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which passes from the absorbing roots to the participated in the successful expedition of the transpiring leaves, and is loosely referred to as Epigoni against Thebes. For having slain his the “ascent of the sap.” The duramen is out-mother, Eriphyle, he was pursued and driven to side the circle of plant-activity, having become madness by the Furies. compact and hardened. It is, however, the more ALCO, a small domesticated wild dog of Peru valuable for building and other purposes.

The and Chile. Its very small head, and large, penalburnum is of a pale color in all woods, even in dulous ears are its most striking characteristics.

in layer

pp. 81, 82.


don in 1809. He studied medicine there, at King's ALCAÑIZ, a walled town of Aragon, Spain. College, and served three years on the medical It stands upon the right bank of the Guadalupe staff of the British auxiliaries in Portugal and river, 12 miles below its junction with the Ebro. Spain. In 1844 he was sent out as a British conSaragossa is 56 miles N.W. of it, and the nearest sul to China, in 1858 made consul-general in railway point is 18 miles away in the same direc-Japan, and the next year received the rank of tion. There is a magnificent collegiate church minister plenipotentiary. He filled this post until here. Population, 7,800.

1865, from which time until 1871 he was envoy to ALCATRAZ, an island in the bay, 3 miles N. the Chinese government.

He was made a C.B. of the city of San Francisco, California. There is in 1860, a K.C. B. in 1862, a D.C.L. of Oxford in a lighthouse upon the island, and a fortified post 1863, and president of the Royal Geographical which commands the entrance of the Golden Gate Society in 1876. Among his works are The and is used as a military prison.

Capital of the Tycoon ; and Art and Art Industries ALCEDINIDÆ OR ALCEDIDÆ, a family of in Japan. He died Nov. 2, 1897. birds composed of the true kingfishers, which ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES are any liquids are remarkable for their fish-eating habits. The containing a proportion of alcohol and used as name Halcyonida, found in some works, is equiva- beverages by mankind. They are classified as lent to the above. See KINGFISHER, Vol. XIV, follows: Malt liquors, beverages which are pre

pared by the fermentation of malted grain, and ALCESTER, FREDERICK BEAUCHAMP Paget | include beer, ale and porter. In malt liquors the SEYMOUR, BARON, son of Sir Horace Beauchamp percentage of alcohol varies from 1.5 to 9 per Seymour, was born in London, April 12, 1821. cent. —Fermented liquors, those which are prepared Having studied at Eton, he entered the royal by the fermentation of the juices of fruit, and navy in 1834. Successive promotion finally include wines properly so called, cider, and fruit brought him the rank of rear-admiral, which he wines prepared from other

wines prepared from other than grape juice. attained in 1870. Six years later he became a Wines restricted to the product of the grape convice-admiral and in 1882 was made an admiral. tain 7.77 to 20.2 per cent of alcohol, and other He was severely wounded during an engagement fermented fruit beverages from 2 to 7 per cent.of the naval brigade in New Zealand in 1860. Distilled liquors, prepared by the distillation of From 1870 to 1877 he was successively commander fermented saccharine liquid. To this class belong of the detached squadron, lord of the admiralty, ardent spirits, such as brandies, rum, whisky, and commander of the channel squadron. In etc. The percentage of alcohol in ardent spirits the latter year he was made a K.C. B. His considerably exceeds that in wine, varying in most distinguished services were rendered during spirits from 45 to 55, and in liquors from 33.9 to 1882, when, as commander-in-chief of the Medi- 58.93 per cent. terranean fleet or squadron, he took a foremost ALCOHOLISM. See DRUNKENNESS, Vol. VII, part in the Egyptian operations. On the uth of p. 481. July, Arabi Pasha having refused to comply with ALCOHOLOMETRY is the process of estimathis demand that the erection of defensive works ing the percentage of absolute alcohol in a sambefore Alexandria should cease, he bombarded ple of spirits. The usual method, if only alcohol and utterly destroyed the forts at that point and water are contained, is to determine the In recognition of this service Parliament voted specific gravity of the spirits. Adulterated spirits Admiral Seymour a reward of $100,000 and ele- must be distilled before this test is made. Tables vated him to the peerage, with the title of Baron showing the percentage of alcohol corresponding Alcester of Alcester. He retired from the navy to variations of gravity have been prepared on the in April, 1886, and died on the 30th of March, basis of the specific gravity of absolute alcohol at 1895, at his home in London.

60° being ·7938, and of water 1. ALCIDÆ OR ALCADÆ, a group of birds which ALCORA, a Spanish trading-town in the provincludes the auk, found in northern seas. See ince of Castellon, 42 miles N. of Valencia. A AUK, Vol. 3, p. 85.

railroad skirting the Mediterranean coast is 13 ALCIDAMAS, a Greek rhetorician who flour- miles to the east. It has a large export trade in ished in Athens in the fifth century B.C. He fruit. Population, 3,827. was a pupil of Gorgias and a famous teacher of ALCORAN OR KORAN. See MOHAMMEDANISM, elocution. He was a native of Elæa, Asia Minor. Vol. XVI, pp. 597-606; and for its theology, see Against the Sophists is the better known of his two Vol. XXIII, p. 242. Alcoran is also the name of extant orations.

a sort of steeple upon mosques and other oriental ALCMÆON, a hero of Greek mythology who buildings.

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ALCORN, JAMES Lusk, an American Senator, geographies and atlases. Mr. Alcott published was born in Illinois, Nov. 4, 1816, and educated | The House I Live in; The Young Man's Guide; The in Kentucky, where he was elected to the state Young Housekeeper; and many pamphlets on reform legislature in 1843. He practiced law in Missis- in education and moral and physical training. sippi, and served in the legislature for about 20 He died in Auburndale, Massachusetts, March years. At the close of the war, he was elected 29, 1859. United States Senator, but was not allowed to sit. ALCYONARIA, an order of the corals; q.v.,

' He was governor of Mississippi in 1869–71, and Vol. VI, p. 384. United States Senator in 1871–77; was the founder ALCYONIUM OR DEAD MEN'S FINGERS, of the levee system of Mississippi, and of the a genus of cælenterates belonging to the coral State Agricultural and Mechanical College for polyps (Anthozoa). The colonies of this polyp colored youth, which bears his name. He died are often found as soft, branching masses incrustin Eagle Nest, Mississippi, Dec. 20, 1894.

ing foreign bodies. The red coral, sea-fans, and ALCOTT, Amos Bronson, American educator sea-pens belong to the same order. See CORALS, and transcendental philosopher; born in Wolcott, Vol. VI, pp. 384, 386. Connecticut, Nov. 29, 1799. In 1823 he started an ALDEGONDE, SAINTE. See HOLLAND, Vol. infant school in Wolcott, and in 1828 established XII, pp. 92–93. another in Boston. He taught by conversation ALDEHYDES. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, p. 567. instead of by books, and his methods attracted ALDEN, EDMUND KIMBALL, a Congregational considerable attention and criticism. Mr. Alcott minister, was born at Randolph, Massachusetts, finally gave up his school for the lecture platform. April 11, 1825. Since 1876 he has been the secreHe visited Europe, and made many friends. On tary of the American Board of Commissioners for his return, he led the life of a peripatetic philoso- Foreign Missions, in which capacity he has travelpher, conducting “conversations” on a wide range ed and lectured extensively. He is an alumnus of practical questions. He published, after his of Amherst College and of Andover Theological seventieth birthday, Tablets; Concord Days; Table Seminary. Talk; and Sonnets and Canzonets. He was one of ALDEN, HENRY Mills, an American author, the most prominent contributors to The Dial. and the editor of Harper's Magazine, was born at Mr. Alcott was attacked with apoplexy, Oct. 24, Mt. Tabor, Vermont, Nov. 11, 1836. In 1857 he 1882, and died at his home in Concord, Massa- was graduated from Williams College, and three chusetts, March 4, 1888.

years later from Andover Theological Seminary. ALCOTT, Louisa May, American authoress, He has been the principal editor of Harper's daughter of Amos Bronson Alcott, was born at Ger- Magazine since 1869. His Study of Death is con

mantown, Pennsylvania, sidered superior to his other writings.
Nov. 29, 1832; was for ALDEN, JAMES, rear-admiral in the United
some years a teacher, but States navy, was born in Portland, Maine, March
began to write at an early 31, 1810. He died in San Francisco, California,

, age, and published her Feb. 6, 1877. From 1838 to 1842 he accompanied, first book, Flower Fables, as a midshipman, the Wilkes expedition around in 1855.

Her life as a the world, and during the war with Mexico he volunteer hospital nurse served as a lieutenant. At the outbreak of during the Civil War fur- | the Civil War, Alden was in command of the nished material for her steamer South Carolina, and later commanded the Hospital Sketches (1865), sloop-of-war Richmond at the passage of Forts and supplied a back- | Jackson and St. Philip, and at the taking of New

ground for several of her Orleans in April, 1862. Two years later he partales. She had written for the Atlantic Monthly ticipated in the capture of Mobile Bay, being in and published several books before the appear- command of the Brooklyn. He had become a ance of her greatest success, Little Women (1868). captain in 1863. In 1866 he was promoted to be She published a second part (1869), followed by a commodore, and five years later he was made Little Men (1871), with its sequel, Jo's Boys (1886). rear-admiral and placed in command of the EuroAmong her numerous other works are An Old- pean squadron. Fashioned Girl (1869); Under the Lilacs (1878); and ALDEN, John, the youngest of the “Pilgrim An Old-Fashioned Thanksgiving (1882). Few writers Fathers," and said to have been the first to set have been more popular with children than Miss foot upon Plymouth Rock when the Mayflower Alcott, and her stories are valuable, as giving made land on Dec. 21, 1620. He was a cooper insight into the more wholesome side of child-life of Southampton, born in 1599. The year after the and child-ways in the United States. She died landing of the Pilgrims in New England he maron March 6, 1888, only two days after the death ried Priscilla Mullens. He became, by his wisof her father.

dom and uprightness, the chief officer of the ALCOTT, William ALEXANDER, American au- colony. He died at Duxbury, Massachusetts, thor, born in Wolcott, Connecticut, Aug. 6, 1798. September, 1686. His courtship has been celeHe studied medicine at Yale, and practiced for brated by the poet Longfellow, and is the subseveral years before he associated himself with ject of the fine statuette: Speak for Yourself, John, William Woodbridge in the preparation of school by the sculptor Rogers.



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ALDEN, JOSEPH, an American educator; born | York counting-house he began to contribute in Cairo, New York, Jan. 4, 1807. He was gradu- verse to the newspapers, and soon after the publiated at Union College in 1829, became pastor of cation of The Bells (1855), the Congregational Church at Williamstown, adopted journalism as a Massachusetts, then professor in Williams Col- profession, and was editlege, later president of Jefferson College, and or of the Atlantic Monthly from 1867 to 1872 president of the New York from 1881 until 1892. State Normal School at Albany. He was a pro- | Among his novels are lific writer, and published more than seventy vol. Daisy's Necklace; Story of umes, the best known of which are The Example of a Bad Boy; Marjory Daw; Washington; The Science of Government; Citizen's Prudence Palfrey; Queen Manual ; and First Steps in Political Economy. He of Sheba ; Stillwater Tradied in New York City, Aug. 30, 1885.

gedy. In 1874 he pubALDEN, William LIVINGSTON, American au- lished a selection of his thor, was born in Virginia on the oth of October, poems under the title 1837. From early youth he was an enthusiastic Cloth of Gold, and other devotee of canoeing, and it was he who practically | Poems, and in 1881 his popular XXXVI Lyrics and introduced this sport into the United States. XII Sonnets. Through his prose, Aldrich has After graduation from Washington and Jefferson taken a high place for descriptive power and gift College in 1858, he founded the Canoe Club of of humor. His verse is noted for its metrical New York City and began to write stories for perfection and dainty thought. He is among the boys. He became the humorous editorial writer best composers of vers de société. of the New York Times, and was one of the editors ALDRIDGE, IRA, American negro tragedian of The Idler. In 1885 Mr. Alden was appointed brought out by the actor Edmund Kean, and after

. consul-general at Rome. After his service there, ward known as the “African Roscius.” Some he removed to London, where he has since re- biographers claim that he was born at Belair, near mained and been a frequent contributor to Eng. Baltimore, about 1810, while others say, probably lish magazines. His best-known stories for on better authority, that he was born in New boys are Toby Tyler; The Moral Pirates; Life of York City about 1805. They all agree that as a Columbus; and Cruise of the Canoe Club.

boy he had a passion for the stage, and that when ALDENHOVEN, an historic town in the Rhine he made his debut in London at the Royalty province of southeastern Prussia. It is 13 miles Theatre as Othello he met with immediate sucN. of Aix-la-Chapelle, with which it is con- cess. He appeared in various countries, and nected by rail. On the ist of March, 1793, everywhere was received with enthusiasm,-honit was the scene of an important victory won by ors being conferred on him by nearly all the the Austrians over the French, but upon the 2d crowned heads of Europe. Aldridge was an honof October of the following year 85,000 French orary member of numerous academies of art. He under Jourdan defeated upon the same ground died in Lodz, Poland, Aug. 7, 1867, leaving a 70,000 Austrians commanded by Clairfait. Pop-widow, an English lady, in London. ulation of the town, 1,200.

ALECSANDRESCU, GRIGORIE, Rumanian ALDINE EDITIONS. See MANUTIUS, Vol. poet, was born in 1812 at Tirgovesti in Wallachia, XV, pp. 512-514.

and died at Bucharest in 1886. His best-known ALDRICH, Henry, born at Westminster, Eng- work, The Year 1840, was written in a convent land, in 1647, and died at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1710. in which he was detained for political reasons. He was canon of Christ Church, Oxford, in 1682, In 1859, while the Liberal party was in power, he and dean in 1689; was the designer of the Peck- was for a few months minister of finance. An water Quadrangle, and wrote Hark, the Bonny edition of his collected poems and fables appeared Christ Church Bells. But he is less remembered in 1863. as an architect or a composer than as the author ALECSANDRI, Vasilio. See ALEXANDRI, in of the Artis Logicæ Compendium (1691), of which a these Supplements. new edition appeared in 1862, and which before ALECTORIDES, a so-called order of birds, 1826 was very largely used in English colleges. considered by many authors as corresponding with He was considered in his time one of the foremost the super-family Gruioidea. The group is comdefenders of Protestantism.

posed of the cranes, the rails, and allied forms. ALDRICH, NELSON WILMARTH, born in Fos- ALECTOROMORPHÆ, a group of birds now ter, Rhode Island, Nov. 6, 1841; served in the restricted to the two sub-orders, Alectoropodes, constate general assembly in 1875–76; in the latter taining the fowls proper, and the Seristeropodes, year was speaker of the house of representatives, containing the curassows and mound-birds. and was elected to Congress for 1878–80. In ALECTOROPODES, one of the two sub-orders 1881 he was elected to the United States Sen- of alectoromorphous birds, containing the pheasate as a Republican to succeed General Burnside, ant, guinea-fowl, grouse, turkey, quail, partridge and was re-elected for 1887-99.

and all true fowls. ALDRICH, THOMAS BAILEY, an American poet ALEDO, county seat of Mercer County, northand novelist, was born at Portsmouth, New Hamp-western Illinois, 14 miles E. of the Mississippi shire, Nov. II, 1836. While engaged in a New River, on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy


I 20


railway, and 22 miles S. of Rock Island. Coal- of Hesse. He now vigorously applied himself mines are found extensively in this region. Pop- to his duties as chancellor of the University ulation 1880, 1,492; 1890, 1,601.

of Finland, and became popular with the Finns. ALEMAN, MATEO, a Spanish novelist; born On his accession to the throne, March 2, 1855, he about the middle of the sixteenth century at found himself in a critical position. He had two Seville, and died in Mexico in 1610. For many parties to conciliate,—the old Muscovite party, years the finances of Philip II were in his care. zealous for the prosecution of the Crimean War, He was author of several works, one of which, and the more peaceable portion of the nation, Guzman de Alfarache, published at Madrid in sympathizing with the latter. By temporizing he 1599, ran through 26 editions, consisting of not was enabled to conclude a peace. Throughout less than 50,000 copies, in six years.

See SPAIN, his reign he had to hold the balance between conVol. XXII, p. 357.

servatives and extreme radicals, but succeeded in ALENCAR, JOSÉ MARTINIANO D', the “Bra- promoting reform. The grand achievement of

, zilian Cooper,

wrote many romances of colonial his reign, which was in great measure his own and Indian life, and stories of Rio de Janeiro deed, was the emancipation of the 23,000,000 serfs society. Of the former, Iracema and O Guarany in 1861. Reforms of the tribunals of civil and may be taken as typical, and of the latter, Senhora, criminal procedure and of municipal institutions Diva and Luciola. He was born in Ceará, May 1, followed, the years 1861–67 being considered the 1829, and died at Rio de Janeiro, Dec. 12, 1877. most progressive in Russian history. In 1865 ALESIA, See CÆSAR, Vol. IV, p. 637.

Alexander established elective representative asALESIUS, ALEXANDER. Same as ALES, Vol. I, semblies in the provinces. He resisted strenup. 478.

ously all foreign interference with Polish affairs ALETSCH, the largest glacier in Europe, 122during the insurrection of 1863, which was severely miles in length, sweeps round the southern side of suppressed. During his reign the Russian empire the Jungfrau, and passes down the valley in a was widely extended in the Caucasus and in cenmajestic curve. It has two tributary glaciers, the tral Asia. The capture of Schamyl, the famous Upper and Middle Aletsch, which branch off to Lesghian chief, in 1859, closed the long struggle

, the northwest. At its eastern extremity there is with the tribes of that country. In 1864 Russia a blue mountain lake, the Merjelen-See; and to began a decided advance against the khanates of the northwest lies the Aletschhorn, the second central Asia, and in a few years reduced them to highest peak of the Bernese Alps.

partial subjection. During the Franco-German ALEURONE. See BOTANY, Vol. IV, p. 88. war of 1870–71, Alexander maintained a sympaALEUTS. See ALASKA, in these Supplements. thetic attitude toward Germany; a policy which

ALEWIFE, a North American sea-fish (Clupea was continued and extended in subsequent allivernalis): During the spawning-season (April and ances, both with that country and Austria. .

The May) it is very abundant in the rivers of the East- czar shared the national sympathy with the Slavic ern coast. After spawning, it returns to the sea. races under Turkish rule, and took the field durIt resembles the shad, but is not so valuable, ing the war between Russia and Turkey in 1877–78. economically.

The most remarkable feature of the second half ALEXANDER I (OBRENOVITCH), king of Ser- of his reign was the struggle of the Russian auvia, was born on Aug. 14, 1876, and succeeded tocracy with the revolutionary party called Nihilhis father, the ex-King Milan, who abdicated in Like his grandfather, Alexander I, he was favor of the son, March 6, 1889, after divorcing a liberal and humane monarch, but could not keep his consort, Queen Natalie. Until 1893 he gov- pace with the more forward portions of his suberned through two regents, then, being in his jects, hence the reactionary tendency of many of seventeenth year, he took the royal authority into his later easures. His government repressed the his own hands. When crown prince he accom- revolutionists severely, and they sought vengeance panied his mother, Queen Natalie, into exile, after by attacking the persons of the czar and of his offiher separation from the king, but was forcibly cers. Repeated attempts were made to assassiremoved from her at Berlin and conveyed back to nate Alexander. In 1879 he was shot at in his Belgrade.

capital; in the same year the train in which he ALEXANDER II (ALEXANDER NICOLAE- was supposed to be traveling was blown up by an VICH ROMANOFF), emperor of Russia, was born elaborate mine beneath the railway; in 1880 a April 29, 1818. He was carefully educated by destructive explosion was effected by dynamite his father, Nicholas, who professed himself de placed beneath the imperial apartments in the lighted with the manifestations of “true Russian Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. On March 13, spirit” in his son. At 16 he was declared of 1881, he was injured by a bomb thrown at him age, made commandant of the Lancers of the while riding in a sleigh near his palace, and died Guard and first aide-de-camp of the emperor, and within two hours afterward. subjected daily to a life of maneuvering, review- ALEXANDER III, late emperor of Russia, ing and military parade, which at last seriously succeeded to the throne on the murder of his injured his health. He then traveled through father by Nihilist conspirators on March 13, 1881. Germany to recruit his energies, and while there He was born on March 10, 1845. For some time in 1841 concluded a marriage with the Princ- after his elevation he lived in close retirement at ess Marie (1824-80), daughter of the Grand Duke Gatschina, being in dread of Nihilists. His corona

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tion took place at Moscow, May 27, 1883. He had | Princeton Theological Seminary, he was ordained

| married, in 1866, Mary Fèodorovna (formerly in 1870 pastor of a Presbyterian church at Sche

Mary Sophia Frederica nectady, New York, where he remained until 1883,
Dagmar), daughter of acting, during the last six years of that pastorate,
Christian IX, King of as professor of logic at his alma mater. . Since
Denmark, and sister of 1884 he has been pastor of the University Place
the Princess of Wales and Presbyterian Church, New York City, and has
the King of Greece. He conducted extensive missionary-work in the tene-
strenuously opposed the ment-house districts of that city.
ultra-conservative policy ALEXANDER, GEORGE, an English actor, was
which his father followed born at Reading in June, 1858, and, after some
in his later years, and in years' stage experience in the country, was brought
1879 came into open rup- to London by Sir Henry Irving, and appeared at
ture with him. The the Lyceum in The Two Roses ; toured in America

czar suppressed Nihil. with Mr. Irving in 1884–85. In 1890 he underALEXANDER III.

ism, developed the mili- took the management of St. James Theatre, Lontary power of Russia, organized her Asiatic and don, where he has had much success. Caucasian provinces, and kept constant watch ALEXANDER, JAMES WADDELL, Presbyterian over India and Constantinople.

minister, son of Archibald Alexander (q.v.), was The reign of Alexander III was comparatively born March 13, 1804, at Gordonsville, Virginia. uneventful. In November, 1887, he made a pub- In 1820 he graduated from Princeton College, and lic entrance into Berlin on the occasion of a visit later from the theological seminary at the same to Emperor William I. In 1892 he had a meet- | place. After holding various pastorates in Viring with William II. During his reign the ginia and New Jersey, he returned to Princeton Dreikaiserbund (Austria, Germany and Russia) in 1853 as professor of rhetoric.

From 1851 was perfected. He was known to be truly de- until his death he was pastor of the Fifth Avenue voted to peace, and only his strong purpose held Presbyterian Church, New York City; published Russia back from war in more than one inter- Discourses on Christian Faith and Practice; Sacranational contention. He also devoted himself to mental Discourses; and many others of a similar the reform of state abuses and the extension of nature, besides being an extensive contributor to popular rights, though during 1892 he was guilty the Princeton Review. He died at Red Sweet of directing a harsh edict against his Jewish sub- Springs, Virginia, July 31, 1859. jects. In his personal and domestic relations the ALEXANDER, JOHN Henry, mathematician czar was a high-minded gentleman. Attempts to and physicist; born at Annapolis, Maryland, June take his life were made in 1887 by the Nihilist 26, 1812; died in Baltimore, March 2, 1867. He societies, and in October, 1888, he and his family was professor of physics at the University of narrowly escaped death in an accident upon the Pennsylvania and at the University of Maryland; Transcaspian railway. His death took place at published History of the Metallurgy of Iron; UniLivadia, in the Crimea, Nov. 1, 1894, his eldest versal Dictionary of Weights and Measures; and other son becoming czar as Nicholas II.

works. ALEXANDER, ARCHIBALD, was born near ALEXANDER, STEPHEN, astronomer, born in Lexington, Virginia, April 17, 1772; died at Schenectady, New York, Sept. 1, 1806; died at Princeton, New Jersey, Oct. 22, 1851. He be- Princeton, New Jersey, June 25, 1883. From 1845 came a Presbyterian minister; was president of to 1878 he occupied in turn the professorships of Hampton-Sidney college from 1796 to 1807, and mathematics and of astronomy and mechanics at in 1812 was elected the st professor of Prince - Princeton. In 1860 he conducted an expedition ton Theological Seminary, which had just been to Labrador for the purpose of observing a solar founded. He wrote extensively for the Princeton eclipse. He has published Physical Phenomena AtReview, and published theological treatises. tendant Upon Solar Eclipses; Fundamental Principles

ALEXANDER, EDMUND BROOKE, American of Mathematics; and numerous papers. soldier, was born in Haymarket, Virginia, Oct. ALEXANDER, WILLIAM, called “Lord Stir2, 1802; died at Washington, District of Columbia, ling," soldier, born in New York City, in 1726; died Jan. 3, 1888. After graduation from the United in Albany, New York, Jan. 15, 1783. In 1757 he States Military Academy in 1823, and twenty years' prosecuted his claim to the earldom of Stirling service at the frontier, he won, in the Mexican before the British House of Lords, but without War, major's and lieutenant-colonel's brevets. success. Soon afterward he became surveyorDuring the Civil War he was posted at St. Louis as general and member of the provincial council. provost-marshal and superintendent of the vol. At the beginning of the Revolution he assumed unteer recruiting service; was made brevet brig- the cause of the patriots, and as colonel of the batadier-general March 13, 1865, and commanded his talion of East Jersey captured an armed British regiment at Fort Snelling until his retirement in transport, for which exploit Congress, in March, 1869.

1776, appointed him brigadier-general. At the ALEXANDER, GEORGE, a Presbyterian clergy- battle of Long Island, Aug. 26, 1776, his brigade man, born at West Charlton, New York, Oct. 12, was nearly destroyed, and he himself taken prison1843. After graduating from Union College and Within the same year he was exchanged,



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