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the impurities in the sugar. The syrup is then fil. is gelatine, or glue, and more than one half is in the tered through bone-black, another product of the form of phosphates of lime and magnesia, which, slaughter-house, being made of calcined bones. The for its soluble phosphoric acid, is sold as a fertilinferior qualities of blood are employed in the man- izer. There is also made with particular care a ufacture of buttons, being pressed into shape by hy- form of gelatine used by brewers to clarify beer. draulic machinery. Imitation tortoise-shell articles The hair collected in these operations is not of are also composed largely of blood. Defibrinated uniform value. That which comes from the interior blood is now extensively used as a medicine, where of the ears is very fine and is plucked out before all the blood lacks the red corpuscles. The blood of else, and after being properly treated is used for an average ox will weigh about 40 pounds, and making “camel’s”-hair pencils, which are sold at a the amount realized from the sale of blood by the low price and used for a multitude of purposes. The slaughter-houses averages from $35 to $45 per ton. feet, after being freed from the horny covering, serve

Other workmen in succession cut off the animal's for the manufacture of a kind of oil used for dresshead, skin the legs and cut them off, split and re- ing leather, the horn substance being manufactured move the skin, when it is conveyed to another gang, into combs, buttons, etc. The horns of the ox serve who prepare it for conversion into leather. Others for a multitude of purposes.

They can be made seize the internal portions of the animal, separate supple, be split into thin plates and pressed in heated the parts which are to go to the different rooms as molds into divers forms and receive various colors, food, from those which enter into the composition thus imitating closely the highest priced tortoiseof fertilizers, and those to be converted into oil, shell. They can also be made into umbrella-hanthence into margarine or butterine. During these dles, knife-handles, tobacco-boxes, goblets, napkinoperations water flows in abundance along the floor, rings, etc. The comparative scarcity of whalebone composed of gutters and containing numerous has called attention to this product, which in a apertures. Through these the water, charged with measure replaces it. detritus of all sorts, runs into reservoirs, from which The different uses of bones are increasing. For the solid parts are taken and mixed with fertilizers, knife-handles and kindred service they have long after being first dried and pressed. Po ous to the been utilized, and, as stated herein, are now made removal of these solids from the vats the water is into bone charcoal, fertilizer, glue and gelatine, and skimmed, and the fat and particles of meat sold to different chemical substances. the manufacturers of soap, candles and axle-grease. The hair removed in the process of making glue The water is then evaporated to preserve whatever is burned in a closed vessel, and serves in the manuelse may remain, and the residue mixed with fertil- facture of ammonia, which is used for making artiizers, the final asylum of all that cannot be other- ficial ice in breweries, cold-storage warehouses, etc. wise utilized. The edibility of the stomach in the Even the undigested food found in the stomach form of tripe is well known. The bladder is dried of the ox is utilized, one purpose to which it is put and sold to druggists and snuff-makers, while brew- being the manufacture of strawboard. When it is ers and gold-beaters secure certain of the intestines, a mixture of hay and Indian corn it is compressed which are prepared especially for them. Brewers and dried, and then forms a food known by the name use one intestine, about seven or eight cèntimeters of “Texas Nut.” in diameter and about forty in length, to line pipes, The bile, under the name of ox-gall, is used in so as to prevent the beer's contact with the metal. | painting, in cleaning and in bookbinding. The The intestines are glued end to end until sufficient stomach of the young calf furnishes the rennet used length is secured for the desired purpose. Gold-beat- | to curdle milk for cheese, and pepsin is also obtained ers use the intestine as a receptacle for the sheets of from the same source. The most convenient and gold already beaten to a film, but when placed be- abundant source of pepsin, however, is the stomach tween sheets of this parchment-like substance, as it of the hog, from which the greater part of this inediis when dried and prepared, they reduce the gold to cal product, now much used, is obtained. a thickness estimated at one ten-millionth of a mil- The by-products of the hog, sheep, calf and other limeter. One of the membranes of the large intes- animals are as closely and economically utilized as tine of the ox is used by surgeons in closing wounds those of the ox, and absolutely nothing is allowed and in making plasters. Other uses, as casings for to go to waste. sausage, etc., are well known. The paring of the The importance of beef extract as an article of skin, the ears, a portion of the tail, the feet, the muz- commerce may be realized when it is stated that one zle, the bones that cannot be otherwise employed, firm in Chicago manufactured three hundred thousuch as those of the skull and jaws, the interior of sand pounds of this article in 1895. the horns, are all employed for the manufacture of Among articles manufactured for medicinal use glue and gelatine. The latter is the same product from the products of animals may be mentioned as the former, but more carefully made of selected pancreatin, pepsin, peptone, thyroids, and, as menmaterials. In using the parts named for the above tioned herein, defibrinated blood and beef extract. purpose they are first depilated by the use of lime, ABBATUCCI, CARLO, OR CHARLES, a French which is afterward neutralized by sulphuric acid and general, son of G. P. Abbatucci; served with distincthe mass separated from impurities by washing. tion in the campaigns of the French army of the Where bones are employed for the manufacture of Rhine, 1794-96. Born 1771; killed in battle Dec. gelatine they are first treated with hydrochloric acid.

2, 1796. About one third of the osseous substance thus formed ABBATUCCI, CHARLES a counselor of state un

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der Napoleon III. In June, 1872, he was elected to of France at Abbeville, May 20, 1259, to conduct ,

, the National Assembly. Born 1816; died 1885. negotiations for a treaty of peace, by which Henry

ABBATUCCI, Giacomo PIETRO, or JACQUES relinquished his claims to Anjou, Poitou, Normandy, PIERRE, a Corsican partisan commander who be- Touraine and Maine, and acknowledged his tenure came a general of division in the French service in of Guienne as a fief of France. The final terms of Italy under Napoleon. Born 1726; died 312. the treaty were settled in Paris.

ABBATUCCI, JACQUES PIERRE CHARLES, a ABBEY, Edwin Austin, American artist, born in French jurist and politician, grandson of G. P. Ab- Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 1, 1852. He batucci. He was at one time (1852) appointed min studied at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, ister of justice by Louis Napoleon. Born 1792; and later devoted himself to drawing illustrations died 1857

for books and magazines. In 1875 he took up ABBE, CLEVELAND, an American meteorologist water-color work, and in 1883 removed to London, and astronomer; born in New York City, Dec. 3, where his studio now is. Among his notable pic1838. He was graduated at the New York Free tures are The Stage Office, The Evil Eye, Lady in a Academy; taught mathematics in Trinity Latin Garden, Rose in October, and The Widower. Mr. School, and then studied astronomy under Brünow, Abbey is a member of the New York Water-Color Gould and Struvé. In 1868 he was elected director Society, of the New York Etching Club, of the Tile of the Cincinnati Observatory, and inaugurated a Club, and of the London Institute of Water-Colors. system of daily meteorological reports by telegraph, In 1896 he was made an associate of the Royal with weather predictions. Its success led Congress Academy in London.

Its success led Congress Academy in London. His picture, Richard Duke, to direct the Secretary of War to provide for taking of Gloucester, and the Lady Anne, was the success of meteorological observations at military posts, with the year 1896 in the English Royal Academy Exhithe design of giving warning of any approach of bition. storms. In 1871 Abbe was appointed meteorologist ABBEY, HENRY E., an American theatrical manof the new Weather Bureau at Washington, under A. ager, was born in Akron, Ohio, in 1848. He comJ. Myer. As it was his duty to prepare “probabili- menced his managerial career in 1870, and acted as ties,” Professor Abbe became popularly known as manager for Patti, Sara Bernhardt, Mrs. Langtry, “Old Probabilities," and under his direction the Sir Henry Irving, and others. He died in New service reached a high degree of efficiency. He has York City, Oct. 17, 1896. written for numerous periodicals, cyclopædias, and ABBEY, RICHARD, an American Methodist clergybooks of reference on astronomical and meteoro- man and author; born in Genesee County, New York, logical subjects.

Nov. 16, 1805. Removed to Natchez, Miss., 1825, ABBETT, LEON, governor of New Jersey, was and in 1844 joined the Mississippi conference of the born in Philadelphia, Oct. 8, 1836. He removed to Methodist Episcopal Church South. He is the New Jersey in early life, and for many years was a author of several religious books, among which are member of the New Jersey and New York bars. He The End of the Apostolic Succession, Creeds for All early entered politics, and served three terms as a Men, The Church and the Ministry, and The City of member of the New Jersey legislature, subsequently God and the Church-Makers. He was also a frequent becoming state senator, and for three years was contributor to religious papers and reviews. president of the senate. In 1883, and again in ABBEYVILLE, capital of Wilcox County, in 1889, he was elected governor of New Jersey, and south-central Georgia, is a town on the Ockmulgee was twice an unsuccessful candidate for the United River, at the point where the Georgia and Alabama States Senate. In 1893 he was appointed a justice railroad joins a branch railway to Waycross. It is of the New Jersey supreme court by his successor, 130 miles W. of Savannah. Population of township Governor George T. Werts. Died Dec. 4, 1894. in 1890, 1,332.

ABBEVILLE, capital of Henry County, in the ABBITIBBI, a lake, river and trading-station in southeast part of Alabama, is a precinct and village the northeast of the province of Ontario, Canada, on a branch of the Yattayabba Creek, and is con- south of James Bay, into which the river empties. nected by a branch line with the Alabama Midland ABBON, THE CROOKED (Lat. Abbo Cernuus), a railroad. Population of the precinct in 1890, 1,826. Norman monk of St. Germain-des-Prés who wrote

ABBEVILLE, capital of Vermilion Parish, a Latin poem descriptive of the siege of Paris by Louisiana, is a district and town in the southern part the Normans (885-887). Died 923. of the state. It is connected by a branch line with ABBOT, BENJAMIN, LL.D., an eminent American New Iberia, on the Southern Pacific railroad, and is educator; born at Andover, Massachusetts, Sept. 17, also on Vermilion Bayou. It has a few manufac- 1762. Graduated at Harvard in 1788. For half a tures. Population in 1890, 2,737.

century he was principal of Phillips Academy at ABBEVILLE COURT HOUSE is the capital of Exeter, New Hampshire, and numbered among his Abbeville County, in the west-northwest part of South pupils Daniel Webster, Alexander H. Everett. EdCarolina. It is at the junction of the Georgia, ward Everett, Lewis Cass, Jared Sparks, George BanCarolina and Northern and the Southern railroads, croft, and others. Died Oct. 25, 1849. 107 miles N.W. of Columbia, and has manufactures ABBOT, Ezra, born in Jackson, Maine, April 28, of cotton-seed oil and fertilizers. Population of the 1819; died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, March 21, town in 1890, 1,696; of the township, 4,048.

1884. He studied at Phillips Exeter Academy, and ABBEVILLE TREATIES, so called because of afterward at Bowdoin College, where he graduated the meeting of Henry III of England and Louis IX at the age of 21. For many years he was engaged in

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tuition and in the preparation of books on Scriptural Sept. 26, 1802, and taught at Bowdoin College, at and theological subjects. In 1856 he was appointed Phillips Exeter Academy, and in Boston and Bevassistant librarian of Harvard College. That Uni- erly. He contributed to Worcester's Dictionary, and versity gave him the degree of D.D. in 1872, and was prominent among the advocates of the claims of Yale made him LL.D. in 1869. Dr. Abbot in 1872 Dr. Jackson as the discoverer of the use of ether as associated himself with the Divinity School at Cam- an anæsthetic. Died at Cambridge, Massachusetts, bridge, Massachusetts, as professor of New Testa- April 7, 1873.

. ment criticism, and held this position until his ABBOT, SAMUEL, an American merchant and death. As an exegetical and critical reviewer, his philanthropist; born at Andover, Massachusetts, Feb. views being those of a Unitarian, he became widely 25, 1732. He was one of the founders of the Andoknown. He published New Discussions of the Trin- ver Theological Seminary, to which he gave twenty ity, Literature of the Doctrine of a Future Life, and thousand dollars during his lifetime, and one hun

a various controversial works, but his most important dred thousand dollars at his death. Died April 12, production was The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel, 1812. published in 1880. He assisted in the revision of ABBOT OF MISRULE, a name given in Scotland the New Testament, as a member of the American during the middle ages to the master of revels. committee.

Also called the “Abbot of Unreason” and the “AbABBOT, FRANCIS ELLINGWOOD, American phi- bot of Fools.” losopher; born in Boston, Massachusetts, Nov. 6, ABBOTT, AUSTIN, an American lawyer and legal 1836. After graduating at Harvard College in 1859, writer, born in Boston, Dec. 18, 1831, the son of

, he studied theology and became a Unitarian clergy. Jacob Abbott. He was appointed dean of the faculty man. In 1870 he left the ministry, however, and of law of the University of the City of New York in edited The Index, a Boston journal of free thought. 1891, and is the author of several legal compilaHe has written much on metaphysical subjects, and tions. Died in New York, April 19, 1896. has published Scientific Theism and The Way Out of ABBOTT, BENJAMIN, an American Methodist Agnosticism.

clergyman, born on Long Island, New York, in ABBOT, HENRY LARCOM, an American military 1732. In his early youth he was apprenticed to a engineer, born at Beverly, Massachusetts, Aug. 13, hatter in Philadelphia, where he led a riotous exist1831, and educated at West Point. Before the

At the age 33 he came under the influence of Civil War he was engaged in the survey of the a Methodist preacher, and soon after himself began Pacific railroad and of the Mississippi Delta. He

to preach. Suspected, as the Methodists were, of was wounded at the battle of Bull Run, 1861; served disloyalty, he on one occasion preached to one hunin the Virginia peninsular campaign; topographical dred soldiers who had assembled to injure him, and engineer to Banks' expedition to New Orleans; com

so effectively as to persuade them to disperse. He manded the siege artillery before Richmond, Va., became an itinerant preacher and held services in 1864–65, and at the capture of Fort Fisher; attained New York, New Jersey, and Maryland. He died in the rank of brevet major-general of volunteers. Salem, New Jersey, Aug. 14, 1796. After the war he devoted himself to scientific pur

ABBOTT, BENJAMIN VAUGHAN, an American suits. He accompanied the eclipse expedition to lawyer and writer; born in Boston, June 4, 1830, Sicily in 1870; wrote on fortifications, river and har

the son of Jacob Abbott and the brother of Austin bor improvements , hydraulics, gun-foundries and and Lyman Abbott.

and Lyman Abbott. He was graduated at the Unisiege artillery; invented a submarine mine system versity of the City of New York, and after several used in the coast defenses of the United States; years of study began the practice of law in New wrote the article on the Mississippi River (see Vol.

York. He soon turned his attention to editing and XVI, pp. 518-21) in this ENCYCLOPÆDIA.

ABBOT, Joel, an American naval commander. compiling law reports and published several original

ABBOT, Joel, an American naval commander, treatises. In 1870 to 1873 he was a member of a was born at Westford, Massachusetts, Jan. 18, 1793. commission of three appointed to revise the United He entered the navy as midshipman, and was signal- States statutes. Among his works are Digest of officer of the President; was promoted for gallantry New York Statutes (1863; new ed. 1876); Digest of in connection with the naval campaign against the U. S. Court Reports and Acts of Congress (1875); British on Lake Champlain; commanded the cap- Law Dictionary (1879); National Digest (1884); and tured pirate vessel Mariana in 1818, and was pro-Patent Laws of all Nations (1886), besides working moted commander in 1838. He succeeded Com- with Austin on law text-books. He died in Brookmodore Perry as flag-officer of the expedition to lyn, Feb. 17, 1890. Japan. He rendered efficient service in the conduct ABBOTT, CHARLES, LORD TENTERDEN, an emiof our diplomatic relations with China, where he nent English jurist; born at Canterbury, Oct. 7, 1762, died, Dec. 14, 1855.

of humble parents. In 1802 he published a treatise ABBOT, JOEL, M.D., was born at Fairfield, Con- on the law relative to Merchant Ships and Seamen. In necticut, March 17, 1766, and removed to Georgia in 1816 he became one of the justices of the court of 1794, where he engaged in the practice of medicine.

common pleas. In 1818 he was knighted and beHe was a member of the Georgia legislature in 1809, came chief justice of the king's bench.

He was and United States Congressman 1816-25. He died raised to the peerage in 1827, and became one of at Washington, Georgia, Nov. 19, 1826.

the inost influential members of the House of Lords. ABBOT, JOSEPH Hale, an American lexicographer Died Nov. 4, 1832. and educator, was born at Wilton, New Hampshire, ABBOTT, CHARLES STUART AUBREY, THIRD LORD

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church, and of the "Apernet and the Husk (1879)


TENTERDEN, an English diplomatist; born in Lon- ABBOTT, JACOB, was born at Hallowell, Maine, don, Dec. 26, 1834. After considerable service in the Nov, 14, 1803; was professor of mathematics in Amforeign office, he acted as secretary to the joint herst College from 1825 till 1829, and was subsehigh commission at Washington in relation to the quently a Congregational pastor. In 1838 he began Alabama claims in 1871, and subsequently was the writing simple and popular works, mainly for the general agent of Great Britain in the conference on young, by which his name was widely known. His the claims. Lord Tenterden was appointed per- most popular work is The Young Christian, the manent under-secretary for foreign affairs in 1873, “memorial edition" of which contains a life by his and in 1878 was one of the royal commissioners at son. He published over 200 volumes, amongst which the Paris Exhibition. He died Sept. 22, 1882. are The Franconia Stories, 10 vols.; Histories for the

ABBOTT, EDWIN ABBOTT, D.D., theologian and Young, 19 vols.; Marco Paul's Adventures, 6 vols.; philologist, was born in London in 1838. After a bril- Harper's Story Books, 36 vols.; The Rollo Books, 36 liant career at St. John's, Cambridge, he obtained a vols.; Science for the Young, 4 vols.; American Hisfellowship, was master at King Edward's School, tories for Youth, 8 vols. He died at Farmington, Birmingham, and at Clifton College, and was for Maine, Oct. 31, 1879. 24 years head master of the City of London School, ABBOTT, JOHN JOSEPH CALDWELL, Canadian retiring in 1889 on a pension. He was select statesman, born at St. Andrews, Argenteuil County, preacher at both universities, and his sermons Canada East, March 12, 1821. He was educated at gave him a place in the front rank of the more lib- St. Andrews and McGill colleges, was admitted to eral theologians within the English Church. His the bar in 1847, and in 1859 he was elected as repview of Christianity he stated in Through Nature to resentative to the Canadian Assembly. He was Christ (1877). He was the author of Philochristus knighted and served as premier of the Dominion, , two romances of age of the

30, 1893. amplification of the view of Christianity contained torian, born at Brunswick, Maine, Sept. 18, 1805. in the preceding. In 1884 he published, in con- In 1825 he was graduated at Bowdoin College, junction with W. J. Rushbrooke, The Common Tra- studied theology, and continued his pastoral labors dition of the Synoptic Gospels, and he wrote the article until 1844, when he retired to devote himself to liton the Gospels, in this ENCYCLOPÆDIA, Vol. X, pp. erature. His principal works are Kings and Queens,

, 789-843. His well-known Shakespearean Grammar or Life in the Palace; The French Revolution of 1789; (1869) has been followed by several works of great The History of Napoleon Bonaparte; Napoleon at St. practical value on the teaching of English. Of Helena; The History of Napoleon III; A History more general interest are his Bacon and Essex of the Civil War in America; Romance of Spanish (1877) and Francis Bacon (1885). Among his later History; The History of Frederick the Second, called works are Philomythus (1891), and The Anglican Frederick the Great; histories of Austria, Russia, Career of Cardinal Newman (1892).

Spain and Italy; Lives of the Presidents; and PracABBOTT, Emma, an American operatic singer, tical Christianity. Many of his works have been born in Chicago, Illinois, Dec. 9, 1849. Atan early age translated into foreign languages. He died at Fair she exhibited some musical talent, and while singing Haven, Connecticut, June 17, 1877. at a parlor entertainment in Toledo, Ohio, attracted ABBOTT, Josiah GARDNER, an American jurist the notice of Clara Louise Kellogg, who took her to and politician, born at Chelmsford, Massachusetts, New York to complete her musical training. In Nov. 1, 1815; judge of the superior court for Suf1872 she was sent abroad by the congregation of the folk County, 1855-59; member of Congress, Rev. Dr. Chapin's church, studied in Paris and 1875-77. Died at Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts, Milan, and was befriended by the Baroness Solomon June 2, 1891. de Rothschild. In Paris she was secretly married to ABBOTT, LYMAN, D.D., American clergyman; Eugene Wetherell. Her first appearance was in The born at Roxbury, Massachusetts, Dec. 18, 1835, son Daughter of the Regiment, produced in London ; of Jacob Abbott; graduthen a refusal to appear in La Traviata caused some ated at the University of the

a sensation and met with the approval of her American City of New York; studied friends. From her first appearance her operatic law; ordained pastor of success was assured and unbroken. She survived her Congregational church, husband two years, and died in Salt Lake City, Jan. Terre Haute, Ind.; editor 5, 1891.

of Illustrated Christian ABBOTT, GORHAM DUMMER, an American edu- Weekly, 1871-76, and then cator; born at Hallowell, Maine, Sept. 3, 1807. He of The Christian Union graduated at Bowdoin College and studied theology (now The Outlook); sucat Andover; was ordained as a Congregational ceeded Mr. Beecher, of minister and became a teacher in New York city. whom he wrote a Life He established and conducted two educational insti- (1883), as pastor of Plymtutions for women, and was much occupied with bib-outh Church, Brooklyn, lical research. He is the author of Nathan Dicker- | 1888; wrote commentaries man; Mexico and the United States; and other works. on the first six books of the New Testament; assisted Died at South Natick, Massachusetts, July 31, on Conant's Dictionary of Religious Knowledge; and 1874.

published The Evolution of Christianity (1892).





ABBOTT, ROBERT OSBORNE, American surgeon; certain letters, preferably vowels, and bringing born in Pennsylvania in 1824. His entire life was together the first and last letters or elements. An given up to arduous labors in the military field and abbreviation may be made either by omitting certain hospital. He died in Brooklyn, New York, June 16, portions from the interior of the word or by cutting 1867, a victim of overwork.

off a part. A contraction is an abbreviation, but an ABBREVIATIONS AND CONTRACTIONS are abbreviation is not necessarily a contraction. The often made of words and phrases in common use. principal abbreviations in general use will be found As a general rule a contraction is made by omitting in the subjoined table.



Am. American.

Av. or Ave, Avenue.
Am. Assn. Sci. American Association Avoir. Avoirdupois.
A. or a Answer; Acre; Alto; Ac.

for the Advancement of
cepted (in commerce); Are

(in the metric system).

Amb. Ambassador. A.A.G. Assistant Adjutant-Gen A.M.D.G. To the greater glory of B. Bass (in music); Bay; Book, eral. God.

Baron; Boron; British. A.A.S.

Fellow of the American

America, American.



Amer. Phil. Soc. American Philo- | B.A. Bachelor of Arts. (See A.A.S.S. Member of the American

sophical Society.

Antiquarian Society.



Bachelor of


Arts; (see An. (Anno) In the year.
B.A.); Able-bodied sea- Anal. Analysis, Analytic.

Bap. or Bapt. Baptist.
Anat. Anatomical, Anatomy.

Bar. Barleycorn; Barley; BaAbbr. or Abbrev. Abbreviated, Ab- Anc. Ancient, Anciently.

Ang! Anglican.

Bart, or Bt. Baronet.
Abl. or abl, Ablative.
Ang.-Sax. Anglo-Saxon.

Bat., Batt., or Bn. Battalion.
Ann. Annales, Annals.


Barrel Bbls., Barrels. Abr. Abridged, Abridgment. Anon. Anonymous

B.C. Before Christ; Board of Abt. About. Ans. or ans. Answer.

Control; British ColumA.C. Before Christ.

bia. Ant. or Antiq. Antiquities, AntiAcad. Academy.

B.C.L. quarian.

Bachelor of Civil Law. Acad. Nat. Sci. Academy of Natural Anthrop. Anthropology, Anthropo- B.D.

Bachelor of Divinity. Science.


Bd. Bond; Bound.
Aor, or aor. Aorist,

In the year of our Lord.

Ad. or Adv. Adverb; Advertise | A.P. Associate Presbyterian.

Bds. Boards (bookbinding); ment. Ap.


A.D.C. Aide-de-Camp.
Apl. or Apr. April.

Be. (Beryllium) Glucinum. Adj. or adj. Adjective.

A.P.A. American Protective Asso- Beds. Bedfordshire. Adjt. Adjutant.


Benj. Benjamin.
Ad lib. or ad libit. At pleasure.


Berks. Berkshire.
Adm. Admiral, Admiralty. A poc Apocalypse, Apocrypha,


Bismuth. Admr. Administrator.


Bib. Biblical.
Admx. Administratrix.


Bibliog. Bibliography.
Adv. or adv. Advent; Advocate; Ad- Approx. Approximately.


Biography, Biographical. verb.

Aq. (Aqua) Water.

Biology, Biological.
Adv. or Ad. val. Ad valorem.

Arrive, Arrival; Arabic.

Bank; Book; Bark (a ves.
Advt. Advertisement.
A.R.A. Associate of the Royal

sel). Æ. or Æt. Of age.


B.LL. See LL.B.
Af, or A, fir. Firkin of Ale.
Arch. Architecture.


Af. or Afr. Africa, African.
Archæol. Archæology.

B.M. Bachelor of Medicine. A.G. Adjutant-General; Ac. Archd. Archdeacon.

B.M. or B. Mus. Bachelor of Music.
countant - General; At | Arith. Arithmetic, Arithmetical. B.O. Buyer's Option.
Ariz. Arizona.

Bor. Boron; Borough.
Ag. (Argentum) Silver.
Ark. Arkansas.


Botany, Botanical, Botan. Agl. Agricultural. Arm. Armenian, Armoric.

ist; Bought. A.G.S.S. American Geographical | Arr. Arrived, Arrivals.

Bp. Bishop. and Statistical Society. Art. or art. Article.

Br. or br. Bromine; Brig.
Agt. Agent.



Brigade, Brigadier. A. H. In the year of the Hegira, | AS., A-S., A.S., or A.Sax. Anglo


Britain, British. or flight of Mahomet.


Bro. Brother Bros., Brothers. A.H.M.S. American Home Mission- | A.S.A. American Statistical Asso

B.S. Bachelor of Surgery. ary Society.


B.Sc. Bachelor of Science.
Assn. Association.

Bucks. Buckinghamshire,
Ala. Alabama.
Asst. Assistant.


Ald. Alderman.
Astrol, Astrology, Astrological.

B.V.M. Blessed Virgin Mary. Alex. Alexander.

Astron. Astronomy,

Astronomi. Alg Algebra.

cal. Alt. Altitude,

Atty. Attorney. A.M. (Ante Meridiem) Before Atty.-Gen. Attorney-General.


Caius; Carbon; Church; - (Anno Mundi) | Au. (Aurum) Gold.


Congress; Consul; Cen. In the year of the A.U.C. From the year of the build

tigrade; Catholic; Cent; world. - (Ave Maria) ing of Rome.

Centime; A hundred;
Hail Mary.-See M.A.


A gallon.
A.M.A. American Missionary As. Auxl. Auxiliary.

C. or Cap. Chapter.
A.V. Authorized Version.

C. or cub, Cubic.


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