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kings of Armenia, and the scene of many con- Creek rebellion of 1814 and the admission to the flicts between the Greeks, Armenians and Per-Union in 1819, Alabama enjoyed increasing prossians. It was taken and devastated in 1228 by perity, uninterrupted until her secession in 1860. Jelal-ud-deen, and completely destroyed by an In 1861 the convention of Southern states met at earthquake in 1242. In some writings it is re- Montgomery, made it the capital of the Confedferred to as Arjish or Ardish. Population, 4,000.

Population, 4,000. eracy, organized the provisional government, and

, AKJERMANN. Same as AKERMAN, Vol. I, p. elected Jefferson Davis president. During the 436.

Civil War battles were fought in Alabama, at АККА, а of pygmies discovered by Mobile, Selma, Talladega, Tuscumbia, Montevallo, Schweinfurth in the Nepoko River region, in Scottsboro, Athens, and in Mobile Bay. Under the Central Africa. See BUSHMEN, Vol. IV, p. 575. reconstruction act, state conventions met in 1865 See also article on AFRICA, in these Supplements. and 1867; and in 1868 a new constitution was

AKMOLINSK, a Russian government district in submitted to the people and adopted, and the southwestern Siberia, lying on the Kirghiz steppe. state was readmitted to representation in ConArea, 229,609 miles; population, 500, 180. The gress. capital and chief town bears the same name, and Alabama lies almost entirely within the Gulf has a population of 3,130. See Russia, Vol. XXI, Slope. Its northern section, except the rich agriP. 67.

cultural and grazing land of the Tennessee valley, AKRAGAS, the Grecian name for a town of is widely and picturesquely broken, and contains Sicily, the Agrigentum of the Romans.


rich mineral deposits and many mineral springs. AGRIGENTUM, Vol. I. p. 417; GIRGENTI, Vol. x, The middle section is level, declining toward the

X p. 623.

Gulf, and includes the great cotton belt and the AKRON, capital of Washington County, Colo- principal corn-producing district. South of this rado; lies 88 miles N.E. of Denver, with which it are the vast pine forests, and a light soil, yielding is connected by rail. Population 1890, 599. grain and semi-tropical and other fruits. The

AKRON, a city of northeastern Ohio, lying on agricultural products of the state include, also, the highest elevation between Lake Erie and the large quantities of tobacco, cereals, sugar-cane Ohio, is 36 miles below Cleveland, on the Ohio and ramie. The forests, streams and bays pro

, and Erie canal, and is the point of intersection duce large quantities of game and fish. Lumber, of four lines of railway. Here is located the staves and railroad ties are exported through printing establishment of The Werner Company, Mobile, the only port of entry. The principal publishers of this EncYCLOPÆDIA, and one of the manufactures are of cotton goods, iron, lumber largest concerns of its kind in the world. It is and machinery. Mobile's chief export is cotton; the seat of Buchtel (Universalist) College, and annual value, about $15,000,ooo. other institutions in keeping with a progressive In 1890 Alabama was the seventeenth of the city of its importance. Its factories, the value of

Its factories, the value of United States in population, and sixteenth in the products of which amounts to $16,000,000 value of agricultural products. In output of coal annually, employ 7,000 hands. Population 1880,

Population 1880, (4,500,000 tons) Alabama was sixth; in produc16,512; 1890, 27,601. See AKRON, Vol. I, p. 437. tion of cotton, fourth; in number of acres under

AKSHEHR, a city of east-central Asia Minor; cultivation, third, the number of farms having located on an important route from Syria to Con- doubled during the last decade. The recent stantinople; lies at the foot of the Sultan Dagh development of the iron industry, of which BirMountains and five miles south of Akshehr Lake. mingham is the center, has been remarkable. In The nearest town of importance is Konieh, 70 1890 Alabama ranked second in output of this miles to the southeast. Population, 15,000. It is mineral, 1,877,815 tons of ore having been mined also referred to as Akscheher and Aksher. in that year. In 1891 the production of pig-iron

ALABAMA, a river of Alabama. See ALABAMA, was 891,154 tons, and of rolled iron 34,022 tons. Vol. I, p. 438.

In 1886 the state had 2,105 miles of railway; in ALABAMA, STATE OF. Area, 52,250 square 1891, 3,611. The chief cities and their populamiles; population 1880, 1, 262,505; 1890, 1,513,017, tions are: Montgomery, 21,883; Mobile, 31,076;

and Birmingham, 26,178. LABAMA

The state has not been able to increase the appropriation for education as fast as the increasing population has demanded, and schools in the rural districts have been at a standstill. Normal schools are located at Marion, Florence, Huntsville and Tuskegee. Tuscaloosa is the seat of the University of Alabama; Auburn, of the Agricultural and Mechanical College; Mobile, of the State Medical College; Greensboro, of the South

ern University. The state has a blind asylum at of whom 830,796 were whites and 681,431 col-Mobile, an institute for the deaf, dumb and blind ored. Capital, Montgomery. Alabama was so at Talladega, and an insane asylum at Tuscaloosa. named from a Creek or Muskhogean word meaning The public and principal private libraries contain “Here we rest." After the suppression of the more than half a million volumes. In 1892 there






were in the state 187 newspapers, 16 of them latter. Besides these, there was included the being dailies. Of religious denominations, the Shenandoah, known earlier as the British Sea-King. Baptists are the strongest, others being well rep- She, having been irregularly armed and taken in resented. The penal system, formerly bad, has command by Captain Waddell, of the Confederbeen improved in recent years, the employment of acy, ran into Melbourne, where she coaled, reconvicts in the mines having been made illegal. paired, and enlisted 45 men. This was done in In the summer of 1894, striking coal-miners in the the face of numerous protests by the United northern part of the state having killed negroes States consul at that point. employed in their places, Governor Jones kept the The interference demanded at this time by the militia at the scene until order was restored. The United States was refused by Lord John Russell, elections of 1892 and 1894 were marked by a bit- on the ground that he had no authority beyond ter fight against the regular Democracy by the the Foreign Enlistment Act, under which only fusion of disaffected Democrats and Republicans judicial proceedings could be made, thus making and Populists of the state, whose nomination of it incumbent upon the United States government Reuben F. Kolb for governor was finally defeated, to begin proceedings in British law-courts. although both Kolb and the regular Democratic In 1871, in consequence of negotiations renominee Oates claimed for a time to be elected. opened by Secretary Hamilton Fish, a joint com

GOVERNORS OF ALABAMA: William W. Bibb, mission, consisting of five representatives of each 1819–20; Thomas Bibb, 1820–21; Israel Pickens, government, sat at Washington. The treaty 1821-25; John Murphy, 1825–29; Gabriel Moore, drawn up by this joint high commission on May

, 1829–31; John Gayle, 1831–35; Clement C. Clay, 8, 1871, styled the Alabama Claims “differences 1835-37; Arthur P. Bagby, 1837-41; Benjamin which had arisen between the two governments, Fitzpatrick, 1841-45; Joshua L. Martin, 1845-47; and still existed, having grown out of the acts Reuben Chapman, 1847-49; Henry W. Collier, committed by several vessels, which gave rise to 1849-53; John A. Winston, 1853-57; Andrew B. the claims known as the Alabama claims.” For Moore, 1857-61; John G. Shorter, 1861-63; the government of a tribunal of arbitration

| Thomas H. Watts, 1863–65; Lewis E. Parsons, “Three Rules Relating to Neutrals” were adopted 1865; Robert M. Patton, 1865–68; William H. by the parties to the before-mentioned treaty. Smith, 1868–70; Robert B. Lindsay, 1872; David The rules are as follows: P. Lewis, 1872–74; George S. Houston, 1874–79; A neutral government is bound, Rufus W. Cobb, 1879-81; Edward A. O'Neal, 1882- "1. To use due diligence to prevent the fitting 84-86; T. Seay, 1886-88-90; T. G. Jones, 1890-94; out, arming or equipping, within its jurisdiction, W. C. Oates, 1894-96; J. F. Johnston, 1896. of any vessel which it has reasonable ground to

The population of the state in 1820 was 127,901; | believe is intended to cruise or carry on war 1850, 771,623; 1880, 1, 262,505; 1890, 1,513,017. against a power with which it is at peace; and See ALABAMA, Vol. I, p. 438.

also to use like diligence to prevent the departALABAMA, ALIBAMO, ALIBAMON OR ALI- ure from its jurisdiction of any vessel having been BAMOU, as variously written, that branch of specially adapted, in whole or in part, within such the Muskhogean or Creek stock of Indians who, jurisdiction, to warlike uses. according to the historian Pickett, having been “ 2. Not to permit or suffer either belligerent originally driven out of Mexico by the Spaniards, to make use of its ports or waters as the base of settled in the region of the Alabama River, near naval operations against the other, or for the where the city of Montgomery is located. Here purpose of the renewal or augmentation of milithey were reduced by constant warfare, finally tary supplies or arms or recruitments of men. joining in the Creek rebellion of 1812-14, after 3. To exercise due diligence in its waters, the suppression of which they emigrated west- and as to all persons within its jurisdiction, to ward, and are now mostly settled in Polk County, prevent any violation of the foregoing obligations Texas, where they have adopted the habits of the and duties. whites.

The tribunal of arbitration was composed of ALABAMA CLAIMS. The settlement of the five members: Sir Alexander J. E. Cockburn, apclaims of the United States against Great Britain, pointed by the Queen; Charles Francis Adams, known as the Alabama Claims, by a tribunal of appointed by the President of the United States; arbitration, was one of the most important inter- Count Frederic Sclopis, appointed by the King of national events of modern times. These claims Italy; M. Jacques Staempfli, appointed by the arose from the depredations upon American com- President of the Swiss Confederation; and Vismerce during the Civil War, by vessels which either count d'Itajuba, appointed by the Emperor of had been fitted out in British ports under the Brazil. The court met at Geneva, Switzerland, direction of the Confederate government, or re- Dec. 15, 1871, and not until September 14th of the ceived into them and there allowed supplies following year was the final conclusion announced. exceeding the maximum amount stated in the The case was argued for the United States by proclamation of neutrality made by the British William M. Evarts, Caleb Cushing and Morrison government. The Alabama, the Florida and the R. Waite; for Great Britain by Sir Roundell Georgia, built by Laird and Son, were of the former Palmer, later appointed Lord High Chancellor, class; the Sumter, the Nashville, the Retribution, and raised to the peerage as the Earl of Selborne. the Tallahassee and the Chickamauga were of the Mr. J. C. Bancroft Davis, of the United States, ALABASTRUM – ALASKA


and Lord Tenterden, of Great Britain, attended ALAMGIR. See AURUNGZEBE, Vol. III, p. 99. the tribunal of arbitration as agents of their ALAMO, THE, often spoken of as “The Ther. respective governments. The tribunal refused to mopylæ of America," is a fort in San Antonio, consider consequential claims, but for “losses Texas, celebrated as the scene of a fierce combat, growing out of the destruction of vessels and their in which, from Feb. 11 to March 5, 1836, a few cargoes by the insurgent cruisers, and the national Texans resisted an overwhelming force of Mexiexpenditure in pursuit of those cruisers," it cans, until, reduced to a hopeless remnant of six, awarded $15,500,000, to be paid by the British these were compelled to surrender, and were government in compensation to the United States. butchered by their captors.

“Remember the The decision was signed by all the arbitrators Alamo!” became the Texan war-cry. except Sir Alexander J. E. Cockburn, of England. ALAMOSA, a small town in Conejos County, It gave general satisfaction in the United States, Colorado, 130 miles S. W. of Pueblo. It has and is believed to have furnished a lasting guar- four churches, two banks and a newspaper. Popuanty of international peace.

lation 1890, 973. ALABASTRUM, a type of vase common among ALAPAYEVSK OR ALAPAEVSK, a town of relics of ancient Greece. Originally so called be- Russia, just beyond the Ural Mountains, in Asia, cause made of alabaster; later the term was used government of Perm, on the Alapaika, about 50 of any small, elongated vase rounded at the bottom miles N.W. of Irbit.

miles N. W. of Irbit. It has large iron-foundries. and having a winglike expansion around the re- Population, 5,447. duced orifice. See Matt. xxvi. 7.

ALARCON, PEDRO ANTONIO DE, Spanish author ALACOQUE, MARGUERITE MARIE, a French and politician, was born at Guadix, Spain, March nun (1647-90), the founder of the devotion of the 10, 1833, and early devoted himself to journalism. Sacred Heart of Jesus, the emblem in the Catholic In 1859 he served as volunteer in the Morocco Church of the divine love for men.

campaign; he entered the Cortes as Liberal deputy ALA DAGH (“beautiful mountain ''), a range for his native town, and worked for the restoraof the great tableland of Erzerum, in Turkish tion of the constitutional monarchy in the person Armenia, north of Lake Van. The Murad, the of Alfonso XII, who later made him a councilor. eastern head-stream of the Euphrates, rises on its Of his novels, the best known are La Alpujarra, northern slope. It greatest elevation is about El Escándalo, and El Sombrero de Tres Picos. Alar11,000 feet. Agri Dagh, or Mt. Ararat (17,112 con died July 20, 1891. feet), is 15 miles north of its eastern end.

ALARMS. See FIRE-ALARMS, in these Supple. ALAGON, a river in west-central Spain, about ments. 120 miles in length, emptying into the Tagus, ALARM-THERMOMETER, ELECTRIC.

Rejust above Alcantara, after draining the plains of cently an electric alarm has been applied to Placencia. It is noted for its fine trout. A rail-thermometers, causing them to sound an alarm road from Lisbon terminates within eight miles whenever the temperature rises above or falls of it. It is also referred to as Allagan.

below any required point. It is designed for use ALAKUL, an upland lake in eastern Turkes- in offices, schools, hospitals, breweries, and all stan, a Russian province in west-central Asia. places where the maintenance of an equable temLies 2,500 feet above sea-level; is 40 miles long, perature is desired. The electrical alarm can be and 17 broad. Same as Alakool, Alaktoo-Kool, arranged to sound at any distance from the therKoorghi-Nor, or Alakt-Ugul-Nur.

mometer, and the device can thus be used to ALAMAN, LUCAS, Mexican statesman and sound an alarm in case of fire. As to alarm-clocks, historian, born in the state of Guanajuato, Oct. see Clocks, Vol. VI, p. 24. 18, 1792.

He was graduated at the College of ALASKA. For early history and general deLa Concepción, and at the Mexican School of scription, see ALASKA, Vol. I, pp. 443 et seq. Mines, and traveled through Europe. He was minister of foreign affairs in 1825, and again in 1830. He gave his support to Santa Ana, and became minister of foreign affairs in 1853. He published Dissertations on Mexican History, and also the standard history of that country, Historia de Méjico. He died in Mexico, June 2, 1853.

ALAMANDA, a tropical American genus of Apocynacea, cultivated in hot-houses. Alamanda tathartica, a native of the West Indies, has violently emetic and purgative qualities.

ALAMEDA, a city in Alameda County, California, on San Leandro Creek, on the Alameda Alaska has an area of 580, 107 square miles, and branch of the Central Pacific railroad, about is therefore about one fifth the size of the United eight miles east of San Francisco, across the bay. States, or nearly equal to the combined areas of It contains a high school and two newspapers. the New England, Middle and Southern states Ship-building and the refining of petroleum and east of the Mississippi River. With the interior borax are the chief industries. Population 1890, of this vast area we are little acquainted. A num11,165.

ber of reconnoissances have been made by officers

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24 202

of the army, and by private travelers and prospectors, through portions of the territory, and the courses of several of its great navigable rivers have thus been determined.

I. Southeastern

8,038 1,738 133 5,834 329 The territory naturally falls into six great di

2. Kadiak

6,1121,105 784 2,782 1,433 visions, as follows. (Statistics are according to 3. Unalaska | Aleu- 2,361 520 734 967 137 the United States census of 1890.)

Nushagak / tian. S 2,726 318 28 1,996 384 1. The Arctic division, containing 125,245

5. Kuskokwim


171 5,640 6. Yukon


127 3,583 square miles, and comprising all that portion which

7. Arctic

3,222 391

2,729 51 97 drains into the Arctic Ocean. There are 3,000 Eskimo and about 400 whites along the coast.

The Territory

32,052 4,298 1,823 23,531 2,288 112 2. The valley of the Yukon River and its tributaries, so far as they lie within our boundaries.

Whites comprise 3,853 males and 445 females. This division contains 176,715 square miles; is

“ Mixed” are descendants of Russians with native

wives, and comprises 885 males and 934 females. heavily timbered along the coast, and inhabited Indians comprise the Eskimo, Thlinket, Athabaskan, by an Eskimo and Indian population of about Aleut, Tsimpsean and Hyda tribes, aggregating 11,987 5,000. Here they chiefly fish. Lately, gold has

males and 11,287 females. been found in considerable quantity along the

Mongolians (Chinese and Japanese) have no females.

“All others" have only one woman among them. Yukon Valley. The island of Saint Lawrence, in Bering Sea, is included.

NATIVES. The Eskimo (or Innuit) inhabit the 3. The Kuskokwim division, containing 114,975 coast-line west of the 141st meridian, excepting square miles, bounded on the north by the Yukon the northern part of Cook Inlet, that portion of division, and comprising the valleys of the Kus- the Alaskan Peninsula west of the 157th meridian, kokwim, the Yogiak and the Nushagak rivers, and and the Shumagin and Aleutian groups of islands. the intervening system of lakes. The Bering Sea Recent investigators believe that their migration washes its whole western and southern coast. to Alaska occurred at the time of general tribal This division, which also includes Nunivak Island, migration resulting in the settlement on Greenis mountainous, and has a population of about land. This opinion is strengthened by the fact 6,000.

that all the Eskimo tribes, whether on the Alas4. The Aleutian division, containing 14,610 kan coast, the eastern coast, or in Greenland, use square miles, and comprising the Alaska Peninsula the same kind of skin-covered canoes, and are westward of the isthmus between Moller and Zak- similar, also, in their modes of living. harof bays and the whole chain of islands from The Aleuts inhabit the northern coast of the the Shumagin group on the east to Attu on the Alaskan Peninsula from Stroganof Point westward, west, including also the Pribilof or Fur Seal and its southern coast from Pavlof Bay westward, Islands, is populated by 3,000 Aleuts, who kill the Shumagin Islands, and the whole group known seals and fish.

as the Aleutian chain, extending from the Shuma5. The Kadiak division, containing 70,884 gins in the east to the island of Attu in the west. square miles, and comprising the south coast of As to their origin, there are various opinions. the Alaska Peninsula down to Zakharof Bay, with Some believe they have a common origin with adjacent islands, the Kadiak group of islands, the the people of Kamchatka; others, however, urge

; islands and coasts of Cook Inlet, the Kenai that they could not have migrated from Asia, Peninsula and Prince William Sound, with the owing to lack of facilities, and must have derivers running into them, is washed along its scended from the earliest nations of America. south shores by that section of the North Pacific They are divided into two tribes, Unalaskans named the Gulf of Alaska. This district contains and Atkhas, speaking different dialects. They mineral wealth, and is inhabited by several hun- wear ornaments in the nose and upper lip. Their dred whites. Total population, 4,500.

weapons consist of barbed darts and lances, The southeastern division, in which Sitka, the spears, harpoons and arrows. They also carry a capital, lies, contains 28,980 square miles, and sharp stone knife ten or twelve inches long. comprises the coast from Mount St. Elias in the Their household utensils are made of stone, wood north to Portland Channel, in lat. 54° 40' S., to- and bone; mats and baskets are neatly woven of gether with the islands of the Alexander Archi- grass and tree-roots; bone needles with thread pelago between Cross Sound and Cape Fox. The and cord of sinews, etc. They are very hospit. eastern boundary of this division is the rather able, and fond of dancing and pantomimics. indefinite line established by the Anglo-Russian All native villages on the Alaskan coast are and Russian-American treaties of 1824 and 1825 built directly on the beach, not only because the respectively, following the summits of a chain of Indians look to the sea for a living, but because mountains supposed to run parallel with the coast, making homes inland means such labor as felling at a distance not greater than ten marine leagues trees and clearing the ground, which only the white from the sea, between the head of Portland Chan- race undertakes. In the genuine Alaskan lodge nel and Mount St. Elias.

there is no window, one door only, and no second Following is the population of Alaska as per story. In the center of the floor, on the ground, is United States census of 1890, it being understood a fire-place, around which, at a distance of several that the figures are not absolutely accurate. feet, runs a continuous platform, which constitutes

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the sleeping-apartments. Occasionally the room is fully an equal number of pups. Unless the seals divided by curtains. The ground beneath the of Alaskan waters be promptly and adequately platform constitutes kitchen and reception-room. protected from such ruthless slaughter, their The head of the house sits opposite the door, his practical annihilation will be accomplished after a family and friends on either side, while slaves, few more seasons. There is considerable traffic if there be any, sit with their backs to the door. in other furs, and in fish, as well as an increasing In front of many of the houses stands one or production of minerals. Between 1867 and 1890 more large poles, carved from top to bottom, gen- the value of furs taken in Alaska amounted to erally representing bears, whales, eagles, ravens $49,000,000. The annual yield of sea-otter skins or wolves. These are the genealogical trees of has reached 5,500, worth $500,000;beavers, 10,000, the natives, of which they are very proud. worth $25,000; silver foxes, 200, worth $20,000;

The Aleuts have a tradition that in olden times martens, 20,000, worth $60,000; red and cross the climate of their country was clearer and foxes, 10,000, worth $15,000; and other miscelwarmer, the winds moderate; that their fore- laneous skins, valued at $25,000. Notwithstandfathers came from their original dwelling-place in ing efforts made by the United States government the west,-a great land called Aliashka, or "conti- for the preservation of these fur-bearing animals, nent"; that in that early country peace and pros- the supply is continually decreasing, and will perity prevailed; but that in the progress of time ultimately become extinct. The only important dissensions arose, resulting in war, separation breeding-grounds of the fur-seals at present are and divergent emigration. They also say that in the Pribilof Islands, lying in the heart of Bering their old country there was a very great food sent Sea, about 200 miles westward of Cape Newenupon the people, because of their disregard of ham on the mainland. Two of these islands, St. sacred customs.

George and St. Paul, by reasons of their temperThey maintain that in former times the sea- ature, surface and facilities for landing, are shore along the whole group of islands was more specially adapted for the life and reproduction of deeply indented. In some localities this is even these animals. yet perceptible. The grandfathers of the present Sea-otters are most abundant from the island Aleuts in their youth heard from their grand- of Unimak northeasterly along the Alaskan fathers that they found on elevated spots, and Peninsula. The land-otter, whose skin is used often far distant from the sea, signs of former in the manufacture of an imitation sealskin, is dwellings, such as whale-ribs and large logs of found on the whole coast, from the southern driftwood. Between these places and the shore- boundary to the northern shore of Norton Sound, line they also found small pebbles tied with whale- and on most of the islands. The beaver, the bone fiber, such as are now used for sinkers, fish- brown bear, the mink, the cross, blue and white lines and nets. From these indications the Aleuts | fox, the marten, and a few other valuable furcame to the conclusion that at one time these bearing animals, are also found in great numbers elevated positions, showing the remains of dwell- in many parts. ing-places, were on the sea-shore, and that over The fisheries of Alaska are annually increasing the places where the sinkers were found the sea in importance, and are destined to become its once extended. All this was subsequent to the staple industry. The salmon industry is exceeded before-mentioned flood.

in importance only by the fur. The largest INDUSTRIES. Prior to 1885 the chief industry salmon-cannery in the world is at Karluk, in the of Alaska was the seal-fur trade (see Seal, Vol. southwestern part of Kadiak Island. The value XXI, p. 583). On account of the long-stand- of the yearly salmon product from 1884 to 1890 ing Bering Sea dispute between Great Britain and was $7,000,000. At Killisnu, on Kenesaw Island, the United States (see BERING SEA QUESTION, in in the southeastern district, there are important these Supplements), and consequent legal limita- herring-fisheries, and from this point 150,000 galtion placed upon the killing of seals, the annual lons of herring-oil are shipped each year. Off published take has been greatly reduced. The the south coast, and in the Bering Sea, there are reported value of seal-furs taken in 1889 was large codfish banks. The value of the fishery $314,925. In 1880 it had been $2,096,500. The product (exclusive of seals) was $1,058,865 in majority of all seals taken, however, were taken 1889, against $564,640 in 1880. illegally, and of these the census of 1890 takes no The value of the mineral products of Alaska account. Regulations for the control of the seal amounted in 1889 to $926,568; $4,000,000 in gold catch were recommended in August, 1893, by the had been exported since the purchase of Alaska Paris tribunal for arbitration of the Bering Sea up to that time. In 1890 placer-mining in the question. These, adopted by the contending Yukon region gave a $90,000 output, and since governments, have proved as ineffectual as their that time the yield has largely increased, the anpredecessors, and an estimate published in a re- nouncement of the discovery of valuable mines cent United States navy report states that, during causing a large influx of miners in 1896. the last five months alone of 1894, 30,000 seals The Klondike (see KLONDIKE, Vol. III, p. 1799) were killed in the Bering Sea, and of these 85 per region, in which immense gold discoveries were cent were females, the loss of which is greatly to be reported in 1897, is in Canadian territory. Some deprecated, since it inevitably results in the death of the routes to this and adjacent territory caused by starvation upon the rookeries, or otherwise, of the traveler to pass through Alaskan territory,

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