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He was the author of a successful method for ac- AIDING AND ABETTING, in criminal law, is quiring modern languages, which bears his name. the offense committed by those who are actively His French Grammar for Germans has gone through or constructively present at the time a crime is more than 200 editions. It was succeeded by sim- committed, doing some act to aid or counsel and ilar works on English, Italian and Dutch.

procure the thing to be done. Persons guilty of AHNAPEE, city and lake port, Kewaunee this offense are considered principals in the secCounty, northeastern Wisconsin; lies 120 miles ond degree, except in the crime of high treason N. of Milwaukee, with which it is connected by and in misdemeanors, where they are considered rail via Green Bay, located 32 miles S.W. of it. principals in the first degree. A person guilty of Its principal trade is in lumber and grain. Popu- aiding and abetting in the commission of a crime lation 1890, 1,015; 1895, 1,329.

cannot be punished under a statute providing AHNFELD, ARVID WOLFGANG NATHANAEL, punishment for such crime, unless the statute also Swedish author and journalist, born in Lund, applies to all who are guilty of assisting, and not Aug. 16, 1845 He was associate editor of the alone to those who actually commit the crime. Aftonblad from 1870 to 1881, and since the latter AIDONE, a town of east-central Sicily, in the date has been editor-in-chief of Ur Dagens Krö- province of Caltanissetta, lying 33 miles inland nika. He is the author of a Universal History of from the Gulf of Catania. The nearest railway Literature; and is now publishing a Biography of passes eight miles north of it. The Lombards who European Artists (1883 et. seq.).

accompanied Roger the Norman in his conquest AHRENS, Heinrich, born at Kniestedt, Han- of Sicily established the town at an important over, July 14, 1808, was a German jurist and strategic point, which overlooks the picturesque writer on philosophy and political science. He plain of Catania. Population 1895, 6,996. was educated at Göttingen, became a prominent AIGNAN, ÉTIENNE, a French publicist and contributor to the periodicals of the period, and littérateur, was born at Beaugency-sur-Loire in in 1839 professor of philosophy at Brussels. 1773.

He became a member of the Academy in Later he held a professorship at Gratz, and finally | 1814. He executed an excellent translation of became professor of practical philosophy and the Iliad into his native tongue, and wrote an impolitical science at Leipsic. He published psy- portant work entitled The Condition of the Proteschological and political treatises and a juristic tants in France. He died in 1824. encyclopædia. His Cours du Droit Naturel has AIGRETTE, in botany, a term used to denote been extensively translated, and is used as a basis the plume or down which is attached to many for academical studies in South American coun- fruits or seeds, as, for instance, the dandelion and tries. He died in Salzgitter, Prussia, Aug. 4, the thistle. In English zoology the name is ap1874.

plied to a white heron, an elegant bird with a AIÏ. See Sloth, Vol. XXII, p. 161.

white body and feathery crest. It is also used in AIDÉ, Hamilton, English poet, novelist, and reference to the feathery tuft on the heads of soldier, was born in Paris in 1830, of Greek-Eng- several birds. Also written Aigret or Egret. lish parentage. He received his academic train. See HERON, Vol. XI, p. 760. ing in England, afterward studying at the Uni- AIGUEBELLE, a town of east-central France, versity of Bonn. After seven years' service in in the department of Savoy. It lies moderately the British army he retired with the rank of cap- up in the Graian Alps and is on the river Arc. It tain, thenceforward devoting himself to romance was the scene of the defeat, in 1742, of Duke and poetry.

The best known of his poems are Charles Emmanuel III, of Savoy, by the French Eleanore, and Songs Without Music; among his and Spanish armies, and the site of Napoleon's novels; Rita; Passages in the Life of a Lady; and commencement of operations in building the road The Marstons,

over Mont Cenis. Population 1895, 1,080. AIDE-DE-CAMP, a confidential officer at- AIGUEBELLE, PAUL ALEXANDRE NEVEUE D', tached to the personal or private staff of a general. a French naval officer who entered the Chinese In the United States service, six, having the rank service during the Taiping Rebellion in 1863, of colonels, are allowed to a general; to a lieuten- became a mandarin of the highest rank, and for ant-general, two, and a military secretary, who whom was especially created the title of grand rank as lieutenant-colonels; to a major-general, admiral of the Chinese fleets. He was of much three, ranking as captains or lieutenants; to a service in reorganizing the Chinese navy upon the brigadier-general, two, ranking as lieutenants. European plan. He was born in 1831, and died These officers are generally in the complete at Paris in 1875. confidence of their commander, whose orders they AIGUES-MORTES, a town of southeastern write and whose person they often represent. The France, lying in marshy ground, in the departposition requires an intimate acquaintance with ment of Gard, which the Roman Marius is suparmy details, accurate judgment, and a moderate posed to have founded. It is 3 miles from the degree of diplomacy. In time of battle the aide Mediterranean Sea, with which it is connected by must have a precise knowledge of the ground be- a canal, and is connected by rail with Nîmes, 22 ing fought over and the disposition of all troops miles N. E. of it. St. Louis sailed from Aigues

An admiral's aide-de-camp is his flag. Mortes in 1248, and again in 1270, for the Crusades. lieutenant. See AIDE-DE-CAMP, Vol. I, p. 425. Here Francis I met the Emperor Charles V in See also ARMY, Vol. II, p. 577.

The fortifications of the town, built by

upon it.




4, 1800.

Philip III in 1270, are of great archæological inter- | time until the Macdonald ministry went out of est. Wine and salt are its chief exports. Popula- power. Upon its return in 1878 he resumed his tion 1891, 3,981.

portfolio, resigning it two years later to become AIGUILLON, ARMAND VIGNEROT DUPLESSIS minister of inland revenue. He was lieutenantRichelieu, DUKE OF (1720–1782), statesman and governor of Manitoba from 1882 to 88, retiring prime minister of ce under Louis XV. from public life with the expiration of that term Through the influence of the Countess du Barry, of office. the king's mistress, he was made minister of AILANTHUS SILKWORM. See Silk, Vol. foreign affairs in 1771, succeeding Choiseul. See XXII, p. 6o.

60 Du Barry, Vol. VII, p. 494.

AILANTUS, a genus of trees of the family AIGUILLON, ARMAND DE VIGNEROT DUPLES- Simarubacea, natives of southeastern Asia. The sis Richelieu, DUKE OF, a son of the preceding; best-known species is A. glandulosa, the "tree of born in 1750; was conspicuous for his republican heaven," or "Chinese sumach."

| , “ " It was introsympathies at the outbreak of the Revolution. duced in the middle of the eighteenth century Despite his renunciation of the privileges of no- into France, Italy, Germany, Britain and the bility, he was proscribed in 1792, and saved his United States. It grows rapidly, has very long life by flight to England. Died at Hamburg May pinnate leaves, and is easily propagated by suckers

See LA CHALOTAIS, Vol. XIV, p. 191. and cuttings of the roots. In the United States AIKEN, capital of a southwestern county of it has become a pest in many places, owing to its South Carolina having the same name, is on the rapid spreading and unpleasant odor. The wood South Carolina and Georgia railroad, 18 miles E. is suited for cabinet-making, and the leaves afford of Augusta and 120 miles N. W. of Charleston. It nutriment to a species of silkworm (Bombyx cynhas good educational facilities for both white and thia). colored students, being the seat of Aiken Insti- AILLY, PIERRE D', OR PETRUS DE ALLItute, Schofield Normal School, and Immanuel ACO, “The Eagle of the Doctors(Aquila Doc

, , (colored) Training School. It is also a popular torum) of France, and the “Hammer of Heretics" health resort, especially for patients with pul- (Malleus Hæreticorum), theologian and nominalist monary complaints. It lies on a plateau about philosopher; born at Ailli-le-haut-Clocher in 1350. 600 feet above sea-level, and enjoys a perfect sys- He was educated at the University of Paris, and tem of natural drainage. Population 1890, 2,362. in 1389 he become chancellor of that institution,

AIKEN, CHARLES AUGUSTUS, American edu- and almoner and confessor of Charles VI. In cator and theologian, was born in Manchester, 1411 he was made cardinal, and was sent as papal Vermont, Oct. 30, 1827; graduated from Dart- legate to Germany. He was among the leaders mouth College and Andover Theological Semi- | in the Council of Constance in 1414, where he nary, going from the latter place to the pastorate headed the reform party, but agreed to the senof the Congregational Church at Yarmouth, Maine. tence on Huss and Jerome of Prague. He died He became professor of Latin language and lit- at Avignon, Aug. 9, 1420.

See MYSTICISM, Vol. erature at Dartmouth in 1859, and at the College | XVII, p. 132, and SCHOLASTICISM, Vol. XXI, p. of New Jersey in 1866; president of Union Col-431. lege in 1869; afterward professor of Christian AIMARD, GUSTAVE, novelist; born in Paris, ethics and apologetics in the Princeton Theo- Sept. 13, 1818. He came to America in his boylogical Seminary, where he was the author of many hood, spending 10 years of adventure in ArkanBiblical writings and critical reviews. Died Jan. sas and Mexico, which furnished themes for most 14, 1892.

of his novels; he also traveled in Spain, Turkey AIKEN, WILLIAM, a wealthy South Carolina and the Caucasus; served as officer in the French planter who became governor of his state (1844- army, and, after several years' confinement in an 46), and representative in Congress (1851-57), asylum at Paris, died June 20, 1883. His novels, was born in Charleston in 1806, graduated from which are strikingly comparable to those of South Carolina College, and soon became promi- | Cooper, include The Adventurers, The Arkansas nent in state politics as an ardent Democrat. He Trappers, etc. Twenty-six of them have been was noted in public life for his philanthropy, his translated into English. public spirit, and the moderation of his views. AIN, a river in France which has its source in He was opposed to secession. He was re-elected the Jura Mountains and flows through the departto Congress in 1866, but was refused a seat. Died ments of Jura and Ain; after a course of 118 miles at Flat Rock, North Carolina, Sept. 7, 1887. it falls into the Rhône, 18 miles above Lyons. AIKINS, JAMES Cox, Canadian statesman, was AINSLIE, Hew, Scottish-American poet; born

rch 30, 1823, in the township of Toronto, in Bargeny Mains, Ayrshire, April 5, 1792. He in Ontario. Shortly after his graduation from came to America in 1822, and resided for a while Victoria College he was elected to represent his in the Owen Community at New Harmony, Indinative county in the assembly, where he remained His best-known books are A Pilgrimage from 1854 until 1861. He then became a member to the Land of Burns (1820), and Scottish Songs, of the legislative council, in which body he sat | Ballads and Poems (1855). He died in Louisville, until its abolition, when he became a member of Kentucky, March 11, 1878. the senate. He was made a privy councilor in AINSWORTH, capital of Brown, a north-cen1869, holding the secretaryship of state from that tral county of Nebraska; is on the Fremont,






He was

Elkhorn and Missouri Valley railroad, 250 miles rying power than by means of shafting, belts, etc. N.W. of Omaha. Population 1890, 733.

A few years ago the principal use of compressed AINSWORTH, William Francis, physician, air was for furnishing ventilation to mines, tunexplorer, and geologist; born at Exeter, England, nels and caissons. To-day it is used to drive in 1807. Studied medicine at Edinburgh, inter- street-cars, for package-delivery, in operating rupting his course for foreign travel. Having many kinds of machine-tools, the operation of received his degree, he traveled extensively in various small machines, the moving of liquids, in the East, becoming attached, in 1835, to an expe- stone-dressing, riveting, spraying-devices, paintdition to the Euphrates. Later, for the Geo-ing, discharging dynamite cartridges and torpegraphical Society, he traveled extensively in Asia does, and a hundred minor purposes. Minor and Kurdistan. He was in England at the Three railways in France and one in Switzertime (1832) of the appearance of cholera at Sun- land are run by compressed-air power. One is runderland. His work On Pestilential Cholera is ning and others are projected in the United States. based upon observations made at that time. Has The plan is to make use of large storage-tanks also published Researches in Assyria, Babylonia and placed under the bodies of the cars, and to use the Chaldea; Travels in the Track of the Ten Thousand pressure from them in cylinders, just as steam is Greeks, and numerous works of a similar nature. used in the cylinder of a steam-engine. The dif

AINSWORTH, WILLIAM HARRISON, novelist; | ficulties of the system lie in the weight of the storborn at Manchester, England, Feb. 4, 1805; was age-tanks and the frequent charging required. Its educated for the legal profession, but while study- advantages are the automobility of the car, freedom ing law in London he married a publisher's from noise, dirt and smoke, and correct operation daughter (1826) and engaged in the publishing regardless of weather. It has been proven that business. He became a distinguished author, his they may be run eight or nine miles on the level, first hit being Rookwood (1834), with its character- but in practice it is found desirable to recharge istic story of Dick Turpin's Ride to York.

the tanks about once in each mile and a half of the editor of Bentley's Miscellany; Ainsworth's Maga- travel. This is done at stations without any sine; and the New Monthly, successively. He wrote serious delay. The tanks are built of great 39 novels, 7 of them being illustrated by Cruik- strength, it being necessary to charge them with shank, and many of them originally appeared in a pressure of about two thousand pounds to the the publications which he edited; Crichton (1837),

square inch. Tower of London (1840); Tower Hill (1871); and Pneumatic-delivery systems are in use in several Beau Nash (1880), being prominent among these. of the large cities of Europe, and in New York, He died at Reigate, England, Jan. 3, 1882. Philadelphia and Chicago. In some respects the

AIR-BRAKE. See BRAKE, in these Supple- Philadelphia plant is the most remarkable, makments.

ing use of the largest pipes known to such service. AIR CAVITIES, often wrongly called air-cells. It was installed in 1893, for the use of the postIn plants they consist chiefly of cavities found office, and the original line was half a mile long, in the ground-tissue, and are formed in various but an extension is projected for the convenience ways. In terrestrial plants they communicate of business firms. The tubes of this system are with the exterior by means of the stomata, an 672 inches in diameter, while most of the systems interchange being thus established between the are from 1/2 to 3 inch tubes. internal living cells and the outer air, which aids Many large machine-shops, railroad-shops, and the passage of gases. They are specially devel- the like, use compressed air to operate cranes, oped, however, in aquatic plants, in which they hoists and large machines generally. This form may develop some member into a float.

of power entails very little cost for the hours AIR-COMPRESSORS, AND USES OF COM- when the power is not wanted, and lends itself to PRESSED AIR. The air-compressor is not a a number of peculiar uses, such as the hoisting remarkable machine in its construction or details. of oil from barrels by turning in a stream of air, It much resembles a steam-engine, only that it the cleaning of steam-passages, the sweeping of operates on a reverse principle, in that it con- floors, dusting of offices, etc. For cleaning dusty denses a fluid with a piston instead of using a railway-cars it has no equal, being turned on with condensed fluid to drive a piston. In practice it a hose, and driving out the dust just as readily is usually a steam-engine having two tandem as a pavement is washed with a hose and water. cylinders, one of which is a steam-cylinder driv- The reliability of compressed air has led to its ing a piston in the usual way. An extension of use in many mechanisms where absolute certainty the same piston-rod enters the air-cylinder, where of working is essential, as in the operation of air is taken in and compressed by means of a switch and signal systems. Formerly such service valve-motion operating in a manner the reverse was interfered with by the gathering of moisture of the valve in the steam-cylinder.

in the pipes, which would freeze in cold weather, It is the great number of new uses found for but various devices have been introduced that compressed air within the past 15 years that have overcome this danger. renders this subject of present interest.

It is an For the operation of portable tools compressed old form of power, which came into extended use air is obviously most convenient, since the tool after electric-power had opened the way by dem- can be connected by means of a flexible hose with onstrating that there were better methods of car- its source of compressed air. It is largely used in

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driving calking-tools for use in calking boilers, water is prevented from rising in it. It is necestanks, and the like, the seams or joints of which sary to have, in some part of this caisson, a have to be calked or hammered tight.

chamber to allow of the entrance and exit of A stone-dressing tool was introduced in 1894, men and materials. This small chamber is called which is driven by compressed air, and which an air-lock. When the outer door is closed after operates so satisfactorily that it is driving out entrance, the air of the chamber is compressed hand-labor. Before its introduction it was found before opening the inner one. impracticable to dress stone down to a level by any AIROLO, a town of south-central Switzermachine, because the stone would usually fracture, land, lying in the upper valley of the Ticino, and as a result of the lack of intelligence on the part at the southern mouth of the great St. Gotthard of the machine. With the compressed air stone- railway tunnel. Lucerne is 38 miles N.W. of dresser, however, it is necessary to dress only the it, and Lake Como 43 miles S. E. It was the edges of a stone by hand, the rest being reduced scene of a battle between the French and Rusto a level surface by repeated rapid blows of the sian forces on Sept. 13, 1799. Population, 3,674. machine, guided by an attendant. The amount AIR-PLANTS, a

name applied to of stone removed at a blow is so perfectly regu- aerophytes and epiphytes, which see, in these lable that even carving may be done with the Supplements. machine, by the use of suitable reverse dies to AIR-SACS, remarkable cavities connected with guide the chisels.

the respiratory system in birds. They are disSprayed petroleum is much used as a boiler tributed along the inside of the whole cavity of fuel in some localities, and compressed air is the the chest and abdomen.

the chest and abdomen. In birds of rapid fight motive power employed in the spraying. The and strong wing they often send prolongations amount of pressure can be adjusted by simply into the bones, so reducing weight and aiding the turning a cock, and it is easy to maintain a uni- bird in its flight. The sacs, or air-cells, in the form heat with such a spray. The operations of lungs of the mammalia, into which the air is contempering, welding, japanning, brazing, etc., de- veyed by minute ramifications of the windpipe, in mand a uniform heat, and therefore this aërated order to be brought into contact with the blood dispetroleum spray has come to be used in those tributed on their walls, are very small, being about lines of work.

only one thousandth part of an inch in diameter A new system of moving fluids by compressed in man. In insects they form a spiral fiber within air has been patented. It has been used to ad- a membranous coat. The term is also used of vantage in artesian wells, the method being to spaces in the tissue of aquatic plants and of the force the air down the well in a small side-tube, bladders of seaweeds. introducing it into the pipe proper of the well at AIRSHIPS. See AERONAUTICS, Vol. I, p. 185. the bottom, with an upward curve of the air-tube. AIRY, SIR GEORGE BIDDELL, English astronThe upward rush of the air, in its effort to reach omer; born July 27, 1801, at Alnwick, in Norththe surface, results in its carrying the water up umberland; was educated at the Colchester with it, and at the same time aërating and puri- Grammar School and Trinity College, graduating fying the water, and leaving behind all objection as senior wrangler from the latter institution in able mud and sand. This system is in use at 1823. He was put in charge of the Cambridge Rockford, Illinois, and at Wayne, Pennsylvania. Observatory (newly erected) in 1828, by virtue of There are other places in the United States, as his election to the Plumian professorship. Three Little Rock, Arkansas, where the water-supply is years previously he devised a remedy for the purified by aëration, compressed-air plants being optical malady in the human eye which afterinstalled for that purpose.

ward received the name of “astigmatism." In Another interesting use of compressed air is in 1836 he succeeded Pond as astronomer royal at the manufacture of cellulose silk, which is made Greenwich, and was created Knight Commander from wood-pulp by air-pressure. The pulp is of the Bath in 1872, being then president of the forced out of minute holes, in a filament so tiny Royal Society.

Later he conducted the astronomthat six of them have to be twisted together to ical observations preparatory to the definition form a thread suitable for weaving.

of the boundary between the United States and Under the most favorable conditions, com- Canada, and aided in tracing the Oregon bounpressed air can be delivered to customers, for use dary; established the system of correcting the as power, at a cost of from thirty to fifty dollars disturbance of the compass in iron-built ships per horse-power per year, and its use is steadily which is now universally adopted; was chairman increasing

CHARLES H. COCHRANE. of the commission appointed to superintend the AIR-GUNS. See AIR-GUN, Vol. I, p. 428, and construction of new standards of length and DYNAMITE Guns, in these Supplements.

weight after the destruction by fire in 1834 of the AIR-LOCK. In the construction of bridge- former national standards.

He attained great piers under water, hollow iron cylinders are used, fame by his researches in magnetism, meteorology, in which it is now the custom to use condensed photography, etc. His principal works are Graviair, the pressure usually not exceeding two tation; Mathematical Facts; Ipswich Lectures on Asatmospheres beyond ordinary atmospheric pres-tronomy; Treatise on Sound; Treatise on Partial Dif. sure. This iron shell is open at the bottom, but, ferential Equations; Vibrations; Treatise on Magnet

; being air-tight and water-tight at all other points, ism; and a Trigonometry. His last work was Notes

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on the Earlier Hebrew Scriptures, published in 1876. AJODHYA, an ancient city and former capital He retired in 1881 on a pension of eleven hun- of Oudh, a north-central province of India, is dred pounds, and died at Greenwich, Jan. 2, 1892. situated on the right bank of the Gogra, in the

AIST, DIETMAR, one of the earliest of the vicinity of Faizabad, which is connected by rail German minnesingers; mentioned in writings with Lucknow, 75 miles to the west. Its site is between 1143 and 1170. By birth he was said to have covered 96 square miles, now marked Austrian. The few things written by him which by heaps of ruins overgrown by jungle. The are extant are in Lachmann and Haupt's Des modern town of Ajodhya has 7,500 inhabitants, Minnesangs Frühling.

nearly 100 temples, and the fair of Ramnami, AITCHISON, GEORGE, architect, was born in which attracts half a million pilgrims yearly. London, and graduated from the university of See FAIZABAD, Vol. VIII, p. 855; Oudz, Vol. that city in 1850; studied architecture, and trav- XVIII, p. 71. eled on the Continent from 1853 to 1855; became AKBARPUR, a town of north-central India, a fellow of the Royal Institute of British Archi- in the British district of Cawnpur, and capital of a tects in 1862, and associate of the Royal Acad- pergunnah of the same name. It is situated on emy in 1881.

Mr. Aitchison has gained many the river Sarpe, a tributary of the Ganges, and is medals, one of which was received at Chicago in 100 miles E. of Lucknow, with which it is con1893. His decorative designs at Kensington nected by rail. Population, 6,000. See CAWNPalace, in Sir Frederic Leighton's house, and the PUR, Vol. V, p. 277. Living Hall of the Goldsmiths' Company are AKEE, the Cupania sapida, a fruit-tree belonghighly regarded.

ing to the family Sapindacea, a native of Guinea, AITCHISON, JAMES EDWARD TIERNEY, Briga- but now distributed throughout the West Indies dier-Surgeon, was born in 1835; graduated M.D. and South America. The black seeds are im. at Edinburgh in 1856; entered Bengal medical bedded in a white, spongy aril, which, when department in 1858; attained his present rank in cooked, is prized as food. It is also used as a 1885, and retired in 1888. He acted as naturalist remedy in diarrhæa, while the distilled water of with the Afghan delimitation commission and as the flowers is used as a cosmetic by the negro botanical collector throughout his connection women. with the army.

He has written A Catalogue of the AKERMAN, AMOs T., a lawyer and politician, Plants of Punjaub and Sindh; Flora of the Thelum born in New Hampshire in 1823. Having pracDistrict; Florá of the Kuram Valley; and numerous ticed law in Georgia for several years before the other valuable additions to botanical knowledge. war, his sympathies were with the South. He

AITKEN, Sir William, physician; born at advocated, however, the acceptance of the reconDundee, Scotland, April 23, 1825; was graduated struction measures of Congress, and was a promifrom the University of Edinburgh, taking his nent member of the Georgia convention of 1867 medical degree in 1848; became demonstrator of which formed the new state constitution. He anatomy at Glasgow, holding that office until was attorney-general under Grant (1870–72). Died April, 1855, when he volunteered for hospital at Cartersville, Georgia, Dec. 22, 1880. service in the Crimean War, afterward becoming AKERS, BENJAMIN PAUL, American sculptor, professor of pathology in the Army Medical born in Saccarappa, Westbrook, Maine, July 10, School. In 1875 he was elected a fellow of the 1825. He took lessons in Boston in modeling, his Royal Society, received the degree of LL.D. first work being a head of Christ, which was from the University of Edinburgh, and had afterward put in marble. He located in Portland knighthood conferred upon him in 1887, the year and made portrait busts of Henry W. Longfellow of the Queen's jubilee. He has been mainly occu- and of many other personages of note, as well as a pied as a teacher and investigator in anatomy head of Charlotte Corday and a bas-relief entitled and pathology, being the author of On the Patho- | Evening, both of which were masterpieces. He logical Connections and Relations of Epidemic Dis- studied a year in Florence, where he made sev. orders in Man and the Lower Animals, a Handbook eral busts, and a Morning as a companion to Evenof Science and Practice of Medicine, etc. Died ing. While there he also put in marble several of June 25, 1892.

his previous works. In the winter of 1853-54 he AITKIN, capital of Aitkin County, in central modeled his Benjamin in Egypt, and while in Minnesota. It is 135 miles N. of Minneapolis and Washington the busts of many noted men of the within 145 miles of the head of navigation on the time. In 1855 he traveled through Europe, makMississippi River; the Northern Pacific railroad ing, in two years, Peace; Una and the Lion; Girl; connects it with Duluth, which is 78 miles E. Pressing Grapes; Isaiah; Milton; Dead Pearl-Diver; It is a lumber town, lying in the midst of a Diana and Endymion; Saint Elizabeth of Hungary; picturesque lake region. Population 1895, 1,670. Reindeer; and Schiller's Diver. His constant

AJALON, a town of the Levites, in the land of labors on damp clay in a sunless studio impaired Dan in ancient Palestine. It was here that the his health, and he died in Philadelphia, Pennbattle between Joshua and the five Canaanitish sylvania, May 21, 1861. kings took place, in which it is narrated that AKHLAT, a town of Armenia, Asiatic Turkey; Joshua bade the sun and moon to stand still. | lies on the western shore of Lake Van, and is 240 The modern village of Yalo, 12 miles from Jeru- miles S. E. of Trebizond and the Black Sea. The salem, is believed to occupy its site.

old city of Akhlat was the residence of many

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