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PC OFFICE OF THE STATE ENGINEER,
SACRAMENTO, January 31, 1883. To the Honorable Senate and Assembly of the State of California :
th In compliance with your concurrent resolution (Senate No. 7). have visited the site of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum and ur the State University at Berkeley, with the view of making a perma fu nent plan for the disposition of the sewage of these institutions, and bo now beg leave to submit a report setting forth the condition of thing in this regard, as I have found them, and the possibilities in the call by drawing your attention to the extent of work which your resolutid necessitates, and ask further instruction before incurring addition expense and consuming more time.
THE SITUATION AT THE DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND ASYLUM.
sic The Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum comprises six brick structurno grouped upon the steep, sloping plain close against the base of than Alameda hills, at a distance of about 14,700 feet from the bay shor?
These buildings are disposed according to a set plan, upon a pl ha somewhat less than five hundred feet square.
They have all been built within the past seven years, and the sul. ject of the removal of sewage matter, waste, and drainage waters frorcie them appears to have been closely and intelligently studied, for me find an admirable system for house drainage incorporated into the int plans, and works for this purpose apparently well executed in ead? structure.
The ideas embodied in this system are the most modern, and the he now generally approved by sanitary engineers of advanced ideas. fo.
The works, I believe, will insure the prompt removal of all ref' matter from the buildings, and will keep these structures well vendor lated and free from the noxious effects so very commonly encounterto! from bad house drainage, even in most pretentious modern structures
After removal from the buildings, the sewage and drainage mature is conducted in glazed stoneware pipes from each building to a mano pipe which conducts the whole, westward, down the slope, and aloh it, southerly, a distance of about eight hundred feet from the centre building to the southeast corner of the tract belonging to the institut
I tion, and there it is used in irrigation.
The amount of water used per day in the buildings of the instih tion is about 20,000 gallons. This is approximately the measure the ordinary volume of sewage and drainage matter, and it is the posed upon an acre of land through ditches about five feet apat
allowed to soak away into the cultivated soil, or plowed under from
This system of disposing of the sewage matter is undoubtedly the best which, under the circumstances, could have been adopted, as has been proven by general experience in such matters in older countries, where the subject has been closely studied and experimented upon.
But now after years of use the soil of this irrigated tract has become thoroughly charged with sewage; it has lost in a great measure its
of purifying the fresh matter brought to it. The property in the immediate neighborhood is being occupied, and a progressive and enlightened population is gathering in.
While at some point remote from habitations, this system of disposing of the sewage matter might well be carried on by taking pew fands for the purpose from time to time, for an indefinite period in the future, it is no longer permissible in this neighborhood.
The effects in tlie Fall of the year, I am told-and I can readily understand that such is the fact-are most disagreeable and unhealthng ful to the occupants of the institution, and to residents in the neighin borhood. 1 The State is virtually maintaining a nuisance at this place, but not is by or through any fault or omission of those having it in charge. 100
THE SITUATION AT THE UNIVERSITY.
The State University comprises four main structures, situated upon flat spur from the Alameda hills at the commencement of the steep sloping plains towards the bay, at a point about four thousand feet ir northwest from the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum, and twelve thouto and seven hundred feet in a straight line from the bay shore.
These structures, built at intervals during the last sixteen years, phave been provided with pipes and fixtures for the removal of sew
sage, offal, and drainage waters, after a very defective system. suk The fixtures as a general thing are by no means of the most effirotcient types, and the arrangement of the pipes is not such as to proor note their proper ventilation and prevent the injection of sewer gases tanto the buildings.
Thus removed from the structures, the sewage and drainage matter s conducted into three cesspools, in the inmediate neighborhood of ho he buildings themselves, and situated at distances of five hundred
O seyen hundred feet from each other. fu The cesspool system of disposing of sewage matter is one generally entkondemned by all students, experimentalists, and practical workers ergo sanitary science. At best it can be but a mere temporary makeshift. ure suppose it was adopted as such at the University, and now the time atif its efficiency, the period of its adinissibleness, has passed. The cessna ools have become a nuisance. One has burst and disposes its matter los brough the adjacent soil, and another requires constant cleaning to ata revent its effects from being unbearable to the University students itikad faculty.
In addition to these buildings there is another, the gymnasium, hich is drained into a creek immed tely south of the flat spur
Lwhich the main buildings rest, and a group of cottages from thirilen hundred to two thousand feet down the creek, which are drained parlo cesspools.
The immediate neighborhood of these structures and of the Un versity is well built up in beautiful homesteads, on the south particularly, stretching away to the grounds of the Deaf, Dumb, a de Blind Asylum.
di: I am told that some of these private houses are drained into ttir little creek or curroyo before mentioned, and it is generally concede su that certain unhealthfulness of the neighborhood in the fall month is due to the accumulation of foul matter in this arroyo and in to cesspools before mentioned, and I can well believe, from the known to edge of experience elsewhere, that such is the case.
DISPOSITION OF THE SEWAGE,
of The sewage matter from these institutions can only be permanent disposed of by conducting it to the bay and depositing it where ha will be swept off by tidal action.
the In the case of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind Asylum all else has being ] accomplished except the provision of a conduit from the grounds the bay shore, and proper outfall works at that point.
In the case of the University the setrage will have to be collect by branch pipes for the several structures and brought to one poi for discharge into a main pipe to be carried to the bay. The che pools will have to be thoroughly cleaned and filled up, and the hou drainage works in the buildings should be remodeled to some exta at least, in order that the benefit of the new system may be fully f in them.
If the State were going to provide independent works for thed posal of the sewage of these institutions, as here suggested, it wor take about twenty-two thousand linear feet of glazed earthenw drain pipe, varying in diameter from four to eight inches, which li would cost about twelve thousand dollars, if the work is done w ouly a small margin of profit to a contractor on it.
It would cost about one thousand dollars for additional outs work in the removal and filling of cesspools, and arranging conn tions, etc.
I have not had time to study the house drainage of the buildi at the University, so as to make any reliable estimate of the cosi remodeling it, but believe two thousand dollars would be thely şum from the expenditure of which any considerable benefit mi be expected in this regard.
THE TOWN OF BERKELEY.
The neighborhood in which these institutions are situs embracing a tract about eight thousand feet in width, and extend back about seventeen thousand feet from the bay shore, is organ as a town, under a special Act of Legislature, has its system of te government, and levies taxes for municipal purposes. Town of Berkeley
The sewerage of these State institutions in this town, so far as conduction of sewage to the bay is concerned, is properly a mai the town sanitary works. It seems to me that if the State could in conjunction with the town authorities, and this burden equitably distributed, the State would save a material portion of twelve thousand dollars estimated for the main conduit.
It is only by a close study of the situation that a definite plan and detail of cost can be submitted for the drainage and sewerage of this district, and I respectfully represent that this
would take a month of time and at least six hundred to eight hundred dollars expense for surveys, plans, estimates, etc. I cannot recommend that the State undertake this alone. The town authorities should contribute towards it. I am told that these town authorities are anxious to have something done in the matter, and will doubtless coöperate with the State.
Hence, I would recommend that a further inquiry be made as to this point, that knowledge be had as to what proportion of the cost of a main pipe the State would have to pay.
The Town Council are to have a meeting next week, and steps have been taken to communicate and negotiate with the members on the subject.
I am, with respect, your obedient servant,
WM. HAM. HALL,