineffectual attempts to cause our animals annoyance from camels. My animal was how- to kneel down, that we might alight, but at last ever soon caught, and brought up, proper rope succeeded. We sheltered ourselves under the was procured, 1 ventured once more upon its back, shade of a rock. When the other camels came and in a few minutes found myself as comfortable up, we were told that we must proceed two hours as I could wish. We had in all 20 camels, and further, to Jeyf-al-Ujul, and were by no means gave about three shillings each as the hire from pleased with the intelligence, as we were already Kosseir to the Nile. We pitched our tents for much fatigued. We passed, during the day, the night near Bier Inglis, or the English Well. several caravans on their way to Kosseir with

13. We set off at sunrise, and after four hours provisions. Near the rock, where we encamped, arrived at Seid Suleyman, where we halted for a there were numerous hieroglyphics, but rude both little time. The well is deep, and has been re- in design and execution. cently dug, apparently at the expense of three 15. We set off a little earlier than usual, and English gentlemen, as their names are cut upon passed through a plain several miles in length. a stone at the entrance, but the water is not good. We had a fine specimen of the mirage, and could After four hours more we arrived about sunset scarcely persuade ourselves that there were not at Abul Zeeran. We rode at a quicker pace before us streams of water, and islands and trees. than the camels with the tents and provisions, In five hours we arrived at Legatta. In the evenand usually arrived at our station about an hour ing we walked over to an Ababdie village. The before them. The camel drivers collected the dwellings of this wretched people were made of a dung of their animals for fuel, which may explain few mats, and were quite open on one side, but a passage in Ezekiel, and take away from the they said this was their only home. seeming harshness of the command given to the 16. In three hours from Legatta we had the prophet. The country through which we passed grateful sight of verdure in the distance. The consisted of plains varying in extent from a hun- camels walked well, as our guide said they scentdred yards to two or three miles, bounded by ed the waters of the river, and a cool breeze had ranges of hills, of different forms and elevation, sprung up, which added to the delight. It was but composed principally of sandstone. In what- near noon when we arrived at Bier Amber. The ever direction the eye wandered, it was met by women brought milk, bread, and fowls for sale, a picture of complete desolation, unrelieved by a and were very importunate that we should pursingle blade of grass. In some of these plains chase. Their manners form a striking contrast to there are perhaus as many as four little stunted those of the females in Arabia. They have no trees, half covered with sand, and in perfect keep- covering for the face, but their features are coarse. ing as trees of the desert. There are marks of We saw the Nile from the summit of a low hill torrents, though rain falls only after intervals of that we ascended. There could not be a greater

The ground is hard, with stony places contrast than was formed by the luxuriance before here and there, and as the camels are tied to each us, and the sterility we had left. other, and follow their leader in the same path, 17. We rode along the skirt of the valley, and there are from ten to twenty narrow tracks pa- all nature seemed to be keeping one glad holi, rallel to each other, worn smooth by their feet.- day. There were camels, horses, buffaloes, catThe bones of dead camels that have perished in tle, sheep, and goats, all feeding in the richest the road, are very frequent. Near all the passes, pasturage, and the air was almost alive with the on the summit of the rocks, are little watch-towers, many flights of birds that were darting through it nearly all of them in ruins. We passed several in the full enjoyment of existence. We passed large heaps of stones, that have formerly been several villages, and in five hours arrived at Kencaravanseras, but we could not learn by whom nah, on the banks of the Nile. We did not meet they were built. There was one at the place with the least difficulty during the whole of our where we halted for the night, with many ruined journey across the desert, and my old pack-saddle apartments, and a well in the centre, now filled up. proved at last to be so comfortable, that my comTherm. at noon 76o.

panions adopted it in preference to their own more 14. The thermometer was as low as 35o a lit- elegant furniture. I shall not soon forget the tle before sunrise, and we felt the cold to be ex- nearness of access to the throne of grace I was treme, as I never saw it in Ceylon at a lower permitted to enjoy, in passing through some of range than 69°, except upon the mountains. these mighty solitudes. The passage of the deAfter a hasty breakfast of biscuit and eggs we sert might easily be accomplished in a little more mounted our camels, and in three hours passed than three days, and as the camels travel at the the well Seid, in a rocky defile. Soon afterwards rate of three miles and three quarters an hour, we observed for the first time hieroglyphics cut in the whole distance may be stated at 106 miles. the rock, and they had so fresh an appearance that one of our party supposed they were the work of some passing traveller, who had wished to puzzle the learned; but in a little time they

THE NILE. becarne too numerous for this position to be tenable. They appeared as if eaten into the rock by The Nile is called “the river,” and sometimes some chemical preparation. In three hours more ! " the sea,” by the inspired penmen. In some of




the most ancient languages the word nil, signifies the silence was the cry of a distant hyæna. On blue, and it may thus have been denominated the passing a boat deeply laden with slaves, one of the Blue River. It rises in the mountains near Abys- men, who appeared to have been ill-used, appealsinia, but it is thought that the place about which ed to us most vehemently, but we could not unBruce writes with so much eloquence, is not the derstand what he said. Near Siout the wind and source of its principal branch. It was the largest stream were both in our favor, and as we fitted river known to the ancients, and flows upwards of along at a delightful rate, the objects upon shore, 1200 miles without receiving a tributary stream. as they receded from us, appeared like the moving The rise of the Nile is occasioned by the heavy scenes of an endless panorama. Soon afterwards rains that fall in Abyssinia, and commence in June : the wind changed, increasing in violence, the air it reaches the maximum about the time of the became darkened by the clouds of sand, and long autumnal equinox, and then gradually decreases before the sun had sunk below the horizon, the until April, from which time it remains at nearly atmosphere assumed an appearance like that the same level until again renovated by the Ethio- which the imagination forms over the dark waters pic floods.

The color of the waters varies at of the Dead Sea. It was no small punishment different seasons of the year. In Upper Egypt threatened against the Israelites that the rain of the average rise is about 35 feet, but at Cairo not the land should be powder and dust, and not many more than 24 feet, and near the sea still less. In sorer trials can be conceived than that inflicted those years in which the waters do not rise to a upon the Egyptians, when the dust became lice certain elevation, a famine is the necessary con- throughout all the land. Below Manfaloot the sequence. It is difficult to make a comparison of river passes under a range of hills, elevated and the present rise with the ancient, from the differ- precipitous, and as we sailed slowly by them, the ence of the standard measures in the two periods, different birds by which they are inhabited came and it has always been the policy of the govern- forth and flew at a little distance from their clefts, ment to deceive the people in the accounts that round and round, as if on sentry, until they deemed have been officially published. The bed of the that we intruders were too far distant to injure river has risen considerably, from the deposit it is them. Those more bold than the rest dashed constantly receiving, or the old monuments and down to the water, almost close to the oars, to temples would be admirable criterions by which pick up little substances floating down the stream. to decide the matter: we can tell how much Upon a bank formed by the falling of the earth higher the water rises than it did in the ancient from above, we found several crocodiles basking times, but what part of the rise is formed by de- in the sun, though it is said they are never seen posit, and what by water, we are unable to ascer- below Girge. They differ from the Indian alligatain. The water is clear, and its taste excellent, tors, which I was accustomed to see almost daily, after it has been allowed to settle, and it is com- the tail being more stunted, and not so round. pared by the Mussulmans to the well of Paradise. We saw two eagles upon a shoal near the same The stream is not rapid, even when the water is place, perhaps male and female, as one of them at the greatest elevation, compared with the rivers was much larger than the other, with its legs feaof India. The ancients speak of seven principal thered. They were magnificent creatures. Se. mouths, but there are now only two, and these veral birds of a small size were near them, probaare constantly changing their position. The divi- bly waiting to partake of the remains when their sion of the waters takes place a little below Cairo, majesties had finished their repast. A party of and the expanse of land between the streams was Algerines at a village where we purchased some compared by the ancients to the figure of the bread asked us to give them a passage to Cairo Greek delta 4, but by the moderns, more properly, in our boat, and when we refused they threatened to that of a pear. The mud brought down by the to shoot us, but we knew they would not dare to stream is continually adding to the extent of the put their threats into execution. Our canja freDelta, and is found as far as 24 leagues out atquently struck upon sand-banks; sometimes they

were above water, and when so, were in general We embarked for Thebes at Kennah in a canja, covered with birds, some kinds of which I often with two immense lateen sails, striped blue. It saw stand in rows, and in one particular position, had two apartments and a bath, and was rowed perhaps upon one leg, or with the head under the by six men, but rather required twelve men from its wing, with as much formality as the hieroglyphics size. It had been sunk some time under water upon the walls of the temples. before we entered it, to free it from vermin. From The valley of the Nile, which includes nearly Thebes we proceeded to Grand Cairo, visiting all the whole of cultivated Egypt, is in few instances the principal antiquities by the way, and our voy- more than 20 miles broad, will in general average age occupied nine days. Near Denderah the less than one-half of that extent, and in many wind blew against us with such strength, that the places the sands or mountains approach close to boatmen were unable to keep the prow of the the banks. The produce is entirely from irrigacanja to windward, so they put down their oars, tion, and where this ends verdure ends, and the and allowed her to float with the stream. desert in all its sterility commences. The vilThe mountains in some places run parallel with lages are numerous, and by continued waste are a the river, at a few miles distance, but near Girge little more elevated than the surrounding plain. they come close to the water, and seem as if reel. They are usually surrounded by a mud wall. The ing in drunkenness, from the singular confusion houses are built of mud bricks, and many of them manifested in the dip of their strata. The even have small turrets, with sticks at the outside, in ing we were off Ekmim was one of the stillest I which pigeons are reared, principally to procure ever remember, and the only sound that disturbed their dung for manure. The whole of the valley is never covered by the Nile, and to the higher surface. In places where a human being never grounds the water is raised by artificial means. yet breathed there may thus arise a countless The wheels for this purpose on the banks of the ri population, and winds that have never yet been ver are numberless, and are turned round by oxen. charged with any sound but the groan of the wanIn some instances a lever, to one end of which a derer as he ventures to cross its parched wilds, skin is attached, is used for the same purpose, may convey the praises of the Lord from the glad worked by men; and in places where the banks and grateful hearts of many worshippers. are steep, I have seen four pairs of these instru- It was from the river Nile that "the seven wellments, one above the other. The water falls into favored kine, and the seven otlier kine" came up, a canal, and is from thence conveyed at will in all of which Pharaoh dreamed: in the flags of the directions, at every division the stream becoming river's brink, Moses was placed in an ark of bulless, until the little rill can be guided to each sepa- rushes: and into this river the Israelites were rate plant, and the peasant, making a line with his commanded to cast their male children by the king foot, thus waters the garden of herbs.-Deut. xi. 10. “ who knew not Joseph ;" but the river thus polThe food of the people is still the same as that which luted, though worshipped by the Egyptians as a was remembered with weeping by the children of god, manifested the anger of the Lord against the Israel,-—" the cucumbers, and the leeks, and the sins of the people, when its waters were turned melons, and the onions, and the garlic."


into blood, its fish died, and it brought forth frogs It is wonderful that the Egyptians in ancient abundantly. The “seven streams are referred days did not make the Nile their sole deity, in to in the prophecy of Isaiah. In the same book, preference to the multitude of bulls, birds, beetles, chap. xix. 7, it is said ; "the reeds and flags shall cats, crocodiles, and onions, that they adored. wither; the paper reeds by the brook, by the They had no blessing that did not come imme- mouth of the brooks, and every thing sown by diately or otherwise from this beneficent source : the brooks, shall wither, be driven away, and be when its supplies were withheld the whole land no more." There is at present a remarkable des. was a desert ; when it poured furth its riches, the titution of reeds throughout Egypt, though we same land was the garden of the world. It must might suppose the country admirably adapted to have puzzled them sorely to know from whence it their production, and we know that they were originated, as, year by year, it came in kindness, once so plentiful as to supply the world with papyand irrigated their fields, and left upon them a rus, and so large as to supply materials for the rich deposit to receive the seeds of life and in due making of ships, naves. It was in one of these time smile with the ripened grain. It were hard "arks of bulrushes" that the mother of Moses to attribute to mere chance this admirable adap- placed the goodly child. It is said again in the tation of river to country, and country to river. following verses, “the fishers also shall mourn, The river overflows, and there is no rain, because and all they that cast angle into the brooks shall rain would be an injury : in other countries there lament, and they that spread nets upon the waters is rain, and the rivers overflow not like this river, shall languish: moreover they that work in fine because were they to do so it would be an equal flax, and they that weave networks, shall be coninjury. These events may be added to the other founded : and they shall be broken in the purposes instances of design, wisdom, and goodness, that are thereof, all that make sluices and ponds for fish." constantly manifested in the works of God. The There are now very few fish in the river, and rise of the waters is watched by the peasant with those of an inferior quality, which is another congreat impatience, and when the elevation is ac- trast to the abundance of ancient times; and that cording to his wishes, with his flocks safe folded they were abundant we have evidence in the murand the former harvest secured, he looks around murings of the children of Israel, who rememberupon the extended sea, and rejoices in his confine-ed the fish as well as the vegetables, so that it ment: then the palm that spreads its grateful must then have been the common food of slaves. shade over his dwelling-place exhibits its richest In these lands, many passages of Scripture appear grcen, and the villages of the neighborhood are to be invested with a peculiar beauty, and none converted into islands that appear in the distance more so than those which compare the condition verdant and beautiful. The Nile may be design of the righteous to “ a tree planted by the rivers of ed to impart far greater blessings to the world waters." “ Blessed is the man that trusteth in than have yet been drawn from its beneficence. the Lord, whose hope the Lord is ; for he shall be The desert that commences on its western bank as a tree planted by the waters and that spreadeth extends nearly to the Atlantic ocean, a distance out her roots by the river, and shall not see when of more than 3000 miles. The waters of the Nile heat cometh, but her leaf shall be green; and and of the Niger may in part be one day turned shall not be careful in the year of drought, neither upon this desert ; that which is r.ow lost in the sea shall cease from yielding fruit."-Jer. xvii. 7. may supply nourishment to millions; and Egypt may still be " as the garden of the Lord,” from the advantages that will be derived from new improvements in machinery and new discoveries in

NO, OR THEBES. hydraulics. These two rivers, the sources of which have been an object of equal interest fron The city which in our version is rendered No, is time immemorial, and have alike eluded the search by the LXX. called Diospolis, or the city of Jupiof every traveller, appear as if formed for the ex- ter. It is called Amon No in the Hebrew, impress purpose of bringing into cultivation the properly translated "the multitude of No.” It is largest desert in the world, when the exigencies supposed to be the same city as the Thebes of the of mankind may require an extension of habitable ancients. Its description may not only be consi.


dered interesting as belonging to a place mentioned ed. The pier is supposed to be of Roman workby the prophets,- Jer. xlvi. 25; Ezek. xxx. 15, manship, and in some parts is in good preservation. 16,—but more particularly as illustrative of “the Karnac is situated on the same side of the river, wisdom of the Egyptians” about the time of Moses, a little more than a mile from Luxor, and further as there can be little doubt that some of the monu- from the water. The approaches to the temple ments we shall notice are of an age not much are lined with rows of sphinxes, about twelve feet more recent.

distant from each other: they are of sandstone, I was up betimes on the morning of Feb. 23, and so far crumbled into ruin that it is difficult to and mounted the most elevated station I could make out their original forin. The propylon to find, that I might see the sun rise upon the plain the temple of Isis is one of the most magnificent of Thebes, but was disappointed, as the atmo- I have seen. Some of the stones in the passage sphere was obscured by vapors. It seems a strange leading to the top of the pronaos contain hiero. place to choose for the erection of a metropolis, glyphics, turned upside down, from which it would when looking at the map, but all wonder vanishes appear that they belonged to some former temple; upon a personal inspection of the site. The out of the ruins of which this was either built of Nile divides itself into two branches a little higher repaired. There are four columns on each side, up, and these again uniting, spread their waters and five interior apartments. into an imposing breadth, and then form a noble The four propylons that present themselves at bend in the centre of a valley bounded by two a little distance, conduct to a larger temple, that ranges of hills. At the confluence of these far surpasses all the others in extent and granbranches, close to the water, on the eastern bank, deur. I must here cease to particularise either stands the ruins of Luxor. The propylon, or en- columns or temples, so numerous are they that trance gateway, is 200 feet in width, and on one only to name them would be tedious. We enterside of the entrance is a square obelisk, said to be ed towards the northern end, which is compara80 feet high, composed of one piece of granite, and tively modern, and the figures are less free in their covered with hieroglyphics cut deeply into the execution. The pillars in the centre are of one stone. Its fellow, that stood on the opposite of stone, forty feet high, and probably supported busts the entrance, has been taken away by the French, or statues, as upon the top of one of them a redeto be erected in some public spot in Paris. There stal still appears. Near them is a gigantic figure are also two colossal statues, mutilated, with coni- in granite. Upon the wall are sculptured the cal head-dresses, cut out of one block of granite, figures of boats, one of which is upwards of fifty of differently colored strata. The facade of the feet long. The French have cut in another part propylon is covered with sculpture. On one side the latitudes and longitudes of the principal places is cut the figure of a gigantic warrior, and near in Egypt; but I am told they are not correct. The him are groups of his puny enemies, some in the pillars in the interior court are many of them eleact of battle, and others dying or dead. On the ven feet in diameter. One of them has fallen other side he is seated upon a throne, and is re- against another pillar, but is prevented from comceiving the homage of his routed foes, and the ing to pieces by the immense weight of the frieze, congratulations of his friends. The early sun which still retains its place. The ribs in one of shone full upon the wall at the time we were look- the upper windows of the western wall, are still ing at it, so that we were able to trace the differ- perfect, and have so light an appearance, that at ent circumstances of the history with ease. The first I took them to be of wood. It is a delightful ascent to the top of the propylon is more like a thought that the gods, to whom these matchless climb in a stone quarry than among materials structures were erected, have not now a single brought together by human hands: and it must be worshipper, and that even a later generation of remembered that every stone of this and of every deities has shared a similar fate. Osiris and Apis, other temple has been brought from a considerable Jupiter and Venus, and Woden and Friga, are alike distance. The top is as usual covered with the forgotten. The mind seems to require some thought names of visiters. The interior of the edifice is of this description to relieve it from the majesty of occupied by the dwellings of the natives; and I the scene, when the reflection comes that it is purcobserved a mosque, and a school near it, in which ly heathen. The most imposing view is from one an old man was teaching about a dozen noisy of the transepts in the principal court, and when the scholars. Several pillars with sculptured capitals setting sun sheds its latest rays upon these remains are daubed over with mud, and others are seen in of departed greatness, and shows them in that “dim the walls of the houses. The principal court is religious light,” which is the favorite shade among supported by seven pillars on each side, which, all ruins, there are few places upon earth where with the frieze, are all its remains. Further on purer strains can be heard of that music which, there are other capitals of a similar description, amidst scenes like these, strikes with such force but smaller dimensions, which appear to have be- upon the soul, when all earthly sounds are silent. longed to the cloisters of a square entered from Still there is a danger lest the imagination should the temple. We had to pass through several na- be led away by some pleasing and profitless fiction, tive houses before we could conclude the examina- though the granite obelisks, the mutilated statues, tion, and strange to say, the people made no ob- the sculptured walls, the massy columns, and the jection, and asked for no present. The houses quarries of hewn stone that lie scattered in confunear the river are built over columns and smaller sion around, throw in a chord of graver tone, and apartments of the temple. They were occupied tell us we are passing to the grave. by the French during the time they were employ- ceeding to look at some other wonder, column after ed in taking down the obelisk. There are four column presents itself on every side, of the most gigranite figures near them, all inore or less mutilat- ! gantic proportions, as if the hand that had upreared


When pro



them could never be satisfied with the manifesta- appears as if it had received a wrench from the tion of the resources it could command. The inte hand of some mighty destroyer, who had strength rior of the temple is a forest of columns. There at once to shake it through every stone. On the are two obelisks, each made of a single block of western side of it are represented the stirring granite, upwards of seventy feet high. The hiero- scenes of a battle in the usual spirited style, with glyphics are nearly as perfect as when first cut.- a walled town and all the horrors of a siege. Be. Further on, we can only glance for a moment at the tween this and the temple are the remains of a different apartments and figures that present them- statue, from which the edifice derives its name, selves. Upon one of the walls are cut the figures measuring upwards of twenty fect across the chest, of the gifts that were presented to the temple, and all the other parts in proportion. There are with an account of the number and value of each. statues composed of separate stones joined to the Some of the vessels are not improbably of the very columns in the same space, that have suffered same shape and description as the chargers, bowls, from the hand of man, in common with the other and spoons, presented unto the Lord by the princes parts of the fabric. Upon the walls of the temple of Israel, at the dedication of the tabernacle in the there are other battle scenes. It consists of sevewilderness. The next temple is in better preserva- ral apartments, and is much larger than that at tion. The ceiling is painted an azure blue, studded Gornou. The whole is about 600 feet long, 200 with stars. The figure of an old saint, painted feet broad, and contains upwards of 150 columns. upon one of the columns, greeted us at our en. It was from this place that the statue was taken trance; and I looked round with no common emo- now in the British Museum, and improperly called tion, as it is evident that this erection was used in the Younger Memnon. former times as a place of Christian worship. The The temple of Medinet Abou, about a quarter worshippers, “where are they?" Echo answers of a mile distant, is in better preservation. It is not with an uncertain "where?” Those who wor- built upon a plan somewhat different to that which shipped in sincerity are, no doubt, with the throng is usually followed. The columns at the western in a more magnificent temple, where there is no end are only excelled by those at Karnac, and the need of the setting sun to give it beauty, neither of court must have been a delightful place of retirethe moon to shine in it, “ for the Lord is with them ment for the priests in the days of its magnificence. an everlasting light.” The names of several bi- The hieroglyphics are cut very deep into the wall, shops are written upon one of the pillars, in Greek; and some of the colors are as bright and fresh as if and this rude scrawl, it has been conjectured, is the just laid on by the painter. In all the other temrecord of some ecclesiastical council held in the tem- ples I visited, the figures have been mutilated by ple. Still further on, there are many other statues, the iconoclasts: in this temple there are whole columns, walls, apartments, and temples ; but after groups of figures quite perfect. They appear to seeing so much, the eye was for once satisfied, and owe their preservation to the modern buildings by we were not sorry to find ourselves at the extremi- which they have been covered, and which were ty of the sacred enclosure. The whole length is probably Roman, as those still near them are, from said to be nearly two thousand feet. There is a their form, supposed to be of that age. This character about these ruins that belongs to no other would prove, if the position be correct, that the muI saw in Egypt. There are no native habitations tilations are not the work of Cambyses, as is gene. near them, and but few remains of those little mud rally imagined, but either of the early Christians or dwellings with which the men of later times have the Mahomedans. It has been a task of incredible been contented. They are alone in their simplici- difficulty to deface so many thousands of idolatrous ty, and the broken fragments around all belong to emblems, and the zeal of the parties cannot but be their own former grandeur. I could scarcely bring admired, whatever a mere love of art may say of myself to believe that their age is to be numbered their task. On the northern exterior wall is repreby thousands of years. They appear as if the sented another battle scene, in which the antagowork of yesterday. Looking at the more perfect nists of the larger figure are upon the water in parts, I could fancy that the workmen were only boats. Some are swimming for their lives, some absent on some holiday occasion; and, looking at falling overboard, and others are employed in resthe more ruinous, I could suppose that an earth- cuing their perishing companions. The style in quake, the tremulous motion of which was only which these sculptures are designed much resemnow subsiding, had just passed in its fury as the bles that of the prints in the common historical messenger of God, and hurled from their founda- works published about 200 years ago; but they tions these impious structures.

are worthy of examination, as the garments, weaThe principal temples on the western side of pons, and so forth, are no doubt exact representathe river are those of Ġornou, Northern and South- tions of those used at the date of the erection of ern Dair, the Memnonium and Medinet Abou. the temples. On the same side are several figures

The temple at Gornou, not far from the river, is of lions. remarkable for its simplicity, and were it not for Not far distant is the humble chapel of a few the sacred character of the hieroglyphics with families of Coptic Christians. The temples of which it is covered, might be supposed to have Dair are of inferior interest. There are many been a grand hall used by the monarch on state other remains of walls, statues, and apartments, occasions. It has seven perfect columns in front, in different parts; but it is an exaggeration of and one broken. In the interior there are three travellers, that the whole plain is covered with columns on each side, and the roof is nearly per- ruins from one chain of mountains to the other. fect. There are several other apartments, some The objects which almost surpass all others in of them nearly filled with rubbish.

interest are the two statues in the centre of the The propylon of the Memnonium is in ruins, and I plain. They are sitting upon a kind of throne,

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