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PAGE. Arthur, Chester Alan..
250 Bigelow, John Asbury, Francis
261 Bismarck-Schönhausen, Prince von Asquith, Herbert Henry
267 Björnson, Björnstjerne Astor, William Waldorf
272 Blackmore, Richard Doddridge. Atkinson, Edward...
280 Blaine, James Gillespie --Atwater, Wilbur 0..
285 Blouet, Paul (“ Max O’Rell”) Auerbach, Berthold.
288 Boies, Horace Aumale, Henri Eugène Philippe Louis d'Orléans, Bonaparte, Elizabeth Patterson.. Duc d'
Bonheur, Marie Rosalie (Rosa). Austin, Alfred...
293 Boone, Daniel... Bagehot, Walter
316 Booth, Edwin Thomas Bainbridge, William
320 Booth, William-. Baird, Spencer Fullerton
321 Boucicault, DionBaker, Sir Samuel White..
322 Bourget, Paul Balfour, Arthur James
326 Boutwell, George wall Ball, Thomas....
327 Bowen, Henry Chandler. Bancroft, George
334 Boyesen, Hjalmar Hjorth Banks, Nathaniel Prentiss
343 Bradley, Joseph P Baring-Gould, Sabine...
35+ Breckinridge, John Cabell. Barnard, Frederick Augustus Porter--
357 Brewer, David Josiah... Barney, Joshua..
359 Briggs, Charles Augustus Barnum, Phineas Taylor
359 Brinton, Daniel Garrison--Barr, Amelia Edith---
Brooks, Phillips ---Barrie, James Matthew..
362 Brown, Joseph Emerson. Bartholdi, Frédéric Auguste.
365 Browning, Robert -Barton, Clara....
367 Bryan, William Jennings Bascom, John
370 Bryant, William Cullen Bayard, Thomas Francis...
384 Bryce, James...
400 Buckner, Simon Bolivar... Beecher, Lyman
401 Buell, Don Carlos Bell, Alexander Graham
Bull, Ole Bornemann Belmont, August
413 Bulow, Hans Guido von Benjamin, Park ...
420 Bunner, Henry Cuyler----Bennett, James Gordon, Jr.--
Burdett-Coutts, Angela Georgiana, BaronessBenson, Edward White, Archbishop
Burnett, Frances Hodgson--Benton, Thomas Hart.
423 Burnside, Ambrose EverettBernhardt, Rosine (Sarah).
433 Burr, Aaron--Berthelot, Pierre Eugène Marcelin-
Burroughs, John-----Besant, Walter...
436 Burton, Sir Richard Francis. Bidwell, John....
462 Butler, Benjamin Franklin..
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AIR-COMPRESSORS, AND USES OF COMPRESSED AIR.
BENJAMIN A. MACDONALD, formerly Editor of The
Fred. Pabst, President Pabst Brewing Company.
G. MERCER ADAM, founder of The Canadian Monthly; BRICKS AND BRICKMAKING.
formerly editor of The Canada Educational Monthly; BUILDING-STONES.
author of a Life of Sir John A. Macdonald, etc.; and
Editor Self Culture (magazine).
For other articles by these, and many other contributors, of
NEW AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT
AACHEN - AARIFI PASHA
ACHEN, same as Aix-LA-CHAPELLE, Vol. I, ner; and in 1799, having spent the winter at the p. 432.
celebrated academy of mines in Freiberg, he reAAGESEN, SVEND, a Danish historian, who at turned to Norway and invested his patrimony in the the beginning of the thirteenth century wrote a purchase of the immense iron-works of Naes, in the history of Denmark down to 1187.
Arendal ore region. In 1814 he took a prominent AALESUND, a coast town in the province of part in the framing of the free constitution of NorRomsdal, Norway, built on three small islands. way, and for 14 years, 1816–30, he was a leading Population (1891) 8,406.
member of the Storthing. In 1832–36 he published, AALI PASHA, MEHEMED Emin, a distinguished in three volumes, entitled Present and Past, a reTurkish statesman, born in 1815; entered the Turk- daction of his own numerous magazine articles on ish foreign office in 1830; Turkish ambassador at the history and antiquities of Norway. In 1838-39 London in 1841-44; appointed minister of foreign appeared his standard translation of Snorre Sturaffairs in 1845, serving as such three terms between leson's Heimskringla. His Reminiscences (1844-45) 1846 and 1853. He became chancellor of the divan is a repository of data concerning the contemporain 1845, pasha in 1856, and grand vizier in 1852, neous history of the Scandinavian peninsula. Died holding this latter position several times. He was Aug. 4, 1844. closely identified with the reforms in the govern- AALTEN, a town in the province of Gelderland, ment of the Ottoman empire under the sultans Netherlands, about 30 miles east of Arnhem, on the Abdul Medjid and Abdul `Aziz. He represented river Aar. Population (1891) 7,030. the Porte at the conferences of Vienna and Paris in AAM, Aum or Awm, a Dutch liquid measure of 1855, and signed the Treaty of Paris in 1856. He varying value. The standard or Amsterdam aam is presided at the conference of the European powers 41 gallons for wine and about 38 gallons for oil. called to settle the Roumanian difficulties in 1864. The aam is in limited use in other continental During the absence, in 1867, from Constantinople, countries, in some of which it shrinks in capacity to of the Sultan, who was engaged in making a tour about 36 gallons. In Germany it is written ahm, of the Continent, Aali Pasha acted as regent of the and sometimes, though erroneously, ohm. empire, and was active in suppressing the Cretan AARESTRUP, Carl Ludwig Emil, Danish phyrebellion in 1867–68, and in repressing the efforts sician and poet, born Dec. 4, 1800. A volume of of the Egyptians to escape from the supremacy of his poems was published in 1838, and another postthe Porte. He died Sept. 6, 1871.
humously in 1863. He died in 1856. AALL, JAKOB, a Norwegian historian and states- AARIFI PASHA, a Turkish statesman, born in man, was born at Porsgrund July 27, 1773. While Constantinople in 1830. He entered the diplostudying divinity at Copenhagen he became inter- matic service at an early age, accompanying his ested in the pursuit of natural science, and in 1797 father, Shekib Pasha, on a mission to Rome in 1847. he set out to make the tour of the scientific schools Turning his attention to one of the chief requireof Leipsic, Kiel and Göttingen. In Germany he ments of a diplomatist, linguistic attainments, he became acquainted with the great geologist, Wer. I successively filled minor and gradually more im
AARON - ABATEMENT
portant posts in the European embassies of his ABADDON, a Hebrew word used in rabbinical country. For many years he was the first translator legends to denote the deepest place in hell. As in the divan. Subsequently he was appointed used in Rev. ix, 2, it denotes the angel of the abyss, under-secretary of state for foreign affairs, holding the bottomless pit. at the same time three other important por- ABAFFY OR ABAFFI, MIHALY. See APAFI, in folios in the ministry. He became minister of pub- these Supplements. lic instruction in 1874, minister of justice, and later ABALONE, a name used on the coast of Caliambassador at Vienna. The futile reform constitu- fornia to designate gasteropod mollusks of the tion of November, 1876, brought Aarifi to the front genus Haliotis. They are edible, and great quantias president of the senate for a brief period. He ties are dried and exported for use as food. The was Ottoman ambassador in Paris in 1877, becom- shell, commonly known as ear-shell, is used in ining prime minister for a brief period in 1879. laying and other ornamental work.
AARON, SAMUEL, a Baptist clergyman and edu- ABANA, now the Barada, a river of Syria having cator, born at New Britain, Pennsylvania, in 1800. its source in the Antilibanus, some 23 miles from Ordained in 1829. Established an enviable repu- Damascus, through which city it flows, losing itself tation as a teacher in Treemount Seminary, near in the lake or marsh Bahret-el-Kibliyeh. It is menNorristown, Pennsylvania, and in the Mount Holly tioned in 2 Kings v, 12, as one of the rivers of Institute in New Jersey. He was also the author of Damascus, with the Pharpar, now known as the Awab. various text-books." He died April 11, 1865.
ABANCOURT, CHARLES XAVIER JOSEPH
A , AARON BEN ASHER, a Jewish scholar living at FRANQUEVILLE D', a minister of war to Louis XVI Tiberias in the tenth century. He completed the He completed the of France, in 1792.
. Born at Douai, 1758; murdered Masora (the accents and vowels) of the Hebrew Bible. by a mob at Versailles, Sept. 9, 1792. He was a His codex, named after him, was preserved at Berea. nephew of Calonne, and an ardent royalist. AARON'S BEARD, a vernacular name applied
ABARBANEL. See ABRABANEL, Vol. I, p. 52. to at least four widely different species of plants: ABARCA, JOAQUIN, a bishop and leader of the (a) Saxifraga sarmentosa, a Chinese plant in com- absolutist party of Spain, born in 1780. He became mon cultivation, with alternate bright and hairy leaves prime minister of Don Carlos, but, falling into dison long, drooping stems; (6) Hypericum calycinum, favor, was banished, and died in 1844. a dwarf evergreen shrub of southeastern Europe, ABARIM, a range of mountains on the east side with conspicuous flowers and clusters of long hair- of the Jordan, opposite Jericho, in the land of Moab. like stamens, which suggest the name; (c) Rhus | These mountains have an elevation of nearly 3,000 cotinus, the common “smoke tree," whose flowers feet above the Mediterranean, and more than 4,000 are mostly abortive and their pedicels lengthen and feet above the Dead Sea. The summit of the range branch, bearing long plumy hairs, making feathery was formerly supposed to be level, but recent exclusters; (d) Geropogon hirsutus, a plant of Southern plorers have found considerable inequalities of surEurope, with purplish head and plumy pappus. face. Mount Nebo, the highest point, and still called
AARS, JACOB JONATHAN, Norwegian linguist, born Mount Neba or Nebbah, is believed to be the point in Christiania, July 12, 1837. He wrote an old from which Moses obtained his view of Palestine. Norse grammar, and rendered tales and songs of that ABASCAL Y SOUSA, JOSÉ FERNANDO, a Spanspeech into modern Norwegian.
ish general and statesman; born at Oviedo, Asturias, AASEN, IVAR ANDREAS. See Norway, Vol. XVII, June 3, 1743. He was viceroy of Peru 1804-16; p. 592.
was created Marquis de la Concordia Española del AASVÆR, a group of Norwegian islands. See Peru in 1812, and was made captain-general on his Væro, in these Supplements.
return to Spain. He died in Madrid, July 31, 1821. AB, a Jewish month. See CALENDAR, Vol. IV, ABASIA. See ABKHASIA, Vol. I, p. 50. pp. 678, 681.
ABATEMENT, in heraldry, is the term commonABACO, the largest of the Bahama Islands. ly applied to a mark of dishonor across a coat of Length, 80 miles, area, 96 sq. miles; lat. 26° 18' arms. Abatement is also a term used in legal matN., long. 76° 57' W. Its chief town is Carleton. ters. Abatement of legacies occurs when the estate It is also called Great Abaco and Lucaya. Little of the testator is insufficient to pay his debts and the Abaco lies west of the northern portion of Abaco. legacies in full. When the estate is not sufficient to
ABAD, a dynastic title applied to several of the pay both debts and legacies, it is the rule that the Moorish kings in Spain. Abad I, the first Moslem general legacies must abate proportionately for the king of Seville, reigned 1023-42. The last of the purpose of paying the debts. After the exhaustion of dynasty, Abad III, died in 1095.
the general legacies and the remainder of the estate, ABAD OR ABADIANO, DIEGO José, a Mexican the specific legacies will be abated proportionately for poet and Jesuit, born near Jiquilpan, Mexico, July 1, the payment of debts. Abatement in pleading defeats 1727, was rector of the college of Queretaro, where the action, unless the defect be such that it can be he studied and practiced medicine. Later he went cured by amendment, but does not bar the plaintiff to Italy, where he published a volume of heroic from recommencing his suit, and thus, if possible, verses concerning God, in Latin, to which his fame is avoiding the defect. A plea in abatement, as it is principally due. It was in cantos and went through dilatory in its nature and does not go to the merits of several editions. He also wrote a book describing the controversy, is not favored by the courts, and the principal rivers of the world. Died in Barcelona, must be drawn with the greatest accuracy, and is not Spain, Sept. 30, 1779.
It must be presented at the earliest
opportunity, before any plea to the merits, in both he was 18 years of age. He had received some porcivil and criminal actions, unless the matter pleaded tion of his education, with his brother Mehemet Ali, in abatement arises subsequently. Generally, a plea at the Theresianum Academy in Vienna, and was in abatement must be accompanied by affidavit of the there when his father died. His attitude toward the truth of the facts pleaded. Pleas denying the juris- British administrative control of Egypt is considdiction of the court are usually classed with pleas in ered unfriendly. He married one of his slaves in abatement, but are not strictly such. In many states, 1895. such pleas are considered meritorious and are amend- ABBATO, NICCOLO DELL'. See ABATI, Vol. I,
NiccolO able to almost the same extent as other pleadings. p. 5. Abatement in suits in chancery is the suspension of ABATTOIRS, ECONOMICAL SYSTEM OF. Since all proceedings in the suit for want of proper parties. the slaughter of animals for food products has been Abatement of a nuisance may be accomplished by a almost entirely performed in the abattoirs of the removal or destruction, by the party injured, of the great packing centers, the utilization of the offal, or nuisance with the least possible damage and disturb- portions of the animal formerly allowed to go to ance, but the more usual and efficient remedy is by waste, has become a matter of great importance. proceedings in equity to restrain the maintenance of About one third of the weight of an animal consists the nuisance, or command its destruction. The right of products that cannot be eaten ; and when it is to invoke the aid of a court of equity to abate a known that in excess of thirty thousand animals nuisance will be barred by unnecessary delay or ac- have been slaughtered in a single day in the abatquiescence. The maintenance of a public nuisance toirs of Chicago alone, the importance of utilizing is, in many cases, an indictable offense. See ABATE- this great amount of refuse will be seen. At the MENT, Vol. I, p. 5.
present time use is found for every part of the aniABATTIS (FR.) See FORTIFICATION, Vol. IX, p. mal slaughtered, and the entire amount of offal is 422.
converted into a mercantile commodity by proABAT-VOIX, a sounding-board placed over a cesses adopted within recent years. A considerable pulpit or the head of a speaker to throw the voice sum is realized from the sale of these products, made toward the audience.
from the portions of the animal formerly unused, ABAUJVAR or ABAU), a county of Hungary. and this fact has contributed largely to keeping the Area, 1109 sq. miles. Bounded by the counties of price of the edible parts within the reach of all Borsod, Torna, Zemplin, Saros and Zips. Its chief classes, many of whom would be deprived of meat town is Kaschau, and its population (1890) 165,000. as a regular food if this utilization were not effected. The country is mountainous, and the soil specially To follow the process of slaughtering an ox will favorable for grape culture. Gold, silver, iron and illustrate the manner in which the different portions copper are among its mineral products.
are converted into products ready for the market. ABBADIE, ANTOINE THOMSON D', a traveler and The animal is killed by a blow of a hammer upon explorer, born in Dublin, Ireland, Jan. 3, 1810; was the skull, and immediately seized by hooks attached educated in France, and from 1837 to 1848 made to its hind legs, and suspended, head down, by a extensive explorations in Abyssinia and Upper chain fastened to a pulley, that permits the carcass to Egypt. On his return he published a catalogue of descend of its own weight along an inclined rail. Ethiopian MSS., the Géodésie d'une partie de la Haute- It thus passes in succession before a gang of workÉthiopie (1860–73) and a Dictionary of the Amarin- men, each of whom performs a different operation. na (Amharic) language.
The first cuts, with a stroke of a knife, the jugular ABBADIE, ARNAUD Michel D', brother of An- vein and carotid artery, whence the blood escapes toine, was born in Dublin, July 24, 1815.
and flows over a scrupulously clean floor into resercompanied his brother on his travels and on their voirs. When the blood is cold it coagulates, and the return published the Douze Ans dans la Haute- fluid portion, which contains the soluble salts, is Éthiopie.
liberated. This is used for sizing paper. The solid ABBAS, ABBAS-IBN-ABD-IL-MooLTALIB, the pa- part is prepared for a number of purposes, among ternal uncle of Mohammed, and the progenitor of which the most important is that of fertilization, a the dynasty of Abbasides; born at Mecca, 566. He use for which it is especially valuable. The blood is opposed Mohammed at first, but, subsequently be sometimes placed in huge vats and about 70 per coming converted, became one of the principal pro- cent of the bulk evaporated. The residuum is then. moters of the Mohammedan religion. Died in 652. placed in hydraulic presses, and more moisture driv
ABBAS PASHA, viceroy of Egypt, and a grand- en off in this manner. The solid cakes are then reson of Mehemet Ali; born at Jiddah, in Arabia, induced to a fine powder by attrition, which is mixed 1813 He ascended the viceregal throne at Cairo with potash and phosphoric acid, making a fertilizer on the death of his uncle, Ibrahim Pasha, in 1848. rich in plant-food. Ordinary blood contains about He was a bigoted, indolent and sensual ruler, bit- 17 per cent of ammonia, and of this about 13 per terly opposed to foreigners and their civilization. cent is pure nitrogen. The best qualities of blood He was found dead, probably murdered, July 13, are used for the refining of sugar. When desired 1854, and was succeeded by his uncle, Said Pasha. for this purpose it is dried at a low temperature, in See EGYPT, Vol. VII, p. 766.
order to prevent the coagulation of the albumen. ABBAS HILMI, Khedive of Egypt, is the eldest These cakes are dissolved in warm water and added son of the late Tewfik Pasha. He was born July 14, to the liquid sugar. As an increasing heat is ap1874, and succeeded his father Jan. 7, 1892, when plied the albumen rises as a scum, carrying with it