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while others ventured overland through the Cana- | The British claim is, that in the treaty of 1825 dian Northwest Territories. See also CANADA in

Behm Channel, the first inlet west of Portland these supplements.

Channel, was meant as the boundary, since the PRINCIPAL Towns, GOVERNMENT, Schools, Etc. latter, contrary to the statement in the treaty, Sitka, the capital of the territory of Alaska, does not extend to the line of 56° by five or six is in the southeastern district, and upon the west minutes of latitude, and therefore, starting from coast of Baranof Island. Steamboats run at this point, the line should include within British least monthly between Sitka and Portland, Ore.domain territory 600 miles long, and varying in gon. Population 1890, 1,190. Juneau, the larg- width up to 150 miles, now officially occupied by est town and most important trading-point in the United States. The disputed land is in the Alaska, is 80 miles northeastward from the southeastern division of Alaska, and comprises capital. Its proximity to the mining districts, 29,000 square miles. In it are valuable fisheries, and convenient location with respect to the fur and a gold-mine valued at $13,000,000. trade, destine it to remain the most important See the various United States government pubcommercial point upon the coast. Population lications; Our Arctic Province (Elliott, 1886); 1890, 1,253

Travels in Alaska and on the Yukon (Whymper, From the time of the military occupation of 1868); Alaska and Its Resources (Dall, 1870, and Alaska by the United States on October 9, 1867, Miner W. Bruce, 1895), until 1884, no territorial government was organ- ALASSIO, a health and pleasure resort in ized. In the latter year Congress created for northwestern Italy, on the Mediterranean. It is Alaska a district government and court.

beautifully situated about midway between Genoa The court sits alternately at Sitka and at Fort and Nice, with both of which it is connected by Wrangel, which is on the mainland, and 125 miles rail. It is a favorite English winter resort, and east of the capital. The laws of Alaska are the has considerable royal patronage. Population,

. same as those of the state of Oregon. The gov- 4,790. ernorship, at present (1896) held by Hon. James ALATYR, a town of east-central Russia, lying Sheakley, is a four-year term of office.

in the province of Simbirsk. It is 75 miles W. of There are, in Alaska, fourteen day schools and the Volga, and 125 miles N.E. of Penza, the twenty-one mission schools, six of which are nearest railway point of importance. Glass-makmaintained by the Greco-Russian Church. They ing is its chief industry. Population, 8,085. are largely attended by the Indians, who, though

ALAUDIDÆ. See Larks, Vol. XIV, p. 314.

LARKS. unsupported by the government, have settled in ALAUX, JEAN, a French painter, and member the vicinity of the larger towns, and willingly fol- of the Legion of Honor, was born at Bordeaux, low the example of their white neighbors. They Jan. 15, 1786; studied under Guérin and Vincent; are troublesome to white settlers only on account was director of the French Academy at Rome of the liquor and opium which is smuggled in to from 1846 to 1853. In 1851 he became a memthem.

ber of the Institute; his best work is to be seen BOUNDARY DISPUTE.

The treaty signed by in the Museum of Versailles, both canvases and Great Britain and Russia in 1825, whereby the mural decorations; he died in Paris, March 2, latter became owner of the territory now known 1864. as Alaska, specified that the boundary between ALBA, a town of northwestern Italy, lying 32 this territory and British Columbia should com- miles from the Mediterranean, and 35 miles by mence at the southernmost point of Prince of rail S. E. of Turin. It is on the Tanaro River, Wales Island, continue northward along Port and in the province of Piedmont. There is here a land Channel to 56° N. lat.; from there follow cathedral founded in 1486. Wine, silk, cheese and the summit of the mountains lying parallel to oil are produced, and several marble-quarries are the coast up to the point of intersection with in the vicinity. Population, 6,400. 141° W. long., and finally pass northward along ALBANENSES, a mediæval Italian sect which this line into the Frozen Ocean. Further, it was held to absolute dualism and believed the world provided that wherever the mountains mentioned to have been created by an evil spirit. They as “lying parallel to the coast" should be more were closely connected with the Albigenses, and than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the were named for Alba, a town in Piedmont. boundary should be parallel to the coast-line, ALBANI, ALESSANDRO, Italian cardinal; born never exceeding the distance of ten marine leagues at Urbino, Italy, in 1692.

at Urbino, Italy, in 1692. He was a nephew of therefrom. From 1825 up to 1889 Russia, and Pope Clement XI, and was made a cardinal in after her the United States, occupied without 1721; was a liberal patron of the arts, and made challenge all territory west of Portland Chan- a famous collection of statuary; died in 1779. nel. In the latter year Great Britain opened ALBANI, MADAME (née Emma Lajeunesse), negotiations with the United States, which revocalist, was born at Chambly, in Canada, in sulted, July, 1892, in the appointment of a com- 1850. She was trained in music by her father, mission to " delimit the existing boundary between and at the age of 12 made her debut at Albany; the United States and her Majesty's possessions hence her professional name of “Albani.” She in North America, in respect to such portions of afterward studied at Paris under Duprez, and said boundary as may not have been permanently at Milan under Lamperti.

She sang at Messina marked in virtue of treaties heretofore concluded.” in 1870 with a success that likewise attended her





at London and Paris, the United States, Berlin, Conception, are prominent public edifices. In 1878 she married Ernest Gye, son of the city is handsomely built throughout, and contains

director of the Royal more than 300 acres of handsome parks and Italian Opera, London. | boulevards.

boulevards. Albany manufactures annually about Her greatest

four million dollars' worth of stoves; its lumber
was scored in Thomas's
Mignon. She was a fa-
vorite in oratorios and
concert songs.

OGY, Vol. XVIII, p. 784.

BAINN, meaning a
country of heights, is the
name anciently given by

the Celts to the whole of MADAME ALBANI.

Britain, and later on to the northwest part, when they were driven there by foreign invaders. The title of Duke of Albany has occasionally been conferred upon younger sons of kings of Scotland and England, the custom having been inaugurated in June, 1398, when the brother of Robert III, then regent of Scotland, was given that title at Scone.

trade amounts to more than ten millions; and it is ALBANY, a division of the eastern part of Cape the center of the cattle trade for New York and Colony, Africa, has an area of 1,685 square miles, New England from the West, its exceptional transand is 400 miles east of Cape Town; has two portation facilities making it an important receivrepresentatives in the house of assembly, and a ing and distributing point. Its numerous other population of 23, 330, the majority of whom are industries include 20 breweries, 12 iron-foundries, blacks. The division lies in a rich cereal-pro- 2 blast-furnaces, a cracker-bakery, and several ducing region.

extensive shoe-factories. An abundant supply of ALBANY, an important manufacturing town good water from an artificial lake, a beautiful park and railroad center of Georgia, capital of Dough- of 81 acres, and the excellence of its drainage erty, a southwestern county. It is delightfully which is greatly facilitated by its hilly and irregusituated at the head of high-water navigation on lar site — combine to make Albany, notwithstandFlint River, 120 miles W. of Savannah, and is ing the severity of its winter climate, an excepnoted for the medicinal waters of its artesian tionally healthful and attractive city. Population wells. Population 1890, 4,008.

1880, 90,758; 1890, 94,923; 1892, 97, 120. See ALBANY, a post village in central Kentucky; ALBANY, Vol. I, p. 448. capital of Clinton County. Albany Landing, on ALBANY, a post village in Oregon, county the Cumberland, is 10 miles north of it. Popula. seat of Linn County, on the Willamette River, in tion, 375.

the west-central part of the state, about 27 ALBANY, capital of Gentry County, in north- miles S. of Salem; Portland is 65 miles N., and western Missouri; 49 miles by rail N. E. of St. connected by rail. It contains a courthouse, Joseph; is a manufacturing town of importance. seven churches, a collegiate institute, bank, and Population 1880, 979; 1890, 1,334.

four newspapers. Population 1890, 3,079. ALBANY, the oldest chartered city in the ALBANY, capital of Shackelford County, United States, capital of the state of New York, Texas, is 140 miles N.W. of Waco, with which and county seat of Albany County, stands upon it is connected by rail; Fort Worth is 130 miles the west bank of the Hudson, 145 miles N. of the E. of it. Population 1890, 857. city of New York. At this point the Dutch settled ALBANY, HÉLÈNE FREDRICA AUGUSTA, in 1624, calling the village Beaverwyck, which DUCHESS OF, a daughter of the Prince of the Gername was changed in 1646 to Willemstadt, and man principality Waldeck-Pyrmont. She was in 1664 to Albany, in honor of the Duke of York born Feb. 17, 1861, and is now the widow of the and Albany (afterward James II of England), late Duke of Albany, whom she married in 1882. to whom the colony was granted on its cession to From the British government she receives a penGreat Britain. The principal public edifice is sion of six thousand pounds per annum. The the state capitol, one of the most magnificent and Queen-Regent of Holland is her sister. The costly structures of its kind in the world, — 390 present Duke of Albany is the younger of her feet in length, 290 feet in width, 4 stories high, two children, the elder being a girl. and built of drilled granite throughout, at a cost ALBANY, LEOPOLD GEORGE DUNCAN ALBERT, of more than $16,000,000. The new custom- DUKE OF, the eighth child and youngest son of house and post-office, the city hall, built of rough Queen Victoria, was born at Buckingham Palace, granite, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate April 7, 1853. In 1881 the ancient and honorable




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title of Duke of Albany, was conferred upon him, | abandoned his religious profession and married and the following year he married the Princess the Infanta Isabella. Hélène of Waldeck-Pyrmont. On the 27th of ALBERT, EUGEN D', pianist; born in Glasgow, March, 1884, while ascending a stairway in a pub- April 10, 1864; was a student of Liszt's, with lic amusement hall at Nice, he fell in a fit, and whom, as a performer, he afterward was classed. on the succeeding day died. The present Duke

The present Duke He is the author of the opera Ruby. of Albany, his posthumous son, was born four ALBERT FREDERICK RUDOLPH, archduke of months after the death of his father.

Austria, son of the late Archduke Charles, was ALBANY REGENCY. See VAN BUREN, MAR- born Aug. 3, 1817. In 1844 he married the Princess TIN, Vol. XXIV, p. 56.

Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, who died in 1864, ALBATI OR WHITE BRETHREN, a Christian leaving two daughters. After the battle of Sasect of fanatical penitents who appeared in Italy dowa, he was made (July 13, 1866) commanderearly in the fifteenth century. The pope finally in-chief of the Austrian army. Before that time suppressed them. They wore only white cloth- he had a long and various military experience, ing.

chiefly in campaigns in Italy. In 1869, he pubALBEMARLE, the capital of Stanly County, lished Ueber die Verantwortlichkeit im Kriege. North Carolina, is in the southwestern part of ALBERT, PAUL, French literary historian; the state, and 27 miles by rail from Salisbury, born at Thionville, Dec. 14, 1827; died at Paris, which is N.W. of it. Population 1890, 248. June 21, 1880. He held professorships at Poi

ALBEMARLE, a town of France. See AUMALE, tiers and in the College of France, and published Vol. III, p. 85.

History of Roman Literature, and French Literature ALBEMARLE SOUND, an inlet in the north- from its Origin until the End of the Eighteenth Ceneastern part of North Carolina, running inland tury. His son, who edited his literary remains, for 60 miles, with a breadth of from 4 to 15 has brought out two volumes of French Literature miles. It receives the waters of the Roanoke in the Nineteenth Century. The Academy honored and Chowan Rivers, and is connected by canals his writings. with Chesapeake Bay and by natural channels ALBERT EDWARD. See WALES, PRINCE OF, with Pamlico Sound.

in these Supplements. ALBERIC I. See Rome, Vol. XX, p. 787. ALBERT EDWARD NYANZA, a lake of East

ALBERS, JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERMANN, Ger-ern-central Africa, discovered by Baker in 1864, man physician, born at Dorsten, Westphalia, Nov. lying in lat. 1°S., long. 30° E. It has an eleva- . 14, 1805; died at Bonn, May 12, 1867.

He was

tion of 2,720 feet, and is one of the sources of the professor of pathology at the university of Bonn, Nile. The waters of the Victoria Nyanza, 80 founded a celebrated asylum for the insane at miles to the S. E., are delivered into it by the that place, and wrote a Manual of General Pathol- Kari River. It is 40 miles broad, and crescentogy and a Text-Book of General Pharmacy.

shaped. The explorer Stanley gave it its name ALBERT, a town of France, department of in honor of the Prince of Wales. Somme, about 18 miles N. E. of Amiens, on the ALBERTA, one of the four provisional districts Railway du Nord. It contains cotton and wool. | into which the northwest territories of Canada en factories, saltpeter-works, paper-mills and were divided in 1882. It has an area of 106,500 foundries. It was formerly called Ancre. Popu- square miles, and contains the great cattle-ranges lation, 6,ooo.

of Canada. Large tracts of these grazing-lands ALBERT, King of Saxony, was born April 23, are leased to ranching companies and individuals. 1828, and succeeded to the throne, Oct. 29, 1873, Coal is abundant, timber is plentiful, and there having married, in 1853, Caroline, Princess Vasa, are petroleum deposits. Calgary, the most importof Sweden. Before his accession he had con- ant town, is situated on the Canadian Pacific siderable military experience, having taken part railway, which passes through the south of the in the Danish war of 1848 and fought with the district. It is the center of the stock-raising Austrians at the battle of Sadowa (1866). At industry, and has a population of 3,876. the siege of Paris he held the right bank of the population of the district in 1891, 25, 277. Seine, and at the conclusion of the war was made . ALBERT LEA, capital of Freeborn, a southern field-marshal and inspector-general of the German border county of Minnesota. The town is located army. See also SAXONY, Vol. XXI, p. 351. on a small lake of the same name, and is the seat

ALBERT VII OR ALBRECHT THE PIOUS, of Albert Lea College for Women; is 108 miles S. cardinal and archduke of Austria, third son of of Minneapolis, in the center of a fertile agriculMaximilian II, was born Nov. 13, 1559, and died tural section, and contains flour-mills, grain-elein July, 1621. His youth was spent at the Spanish vators and machine-shops; is the point of intercourt, where he was distinguished for his upright- section of three railroads. It is picturesquely ness and his love for study. In his eighteenth | located and is a summer resort, being in a fertile year he was made cardinal, and, seven years after, and lake region. Population 1890, 3,305; 1892, he was made archbishop of Toledo. In 1594 4,158. he became viceroy of Portugal, which office he ALBERTI, LEONE BATTISTA, born at Florence, held for two years. The remainder of his life he | Feb. 18, 1404; was a sculptor, painter, architect was stadholder of the Netherlands, the repre- and organist. He was employed by the pope as sentative of the Spanish monarch. In 1599 he


an architect for church edifices, and to him credit ALBERTINELLI- ALBION


for the introduction of classical designs into Italy of chromatized albumen and gelatin, laid face down is due. His De re Ædificatoria is regarded a classic on black velvet and exposed to the light. It is work on architecture. He died at Rome, in April, then washed and dried. The insoluble film adheres 1484.

firmly to the glass, and serves as a foundation for ALBERTINELLI, MARIOTTO, a Florentine the second film, which consists of chromatized painter of the early part of the sixteenth century; gelatin. This is exposed under a negative which

; born at Florence, Oct. 13, 1474; studied under has been reversed by stripping. The plate is then Roselli and worked with Fra Bartolommeo. He soaked in water to remove the soluble bichromate, painted Virgin Mary with the Child, now in the the film hardened with chrome alum, and then Louvre; Virgin Mary with Saint Domenico, at the dried. The result is an almost invisible picture

; Academy of Florence; and the Visitation of Mary in gelatin which has become insoluble in water, and Elizabeth, also in Florence. Died in his native and actually repellent for water; while the gelacity, Nov. 15, 1515.

tin, which was protected by the negative (the ALBERTITE, an asphaltic mineral, used, prior whites), retains its absorbing power. Such pic

, to the discovery of petroleum, in the manufacture tures have been named albertypes, in honor of the of illuminating oils. Found in New Brunswick, inventor. where, in Albert County, veins of it were exten- The plate is fastened by plaster of Paris to the sively worked earlier than 1865. See MINERAL- bed of the press, and the printing is then conOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 428.

ducted very much as in ordinary lithography. ALBERT MEDAL, a decoration instituted in A wet sponge is applied to moisten the whites, 1866, in England, to reward heroic acts of mari- and an ink-roller to ink the picture. A sheet of ners and others in saving life at sea. In 1867, in paper is placed on the surface, and on applying place of one decoration, two were instituted, pressure the ink is transferred to the paper. The called the Albert Medal of the First Class and the picture may also be printed on linen, silk, etc. Albert Medal of the Second Class. In 1877 the ALBIA, capital of Monroe County, southeastern Albert Medal was extended to acts of gallantry Iowa; is 25. miles W. of Ottumwa, and 24 miles in preventing loss of life in mines, on railways, at S.W. of Oskaloosa, with both of which it is confires and in other perils on land. Albert Medal nected by rail. Bituminous coal of a fairly good is also the name of a distinction granted since quality is mined in the vicinity. Population 1890, 1864 by the English Society of Arts to notable

2,359. men of science of many nationalities.

ALBION, capital of Cassia, a border county of ALBERT MEMORIAL, a beautiful monument south-central Idaho; is 11 miles S. of the Snake erected in Hyde Park, London, to the memory of River and 55 miles S. E. of Shoshone. The Union

Pacific railway passes 25 miles N. of it. Population 1890, 179.

ALBION, capital of Edwards County, southeastern Illinois; is 56 miles N.W. of Evansville, Indiana, on the New Albany and St. Louis railroad. Population 1880, 875; 1890, 937.

ALBION, capital of Noble County, northeastern Indiana; is 25 miles N. E. of Fort Wayne, and is on the Baltimore and Ohio railway; has six churches, two newspapers, and manufactories of sash, blinds, doors and agricultural machinery. Population 1880, 926; 1890, 1,229.

ALBION, a town of Calhoun County, southeastern Michigan, situated on the Kalamazoo River, 19 miles W. of Jackson and 96 miles W. of Detroit, being connected by rail with both. It

is the center of a grain district, and contains ALBERT MEMORIAL.

several large flour-mills and manufactories of agricultural implements. It is also the seat of

. the Prince Consort Albert, who died in 1861. The Albion (Methodist) College. Population 1880, monument was built from the designs of Mr. 2,716; 1890, 3, 763. George Gilbert Scott, who was afterward knighted. ALBION, capital of Boone County, east-cen

ALBERT RIVER. Two Australian rivers bear tral Nebraska; lies 112 miles N. W. of Omaha, with this name. One, in North Queensland, flows which it is connected by two lines of railway; connorth for about 200 miles, and empties into the tains a number of flouring-mills, and carries on a Gulf of Carpentaria, below Burktown; the other, brisk trade in general merchandise. Population in Victoria, flows south, and empties into the 1880, 330; 1890, 926. Pacific, near Port Albert.

ALBION, New York, capital of Orleans County, ALBERTYPES. Joseph Albert, of Munich,

Joseph Albert, of Munich, which borders on Lake Erie; is a post village 30 in 1869, devised a successful process of repro- miles W. of Rochester, on the New York Central ducing photographs in printer's ink.

railway, and 52 miles N. E. of Buffalo, on the Erie A sheet of plate glass is coated with a thin film canal. There are here flour-mills, iron manufac




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tories, and stone-quarries, and it is the center of ignate the white opacity that often follows ulcer. a large fruit-growing district. This village is the ation of the cornea of the eye. If occurring in seat of Phipps Union Seminary, the Albion Acad- infancy it may diminish to some extent, but in emy and a Roman Catholic college. Population after life it does not undergo absorption, nor ad1880, 5, 147; 1890, 5,773.

mit of surgical relief. ALBION, a town in Dane County, south-central ALBULA, a mountain pass 7,595 feet high, in Wisconsin; is 20 miles S. E. of Madison and 14 the Swiss canton of the Grisons, connecting the N. of Janesville. Considerable tobacco is grown valleys of the Albula and Hinter-Rhein with that in the vicinity. There is an academy here, un- of the Inn. It is three fourths of a mile long, der the control of the Seventh-Day Baptists. granite and limestone peaks rising on either side. Population 1890, 1,516.

ALBUMINOIDS OR PROTEIDS. See CHEMALBISTAN OR EL BOSTON, a town of central istey, Vol. V, p. 579. Asia Minor, lying at the foot of Mt. Towens and ALBUMINURIA. See PATHOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, upon the Gihon River. There is a considerable p. 387. trade in wheat at this point, which is in the center ALBUNOL, a town of Andalusia, Spain, provof a fertile region containing about 40 dependent ince of Granada, southern Spain, near the coast villages. The forces of Egypt defeated the com- of the Mediterranean; is 35 miles S. E. of Granada, bined Turks and Mongolians here on the 16th which is the terminus of the nearest railway. of April, 1277. Population of the town, 8,500. Population, 9,372.

ALBONI, MARIETTA, a famous opera-singer, ALBUQUERQUE, a city in north-central New was born at Cesena, Italy, March 10, 1823, and died | Mexico, capital of Bernalillo County, and at the

at Ville d'Avray, June 23,
1894. She possessed a a
rich contralto voice, said
to have been the purest
of her century. She early
studied under Rossini,
and at 15 made her début
at Boulogne.
peared in London, where
she was considered a

worthy rival of Jenny
Lind. In 1850, she was

enthusiastically received MADAME ALBONI.

in the United States,

where she became a great favorite. Her marriage to Count de Pepoli took intersection of two railways. The University of place in 1854 and, upon his death in 1863 she per- New Mexico, founded in 1892, is located here. manently retired from public life. In 1877 she

In 1877 she It was founded in 1892, and is equipped and supmarried again, her second husband being Mr. ported wholly by a territorial appropriation of Lieger an officer of the French army.

No con

$14,000 annually. The university is non-sectatralto voice has had finer quality or more surpris- rian, co-educates the sexes, has 8 instructors and ing compass than hers.

averages 100 students. The vice-president is AL BORAK, literally "the lightning," Hiram Hadley, A.M. Santa Fé is 56 miles to the the legendary fleet white mule on which Moham- N.E. Population 1880, 2,315; 1890, 3,785. med was supposed, by his disciples, to have made ALBUQUERQUE, JERONYMO D', Portuguese his journey from earth to the seventh heaven. soldier and explorer; born 1514; died at Olinda,

ALBRET, JEANNE D', a queen of Navarre; born Brazil, Feb. 26, 1594. He emigrated to Brazil in at Pau, France, Jan. 7, 1528; died at Paris, June 1535, and there became a leader in many Indian 9, 1572. Her parents were Henry II, king of wars; was captured by the Cahates tribe, gained Navarre, and Margaret Valois, sister of Francis I. them over to friendship for the whites, and marIn 1548 she married Antoine de Bourbon and be- ried an Indian princess. came the mother of Henry IV of France. In ALBUQUERQUE MARANHÃO, JERONYMO 1567, being a firm Protestant, she declared Prot. D', 1548–1618, a Brazilian soldier, son of the preestantism established in her domain and remained ceding; became a leader in expeditions against the faithful to the Huguenots throughout her life. Indians, and in 1599 explored and conquered the She was celebrated for her talents, her beauty Rio Grande del Norte; retook Maranhão from the and her heroic qualities.

French, June 17, 1614, afterward becoming capALBRIGHT, JACOB, founder of the evangeli- tain-general of that province. cal association familiarly known as the German ALBURNUM OR SAP-WOOD, is the lighteror Albright Methodists, was born near Pottstown, colored, more recently formed part of the wood Pennsylvania, May 1, 1759, and died at Muehl- of dicotyledonous trees, which lies next to the bach (now Kleinfeltersville), Pennsylvania, May bark. The older part (duramen) is denser, and 18, 1808.

often colored. The alburnum is the region of the ALBUGO, a term employed in surgery to des- "transpiration current;" that is, the current





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