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while others ventured overland through the Cana-| The British claim is, that in the treaty of 1825 dian Northwest Territories. See also CANADA in Behm Channel, the first inlet west of Portland these supplements.

PRINCIPAL TOWNS, GOVERNMENT, SCHOOLS, ETC. Sitka, the capital of the territory of Alaska, is in the southeastern district, and upon the west coast of Baranof Island. Steamboats run at least monthly between Sitka and Portland, Oregon. Population 1890, 1, 190. Juneau, the largest town and most important trading-point in Alaska, is 80 miles northeastward from the capital. Its proximity to the mining districts, and convenient location with respect to the fur trade, destine it to remain the most important commercial point upon the coast. Population 1890, 1,253.

From the time of the military occupation of Alaska by the United States on October 9, 1867, until 1884, no territorial government was organized. In the latter year Congress created for Alaska a district government and court.

The court sits alternately at Sitka and at Fort Wrangel, which is on the mainland, and 125 miles east of the capital. The laws of Alaska are the same as those of the state of Oregon. The governorship, at present (1896) held by Hon. James. Sheakley, is a four-year term of office.

There are, in Alaska, fourteen day schools and twenty-one mission schools, six of which are maintained by the Greco-Russian Church. They are largely attended by the Indians, who, though unsupported by the government, have settled in the vicinity of the larger towns, and willingly follow the example of their white neighbors. They are troublesome to white settlers only on account of the liquor and opium which is smuggled in to


BOUNDARY DISPUTE. The treaty signed by Great Britain and Russia in 1825, whereby the latter became owner of the territory now known as Alaska, specified that the boundary between this territory and British Columbia should commence at the southernmost point of Prince of Wales Island, continue northward along Portland Channel to 56° N. lat.; from there follow the summit of the mountains lying parallel to the coast up to the point of intersection with 141° W. long., and finally pass northward along this line into the Frozen Ocean. Further, it was provided that wherever the mountains mentioned as "lying parallel to the coast" should be more than ten marine leagues from the ocean, the boundary should be parallel to the coast-line, never exceeding the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom. From 1825 up to 1889 Russia, and after her the United States, occupied without challenge all territory west of Portland Channel. In the latter year Great Britain opened negotiations with the United States, which resulted, July, 1892, in the appointment of a commission to "delimit the existing boundary between the United States and her Majesty's possessions in North America, in respect to such portions of said boundary as may not have been permanently marked in virtue of treaties heretofore concluded."

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Channel, was meant as the boundary, since the latter, contrary to the statement in the treaty, does not extend to the line of 56° by five or six minutes of latitude, and therefore, starting from this point, the line should include within British domain territory 600 miles long, and varying in width up to 150 miles, now officially occupied by the United States. The disputed land is in the southeastern division of Alaska, and comprises 29,000 square miles. In it are valuable fisheries, and a gold-mine valued at $13,000,000.

See the various United States government publications; Our Arctic Province (Elliott, 1886); Travels in Alaska and on the Yukon (Whymper, 1868); Alaska and Its Resources (Dall, 1870, and Miner W. Bruce, 1895).

ALASSIO, a health and pleasure resort in northwestern Italy, on the Mediterranean. It is beautifully situated about midway between Genoa and Nice, with both of which it is connected by rail. It is a favorite English winter resort, and has considerable royal patronage. Population, 4,790.

ALATYR, a town of east-central Russia, lying in the province of Simbirsk. It is 75 miles W. of the Volga, and 125 miles N. E. of Penza, the nearest railway point of importance. Glass-making is its chief industry. Population, 8,085.

ALAUDIDÆ. See LARKS, Vol. XIV, p. 314. ALAUX, JEAN, a French painter, and member of the Legion of Honor, was born at Bordeaux, Jan. 15, 1786; studied under Guérin and Vincent; was director of the French Academy at Rome from 1846 to 1853. In 1851 he became a member of the Institute; his best work is to be seen in the Museum of Versailles, both canvases and mural decorations; he died in Paris, March 2, 1864.

ALBA, a town of northwestern Italy, lying 32 miles from the Mediterranean, and 35 miles by rail S. E. of Turin. It is on the Tanaro River, and in the province of Piedmont. There is here a cathedral founded in 1486. Wine, silk, cheese and oil are produced, and several marble-quarries are in the vicinity. Population, 6, 400.

ALBANENSES, a mediæval Italian sect which held to absolute dualism and believed the world to have been created by an evil spirit. They were closely connected with the Albigenses, and were named for Alba, a town in Piedmont.

ALBANI, ALESSANDRO, Italian cardinal; born at Urbino, Italy, in 1692. He was a nephew of Pope Clement XI, and was made a cardinal in 1721; was a liberal patron of the arts, and made a famous collection of statuary; died in 1779.

ALBANI, MADAME (née Emma Lajeunesse), vocalist, was born at Chambly, in Canada, in 1850. She was trained in music by her father, and at the age of 12 made her debut at Albany; hence her professional name of "Albani." afterward studied at Paris under Duprez, and at Milan under Lamperti. She sang at Messina in 1870 with a success that likewise attended her



at London and Paris, the United States, Berlin, | In 1878 she married Ernest Gye, son of the director of the Royal Italian Opera, London. Her greatest success was scored in Thomas's Mignon. She was a favorite in oratorios and concert songs. ALBANIAN



GUAGE. See PHILOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, p. 784. ALBANY OR ALBAINN, meaning a country of heights, is the name anciently given by the Celts to the whole of Britain, and later on to the northwest part, when they were driven there by foreign invaders. The title of Duke of Albany has occasionally been conferred upon younger sons of kings of Scotland and England, the custom having been inaugurated in June, 1398, when the brother of Robert III, then regent of Scotland, was given that title at Scone.

ALBANY, a division of the eastern part of Cape Colony, Africa, has an area of 1,685 square miles, and is 400 miles east of Cape Town; has two representatives in the house of assembly, and a population of 23,330, the majority of whom are blacks. The division lies in a rich cereal-producing region.

ALBANY, an important manufacturing town and railroad center of Georgia, capital of Dougherty, a southwestern county. It is delightfully situated at the head of high-water navigation on Flint River, 120 miles W. of Savannah, and is noted for the medicinal waters of its artesian wells. Population 1890, 4,008.

ALBANY, a post village in central Kentucky; capital of Clinton County. Albany Landing, on the Cumberland, is 10 miles north of it. Population, 375

ALBANY, capital of Gentry County, in northwestern Missouri; 49 miles by rail N. E. of St. Joseph; is a manufacturing town of importance. Population 1880, 979; 1890, 1,334.

ALBANY, the oldest chartered city in the United States, capital of the state of New York, and county seat of Albany County, stands upon the west bank of the Hudson, 145 miles N. of the city of New York. At this point the Dutch settled in 1624, calling the village Beaverwyck, which name was changed in 1646 to Willemstadt, and in 1664 to Albany, in honor of the Duke of York and Albany (afterward James II of England), to whom the colony was granted on its cession to Great Britain. The principal public edifice is the state capitol, one of the most magnificent and costly structures of its kind in the world,-390 feet in length, 290 feet in width, 4 stories high, and built of drilled granite throughout, at a cost of more than $16,000,000. The new customhouse and post-office, the city hall, built of rough granite, and the Cathedral of the Immaculate


Conception, are prominent public edifices. The city is handsomely built throughout, and contains more than 300 acres of handsome parks and boulevards. Albany manufactures annually about four million dollars' worth of stoves; its lumber

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trade amounts to more than ten millions; and it is the center of the cattle trade for New York and New England from the West, its exceptional transportation facilities making it an important receiving and distributing point. Its numerous other industries include 20 breweries, 12 iron-foundries, 2 blast-furnaces, a cracker-bakery, and several extensive shoe-factories. An abundant supply of good water from an artificial lake, a beautiful park of 81 acres, and the excellence of its drainagewhich is greatly facilitated by its hilly and irregular site-combine to make Albany, notwithstanding the severity of its winter climate, an exceptionally healthful and attractive city. Population 1880, 90,758; 1890, 94,923; 1892, 97, 120. ALBANY, Vol. I, p. 448.

ALBANY, a post village in Oregon, county seat of Linn County, on the Willamette River, in the west-central part of the state, about 27 miles S. of Salem; Portland is 65 miles N., and connected by rail. It contains a courthouse, seven churches, a collegiate institute, bank, and four newspapers. Population 1890, 3,079.

ALBANY, capital of Shackelford County, Texas, is 140 miles N.W. of Waco, with which it is connected by rail; Fort Worth is 130 miles E. of it. Population 1890, 857.

ALBANY, HÉLÈNE FREDRICA AUGUSTA, DUCHESS OF, a daughter of the Prince of the German principality Waldeck-Pyrmont. She was born Feb. 17, 1861, and is now the widow of the late Duke of Albany, whom she married in 1882. From the British government she receives a pension of six thousand pounds per annum. The Queen-Regent of Holland is her sister. The present Duke of Albany is the younger of her two children, the elder being a girl.

ALBANY, LEOPOLD GEORGE DUNCAN ALBERT, DUKE OF, the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria, was born at Buckingham Palace, April 7, 1853. In 1881 the ancient and honorable



title of Duke of Albany, was conferred upon him, and the following year he married the Princess Hélène of Waldeck-Pyrmont. On the 27th of March, 1884, while ascending a stairway in a public amusement hall at Nice, he fell in a fit, and on the succeeding day died. The present Duke The present Duke of Albany, his posthumous son, was born four months after the death of his father.


ALBATI OR WHITE BRETHREN, a Christian sect of fanatical penitents who appeared in Italy early in the fifteenth century. The pope finally suppressed them. They wore only white clothing.

ALBEMARLE, the capital of Stanly County, North Carolina, is in the southwestern part of the state, and 27 miles by rail from Salisbury, which is N.W. of it. Population 1890, 248.

ALBEMARLE, a town of France. See AUMALE, Vol. III, p. 85.

| abandoned his religious profession and married the Infanta Isabella.

ALBERT, EUGEN D', pianist; born in Glasgow, April 10, 1864; was a student of Liszt's, with whom, as a performer, he afterward was classed. He is the author of the opera Ruby.

ALBERT FREDERICK RUDOLPH, archduke of Austria, son of the late Archduke Charles, was born Aug. 3, 1817. In 1844 he married the Princess Henrietta of Nassau-Weilburg, who died in 1864, leaving two daughters. After the battle of Sadowa, he was made (July 13, 1866) commanderin-chief of the Austrian army. Before that time he had a long and various military experience, chiefly in campaigns in Italy. In 1869, he published Ueber die Verantwortlichkeit im Kriege.

ALBERT, PAUL, French literary historian; born at Thionville, Dec. 14, 1827; died at Paris, June 21, 1880. He held professorships at Poitiers and in the College of France, and published History of Roman Literature, and French Literature ALBEMARLE SOUND, an inlet in the north-from its Origin until the End of the Eighteenth Ceneastern part of North Carolina, running inland tury. His son, who edited his literary remains, for 60 miles, with a breadth of from 4 to 15 has brought out two volumes of French Literature miles. It receives the waters of the Roanoke in the Nineteenth Century. The Academy honored and Chowan Rivers, and is connected by canals his writings. with Chesapeake Bay and by natural channels with Pamlico Sound.

ALBERIC I. See ROME, Vol. XX, p. 787. ALBERS, JOHANN FRIEDRICH HERMANN, German physician, born at Dorsten, Westphalia, Nov. 14, 1805; died at Bonn, May 12, 1867. He was professor of pathology at the university of Bonn, founded a celebrated asylum for the insane at that place, and wrote a Manual of General Pathology and a Text-Book of General Pharmacy.

ALBERT, a town of France, department of Somme, about 18 miles N. E. of Amiens, on the Railway du Nord. It contains cotton and woolen factories, saltpeter-works, paper-mills and foundries. It was formerly called Ancre. Population, 6,000.

ALBERT, King of Saxony, was born April 23, 1828, and succeeded to the throne, Oct. 29, 1873, having married, in 1853, Caroline, Princess Vasa, of Sweden. Before his accession he had considerable military experience, having taken part in the Danish war of 1848 and fought with the Austrians at the battle of Sadowa (1866). At the siege of Paris he held the right bank of the Seine, and at the conclusion of the war was made field-marshal and inspector-general of the German army.

See also SAXONY, Vol. XXI, p. 351. ALBERT VII OR ALBRECHT THE PIOUS, cardinal and archduke of Austria, third son of Maximilian II, was born Nov. 13, 1559, and died in July, 1621. His youth was spent at the Spanish court, where he was distinguished for his uprightness and his love for study. In his eighteenth year he was made cardinal, and, seven years after, he was made archbishop of Toledo. In 1594 he became viceroy of Portugal, which office he held for two years. The remainder of his life he was stadholder of the Netherlands, the representative of the Spanish monarch. In 1599 he


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ALBERT EDWARD. in these Supplements.

See WALES, Prince of,

ALBERT EDWARD NYANZA, a lake of Eastern-central Africa, discovered by Baker in 1864, lying in lat. 1° S., long. 30° E. It has an elevation of 2,720 feet, and is one of the sources of the Nile. The waters of the Victoria Nyanza, 80 miles to the S. E., are delivered into it by the Kari River. It is 40 miles broad, and crescentshaped. The explorer Stanley gave it its name in honor of the Prince of Wales.

ALBERTA, one of the four provisional districts into which the northwest territories of Canada were divided in 1882. It has an area of 106,500 square miles, and contains the great cattle-ranges of Canada. Large tracts of these grazing-lands are leased to ranching companies and individuals. Coal is abundant, timber is plentiful, and there are petroleum deposits. Calgary, the most important town, is situated on the Canadian Pacific railway, which passes through the south of the district. It is the center of the stock-raising industry, and has a population of 3,876. Total population of the district in 1891, 25,277.

ALBERT LEA, capital of Freeborn, a southern border county of Minnesota. The town is located on a small lake of the same name, and is the seat of Albert Lea College for Women; is 108 miles S. of Minneapolis, in the center of a fertile agricultural section, and contains flour-mills, grain-elevators and machine-shops; is the point of intersection of three railroads. It is picturesquely located and is a summer resort, being in a fertile and lake region. Population 1890, 3,305; 1892, 4,158.

ALBERTI, LEONE BATTISTA, born at Florence, Feb. 18, 1404; was a sculptor, painter, architect and organist. He was employed by the pope as an architect for church edifices, and to him credit



for the introduction of classical designs into Italy | of chromatized albumen and gelatin, laid face down is due. His De re Edificatoria is regarded a classic work on architecture. He died at Rome, in April, 1484.

ALBERTINELLI, MARIOTTO, a Florentine painter of the early part of the sixteenth century; born at Florence, Oct. 13, 1474; studied under Roselli and worked with Fra Bartolommeo. He painted Virgin Mary with the Child, now in the Louvre; Virgin Mary with Saint Domenico, at the Academy of Florence; and the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, also in Florence. Died in his native city, Nov. 15, 1515.

ALBERTITE, an asphaltic mineral, used, prior to the discovery of petroleum, in the manufacture of illuminating oils. Found in New Brunswick, where, in Albert County, veins of it were extensively worked earlier than 1865. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 428.

ALBERT MEDAL, a decoration instituted in 1866, in England, to reward heroic acts of mariners and others in saving life at sea. In 1867, in place of one decoration, two were instituted, called the Albert Medal of the First Class and the Albert Medal of the Second Class. In 1877 the Albert Medal was extended to acts of gallantry in preventing loss of life in mines, on railways, at fires and in other perils on land. Albert Medal Albert Medal is also the name of a distinction granted since 1864 by the English Society of Arts to notable men of science of many nationalities.

ALBERT MEMORIAL, a beautiful monument erected in Hyde Park, London, to the memory of



the Prince Consort Albert, who died in 1861. monument was built from the designs of Mr. George Gilbert Scott, who was afterward knighted. ALBERT RIVER. Two Australian rivers bear One, in North Queensland, flows north for about 200 miles, and empties into the Gulf of Carpentaria, below Burktown; the other, in Victoria, flows south, and empties into the Pacific, near Port Albert. ALBERTYPES. Joseph Albert, of Munich, in 1869, devised a successful process of reproducing photographs in printer's ink.

A sheet of plate glass is coated with a thin film

on black velvet and exposed to the light. It is then washed and dried. The insoluble film adheres firmly to the glass, and serves as a foundation for the second film, which consists of chromatized gelatin. This is exposed under a negative which has been reversed by stripping. The plate is then soaked in water to remove the soluble bichromate, the film hardened with chrome alum, and then dried. The result is an almost invisible picture in gelatin which has become insoluble in water, and actually repellent for water; while the gelatin, which was protected by the negative (the whites), retains its absorbing power. Such pictures have been named albertypes, in honor of the inventor.

The plate is fastened by plaster of Paris to the bed of the press, and the printing is then conducted very much as in ordinary lithography. A wet sponge is applied to moisten the whites, and an ink-roller to ink the picture. A sheet of paper is placed on the surface, and on applying pressure the ink is transferred to the paper. picture may also be printed on linen, silk, etc.


ALBIA, capital of Monroe County, southeastern Iowa; is 25 miles W. of Ottumwa, and 24 miles S. W. of Oskaloosa, with both of which it is connected by rail. nected by rail. Bituminous coal of a fairly good quality is mined in the vicinity. Population 1890, 2,359.

ALBION, capital of Cassia, a border county of south-central Idaho; is 11 miles S. of the Snake River and 55 miles S. E. of Shoshone. The Union Pacific railway passes 25 miles N. of it. Population 1890, 179.

ALBION, capital of Edwards County, southeastern Illinois; is 56 miles N. W. of Evansville, Indiana, on the New Albany and St. Louis railroad. Population 1880, 875; 1890, 937.

ALBION, capital of Noble County, northeastern Indiana; is 25 miles N. E. of Fort Wayne, and is on the Baltimore and Ohio railway; has six churches, two newspapers, and manufactories of sash, blinds, doors and agricultural machinery. Population 1880, 926; 1890, 1,229.

ALBION, a town of Calhoun County, southeastern Michigan, situated on the Kalamazoo River, 19 miles W. of Jackson and 96 miles W. of Detroit, being connected by rail with both. It is the center of a grain district, and contains several large flour-mills and manufactories of agricultural implements. It is also the seat of Albion (Methodist) College. Population 1880, 2,716; 1890, 3,763.

ALBION, capital of Boone County, east-central Nebraska; lies 112 miles N. W. of Omaha, with which it is connected by two lines of railway; contains a number of flouring-mills, and carries on a brisk trade in general merchandise. Population 1880, 330; 1890, 926.

ALBION, New York, capital of Orleans County, which borders on Lake Erie; is a post village 30 miles W. of Rochester, on the New York Central railway, and 52 miles N. E. of Buffalo, on the Erie canal. There are here flour-mills, iron manufac




tories, and stone-quarries, and it is the center of | a large fruit-growing district. This village is the This village is the seat of Phipps Union Seminary, the Albion Academy and a Roman Catholic college. Population 1880, 5, 147; 1890, 5,773.

ALBION, a town in Dane County, south-central Wisconsin; is 20 miles S. E. of Madison and 14 N. of Janesville. Considerable tobacco is grown in the vicinity. There is an academy here, under the control of the Seventh-Day Baptists. Population 1890, 1,516.

ALBISTAN OR EL BOSTON, a town of central Asia Minor, lying at the foot of Mt. Towens and upon the Gihon River. There is a considerable trade in wheat at this point, which is in the center of a fertile region containing about 40 dependent villages. The forces of Egypt defeated the combined Turks and Mongolians here on the 16th of April, 1277. Population of the town, 8,500. ALBONI, MARIETTA, a famous opera-singer, was born at Cesena, Italy, March 10, 1823, and died at Ville d'Avray, June 23, 1894. She possessed a rich contralto voice, said to have been the purest of her century. She early studied under Rossini, and at 15 made her début at Boulogne. She appeared in London, where she was considered a worthy rival of Jenny Lind. In 1850, she was enthusiastically received. in the United States, where she became a great favorite. Her marriage to Count de Pepoli took place in 1854 and, upon his death in 1863 she permanently retired from public life. In 1877 she married again, her second husband being Mr. Lieger an officer of the French army. No contralto voice has had finer quality or more surprising compass than hers.


AL BORAK, literally "the lightning, the legendary fleet white mule on which Mohammed was supposed, by his disciples, to have made. his journey from earth to the seventh heaven.

ALBRET, JEANNE D', a queen of Navarre; born at Pau, France, Jan. 7, 1528; died at Paris, June 9, 1572. Her parents were Henry II, king of Navarre, and Margaret Valois, sister of Francis I. In 1548 she married Antoine de Bourbon and became the mother of Henry IV of France. In 1567, being a firm Protestant, she declared Protestantism established in her domain and remained faithful to the Huguenots throughout her life. She was celebrated for her talents, her beauty and her heroic qualities.

ALBRIGHT, JACOB, founder of the evangelical association familiarly known as the German or Albright Methodists, was born near Pottstown, Pennsylvania, May 1, 1759, and died at Muehlbach (now Kleinfeltersville), Pennsylvania, May 18, 1808.

ALBUGO, a term employed in surgery to des

ignate the white opacity that often follows ulceration of the cornea of the eye. If occurring in infancy it may diminish to some extent, but in after life it does not undergo absorption, nor admit of surgical relief.

ALBULA, a mountain pass 7,595 feet high, in the Swiss canton of the Grisons, connecting the valleys of the Albula and Hinter-Rhein with that of the Inn. It is three fourths of a mile long, granite and limestone peaks rising on either side. ALBUMINOIDS OR PROTEIDS. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, p. 579.


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intersection of two railways. The University of New Mexico, founded in 1892, is located here. It was founded in 1892, and is equipped and supported wholly by a territorial appropriation of $14,000 annually. The university is non-sectarian, co-educates the sexes, has 8 instructors and averages 100 students. The vice-president is Hiram Hadley, A. M. Santa Fé is 56 miles to the N. E. Population 1880, 2,315; 1890, 3,785.

ALBUQUERQUE, JERONYMO D', Portuguese soldier and explorer; born 1514; died at Olinda, Brazil, Feb. 26, 1594. He emigrated to Brazil in 1535, and there became a leader in many Indian wars; was captured by the Cahates tribe, gained them over to friendship for the whites, and married an Indian princess.

ALBUQUERQUE MARANHÃO, JERONYMO D', 1548-1618, a Brazilian soldier, son of the preceding; became a leader in expeditions against the Indians, and in 1599 explored and conquered the Rio Grande del Norte; retook Maranhão from the French, June 17, 1614, afterward becoming captain-general of that province.

ALBURNUM OR SAP-WOOD, is the lightercolored, more recently formed part of the wood of dicotyledonous trees, which lies next to the bark. The older part (duramen) is denser, and often colored. The alburnum is the region of the "transpiration current;" that is, the current

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