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and in February, 1777, was made a major-general. Great founded and named after him a great monWhen General Charles Lee marched to Phila-astery which stands at St. Petersburg, marking the delphia in December, 1776, Alexander remained spot where the duke gained his most famous vicin command at New York. At Trenton, New Jer-tory. sey, he captured a Hessian regiment. On June 24, ALEXANDER JOSEPH OF BATTENBERG, prince 1777, at Metuchen, his division was defeated, and of Battenberg and ex-prince of Bulgaria. His he lost two guns and 150 men. He fought credita- father, Prince Alexander of Battenberg (Hesse), bly at Brandywine, Germantown, and Monmouth. was the brother of the late empress of Russia. He was one of the founders of King's College (now On April 29, 1879, he was elected hereditary Columbia), and became its first governor.

prince of Bulgaria by the assembly of notaALEXANDER, William, an Irish bishop; born bles, having previously served with distinction at Londonderry, April 13, 1824. He was edu- in the war with Turkey. In 1885, King Milan cated at Oxford; was made bishop of Derry and of Servia having declared war against Bulgaria, Raphoe in 1867; has lectured extensively, appear- he led his army to victory over the larger ing in America at Columbia College in 1892; has and more experienced one of Servia.

The peace published The Divinity of Our Lord; Leading Ideas treaty was signed at Bucharest in the same of the Gospels; and several volumes of poems, year. In the following year, Russian machinasermons and biblical commentaries.

tions causing the revolt of part of his army, he ALEXANDER, William LINDSAY, scholar, and abdicated, to be soon returned into power, greeted divine of the Scottish Congregational Church, by popular favor, but finally, on account of the was born at Leith, Aug. 24, 1808, and died at antagonism of Russia, to retire permanently to Pinkieburn, near Edinburgh, Dec. 22, 1884; pub- his estate at Gratz, in Styria, western Austria, lished Christian Thought and Work; Connection and where he died, Nov. 17, 1893. Harmony of Old and New Testament; Zechariah; ALEXANDERS (Smyrnium Olusatrum), a bienand other doctrinal works.

nial plant of the family Umbellifera. It is found ALEXANDER ÆTOLUS, scholar and poet of in waste ground and near ruins in Britain and the the Alexandrian period. Fragments of his ele- south of Europe. It was among the most comgiac verse remain, and are contained in Poetæ mon of cultivated umbelliferous plants in ancient Lyrici of Bergk.

times, and probably used in the same way as celALEXANDER JOHN I, first prince of Ru- ery. The name Golden Alexanders is also apmania, was born March 20, 1820, and died in plied to certain species of the North American retirement at Heidelberg, May 15, 1873. In genera Thaspium and Zizia. 1859 he was elected first prince of Moldavia and ALEXANDRA CAROLINE MARIE CHARLOTTE prince of Wallachia. On Dec. 23, 1861, he was Louise JULIE, PRINCESS OF WALES, was born Dec. recognized by Turkey, and the union of the two 1, 1844, and married to principalities, under the name of Rumania, was Albert Edward, Prince proclaimed; on the 23d of February, 1866, a revo- of Wales, March 10, lution compelled his resignation, and from that 1863. She is the eldest date until close upon his death he lived in retire- daughter of Christian ment at Vienna.

IX, King of Denmark, ALEXANDER KARAGEORGEVICH, and sister of the widow of prince of Servia, born at Topolya, Oct. 11, 1806. Alexander III of Russia He was the son of Tsrni George, the first prince and the King of Greece. of Servia, who was murdered in 1817 by the ALEXANDRI OR ALagents of Prince Michael's father, who had then ECSANDRI, VASILE, a obtained the ascendency in Servian affairs. Mich- Rumanian poet and paael was forced to abdicate in 1842, and Alexander, triot, born at Jassy in who previously had been in practical exile, was 1821. He was educated elected by the Serbs to succeed him. He was in at Paris, and after his repower for 17 years, pursued a peace policy, and turn to Jassy in 1839 increased the internal improvements of his state. devoted himself to the ALEXANDRA, PRINCESS OF Finally, however, he became obnoxious to the cause of Rumanian inde

WALES. people and was deposed Dec. 11, 1858. In 1868 pendence and unity. He was minister of foreign he was sentenced by the Austrian authorities to affairs under Ghika in 1859–60; died at Mircesti, eight years' imprisonment on account of his com- in Moldavia, Sept. 4, 1890. Many of his writings, plicity in the murder of Prince Michael. He the most important of which is a collection of died at Temesvar, in Hungary, May 2, 1885. popular songs entitled Poesii Populare ale Români

ALEXANDER NEVSKI OR NEVSKOI, Rus- lor, have been translated into French, English sian prince, born in Valdimir in 1219 and died at and German. Gorodetz, Nov. 14, 1263. He was the son of the ALEXANDRIA, a manufacturing town in the Grand Duke Yaroslef II, whom he succeeded in county of Glengarry, eastern Ontario, Canada, is 1246; took his surname from the River Neva, on 70 miles by rail E. of Ottawa. Population 1881, which he won a remarkable victory over the 1,200; 1891, 1,614. Swedes in 1240. He has come to be regarded a ALEXANDRIA, the capital of Rapides Parish, hero-saint by the Russians, and in 1712 Peter the northwestern Louisiana, is on the Red River, ALEXANDRIA— ALGÆ




about 200 miles from its mouth, and 360 miles | within a year after the marriage. He wedded the N.W. of New Orleans. Baton Rouge is 97 miles Archduchess Maria Christina of Austria in 1879. by rail S. E. of it. It carries on trade by water His death occurred Nov. 25, 1885, and his only at all seasons, exporting mainly fruits, sugar, daughter, Mercedes, was styled queen, under the cotton and rice. Population 1880, 1,800; 1890, regency of her mother. On the 17th of May, 2,861.

however, of the following year, a posthumous ALEXANDRIA, the capital of Douglas County, son, Alfonso XIII, was born. west-central Minnesota, is 62 miles by rail W. of ALFORD, a village of Aberdeenshire, Scotland. St. Cloud and 140 miles N.W. of St. Paul. Pop- It was here that Montrose defeated the Covenantulation 1880, 1,355 ; 1890, 2,118.

ers under Baillie, July 2, 1645. ALEXANDRIA, the capital of Hanson County, ALFORD, CHARLES RICHARD, Anglican missoutheastern South Dakota, is 14 miles by rail E. sionary and divine, ex-bishop of Victoria, Hongof Mitchell and 105 miles N.W. of Sioux City. kong, was born in Somersetshire, England, in 1816, Population 1895, 614.

and now resides at Tunbridge Wells, Kent; was ALEXANDRIA BAY, a village of Jefferson educated at St. Paul's School and Trinity College, County, north-central New York, is near the St. Cambridge; held various pastorates, and was conLawrence and opposite the Thousand Islands; is secrated bishop of Victoria, Feb. 2, 1867, but much frequented as a summer resort. Redwood, resigned the see in 1872. He has published First the nearest railway point, is 7 miles S. E. of it. Principles of the Oracles of God, and many serPopulation 1880, 587; 1890, 1,123.

mons and pamphlets. ALEXANDRIAN CODEX. See ALEXANDRIAN ALFRED, capital of York County, southwestMS., Vol. I, p. 496.

ern Maine; is 25 miles by rail S. E. of Portland. ALEXANDRIAN LIBRARY. See LIBRARIES, The township includes a Shaker village. PopulaVol. XIV, p. 510.

tion 1880, 1,101; 1890, 1,030. ALEXANDRIAN PERIOD. See CHRONOLOGY, ALFRED Ernest ALBERT, Duke of Saxe-CoVol. V, p. 714.

burg-Gotha and of Edinburgh, second son of ALEXANDRITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, Queen Victoria of England, was born at Windsor P. 386.

Castle, Aug. 6, 1844; in 1858 he entered the royal ALEXANDROPOL. See Gumri, Vol. XI, p. 277. navy, and on Jan. 23, 1872, married the Grand

ALEXANDROV, a town in the Russian gov- Duchess Marie of Russia, daughter of Alexander ernment of Vladimir, 55 miles by rail N. E. of II. They have had five children. See EDINBURGH, Moscow. It has dye-works, and muskets and in these Supplements. iron-ware are manufactured. Population, 5,810. ALFRED CENTER, an inland village in Alle

ALEXANDROVSK, a fortified town on the gany County, southwestern New York; is two Dnieper, in south-central Russia, in the govern- miles from Alfred station, on the Erie railroad. ment of Yekaterinoslav; is connected by rail with Alfred University, a non-sectarian institution havMoscow. Population, 4, 300.

ing 125 students, is located here. Population 1890, ALEXINATZ, a town in Servia, on the Morava 786. River. It is 100 miles S. E. of Belgrade. It fell ALFRETON, a market town of Derbyshire, into the hands of the Turks in 1876, and suffered England, on the Midland railroad, has manufacseverely after the battle which the Russians lost tures of hats, stockings and brown earthenware. there at that time. Near the town, a

There are collieries and iron-works in the vicinity. rial monument has been erected in honor of Population, 4,626. the Russians who fell in that battle. Tobacco is ALGÆ, the name applied to what are genthe principal export. Population, 6,000.

erally called “seaweed,” though they are also ALEXIS ALEXANDROVICH, grand duke abundant in fresh waters. They are distinguished of Russia, was born on the 14th of January, from other thallophytes by containing chloro1850, in St. Petersburg. He is a younger son of phyl (plant-green) and are therefore not dependthe emperor Alexander II, and in 1872 he trav- ent upon other organisms for food-supply. They eled extensively in America.

occur in a vast variety of forms and sizes, from ALEXISBAD), a health-resort in Anhalt, cen- microscopic forms to the giant “kelp" of the tral Germany. It is situated within two miles of Pacific Coast, which attains a length of from 1,000 the town of Harzgerode, which is of great historical

to 1,500 feet.

Great floating masses of the genus interest. Its baths and mineral springs are among Sargassum give rise to the name Sargasso Sea. the best known in Germany.

The fresh-water forms are commonly green, ALFALFA, a thickly growing grass, valued for while the marine forms are more usually variforage; same as lucerne; q.v., under AGRICUL- ous shades of brown, yellow, red and purple. TURE, Vol. I, p. 378; see FORAGE Plants, in these The ordinary grouping of algæ is as follows: Supplements.

(1) Blue-green algæ (Cyanophycea); (2) Green algæ ALFONSO XII, king of Spain, the son of Isa (Chlorophycea); (3) Brown algæ (Phaophycea); and bella II, was born on the 28th of November, (4) Red algæ (Rhodophycea). In the lowest mem1857, and when 11 years old went into exile with bers reproduction is entirely by cell-division, but his mother. On Jan. 15, 1875, he became the sex-reproduction soon appears, and then the difking of Spain. Three years afterward, he mar- ferentiation of sexes into dissimilar gametes (reproried Mercedes d'Orleans, his cousin, who died ductive cells) is produced in dissimilar sex organs


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(oögonia and antheridia). The whole plant-fabric government and appointing a civil governor-genis what is styled “cellular, "-that is, composed of General Chanzy was accused of governing thin-walled cells,—and seldom shows any differen- the country despotically, and he was replaced by tiation of such vegetative organs as root, stem, Albert Grévy in 1878. When France entered on and leaf (a common distinction of thallophytes), a campaign against Tunis in 1881, an Arab chief although stem and leaf structures are freely (Bou Ameema) raised the standard of revolt in developed in certain forms. From an evolution- Algeria, and inflicted considerable losses on the ary point of view, the algæ are of great import- French colonists, but was defeated at the end ance, as representing those thallophytes from of about three months. Governor Grévy resigned which the higher groups have developed. From three months later. The insurgents did not suban economic point of view they are of small mit entirely until June, 1883. A civil governorimportance, although among them are found such general has since administered the government of edible forms as Irish moss, dulse, etc., and from Algeria, which is regarded as a detached part of others are obtained iodine, bromine, soda, etc., France, rather than as a colony. A small extent while many are valuable as fertilizers.

of territory in the Sahara is administered by the ALGAROVILLA, an astringent substance pro military authorities, represented by the commandcured from the seeds and husks of a number of ant of the nineteenth army corps. leguminous plants found in South America; is The French Chambers alone have the right of much used in dyeing, and is a very powerful agent legislating for Algeria, while such matters as do in the tanning of leather. Also written ALGAR- not come within the legislative power are reguROBILLA.

lated by decree of the president of the republic. ALGER, HORATIO, JR., author and Unitarian The governor-general is assisted by a council, minister, was born in Massachusetts, Jan. 13, 1834: whose function is purely consultative. A superior graduated at Harvard in 1852, and in 1864 council, meeting once a year, to which delegates became pastor of a Unitarian church in Brewster, are sent by each of the provincial general counMass.; moved to N. Y., 1866; wrote boys' books, i.e., cils, is charged with the duty of discussing and Paul Preston's Charge; Do and Dare; has also pub-voting the colonial budget. Each department lished lives of Webster, Lincoln and Garfield. sends one senator and two deputies to the national

ALGER, RUSSELL ALEXANDER, lawyer and poli- assembly. tician; born in Lafayette, Ohio, Feb. 27, 1836; The boundaries of Algeria are not well defined, admitted to the bar in 1859. He was captain in large portions of the territory in the outlying disthe Second Michigan cavalry, in 1861, and came tricts being claimed both by the French governout as brevet major-general, having distinguished ment and the nomad tribes who inhabit it and himself at Gettysburg and in the Shenandoah hold themselves unconquered. The colony is Valley. After the war he was engaged in the lum- divided officially into three departments, consistber business in Detroit, and amassed a large for- ing, as a whole, of the “Territoire civil," and a tune. In 1884 he was elected on the Republican “Territoire de commandement.” The following ticket as governor of Michigan, and served for table gives the area of each of the three departtwo years; was a candidate for the Presidential

ments according to the census of 1891: nomination at the Republican convention of 1888. In 1890 he was made commander-in-chief of the

POPULATION. Grand Army of the Republic, and in 1897 ap

DEPARTMENTS Square pointed Secretary of War. ALGER, WilliAM ROUNSEVILLE, American

Military. clergyman and author, was born in Freetown, Massachusetts, Dec. 30, 1822. He studied for Algiers... 65,929 1,275,650 192,477 1,468,127



817,450 the ministry, and became pastor of a Unitarian



Constantine. 73,929 1,543,867 170,672 1,714,539 church in Roxbury, Massachusetts, in 1852; later he accepted pastorates at Boston, New York, Denver, Chicago and Portland; has written

184,474 | 3,636,967 487,765 4,124,732 A Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Genius of Solitude; Friendships of Women; and To this must be added what is designated the other works of a similar nature.

Algerian Sahara, of indefinite extent, but estiALGERIA. The historic record given in Vol. mated at 350,000 square kilometers, or 135,000 I, pp. 562–569, brings the progress of Algeria down square miles, and with a population vaguely estito 1871. When the Franco-Prussian war of 1870 | mated at 50,000. The civil territory is constantly compelled the emperor of France to withdraw his increasing in area by taking in sections of the militroops from Africa, the natives of Algeria enter- tary territory. Of the population in 1886, 2,014,tained hopes of freeing themselves from the yoke 013 were males, and 1,791,671 females. The marof France. The insurrection which broke out in riages among whites were 3,543, the births 15,618, the provinces of Constantine and Oran and deaths 13, 123, — showing an excess of 2,495 checked by General Durieu with great difficulty. births over deaths. In 1891, of the total populaAfter the fall of the empire, the republican gov- tion there were 272,662 of French origin or naternment at Paris gratified the wishes of the uralization, 47,667 naturalized Jews, 3,567,223 Algerians by withdrawing from them the military French indigenous subjects, 4,344 Tunisians,








an expenditure of 74,610

, 620 “ALGIERS, a suburb of New Orleans, Louisiana,

18,194 Moroccans, and 217,386 foreigners,-Span- | mostly coasters, besides numerous small fishingiards, Italians, Anglo-Maltese, Germans.

vessels. In the same year there were 1,956 EngThe population in 1891 of Algiers was 82,585; lish miles of railroad in operation in Algeria, Oran, 74,510; Constantine, 46,581; Bône, 30,806; including a Tunisian extension of 140 miles. The Tlemcen, 29,544; Ghardaja, 28,782; Blidah, 23,- total receipts for the previous year were 21,908,225 686; Tizi-Ouzou, 26,007. The receipts of the francs, or $4,381,645.

. government are derived chiefly from indirect The telegraph lines of Algeria measure 4,310 taxes, licenses, and customs duties on imports. miles, comprising 10,000 miles of wire, with 356 The natives pay only direct taxes. The cost of offices. In the savings banks of the country there maintenance of the army is not included in the are about 17,000 depositors, whose deposits aggrebudget. A proportion of the sums spent on public gate 4,866,000 francs, averaging 286 francs($57.20) works is also paid by the state. 1896 estimated

, francs, and a revenue of 53,015,019 francs. Ac- was laid out as a village in 1815, but dates its cording to a special return, during the period growth from the building of the dry-docks in 1846. from 1830 to 1888 the total expenditure in Algeria In 1852 it was incorporated as a city, and grew was 5,018,066,462 francs; the total receipts for rapidly until the commencement of the Civil War, the same period being only 1,256,041,004 francs, during which it suffered severely. It was made a - showing an excess of expenditure of 3, 762,025,- ward of the city of New Orleans in 1870. Here 458 francs, or over $753,000,000, being for mili- are the Southern Pacific iron and car construction tary services. The total expenditure on "coloni- works, other iron-works, shipyards, dry-docks, zation” is given as 144,205,504 francs.

and machine and boiler shops. It is connected About three and a quarter millions of the inhab- with the city proper by ferry-boats, and is the itants are engaged in agriculture, nearly two hun- terminus of two railway lines. Population 1880, dred thousand thereof being Europeans. The 8,855; 1890, 10,811. annual crop of wheat is given as five and a quar- ALGIN. See MuciLAGE, Vol. XVII, p. 12. ter million metric quintals (nearly six billion ALGOL. See ASTRONOMY, Vol. II, p. 819. pounds); barley, seven and a quarter million quin- ALGOMA, the northwestern district of Ontario, tals; vines, over three and one half million hecto- Canada; borders on Lakes Huron and Superior, liters; tobacco, nearly four millions. The total and includes Great Manitoulin Island. It conarea cultivated is 4,273,362 hectares. In 1891 | tains copper and silver mines; is well wooded and the vineyards covered 150,000 hectares, and the watered, and has an area of 43,150 square miles. animal stock, in the same year, was about seven- Two branches of the Canadian Pacific railroad teen millions. Nearly three thousand persons are traverse the territory. It is populated chiefly by employed in mines; the annual production of iron Indians, a few white farmers being settled in the ore being 352,000 tons, worth 2,457, 190 francs, eastern part. It is the see of an Episcopalian and that of other metals (blende, galena, copper, bishop. Population, 7,018. silver) 22,500 tons, the value being 1,426,475 ALGONKIAN PERIOD, in geology, immefrancs.

diately succeeds the Archæan. In the Upper Great The greatest portion of the commerce of Algeria Lakes region of North America are found the typis from France, from which it imports flour, ani-ical formations of this period. At the base of the mals, cotton, leather and metal goods, etc., of the pre-Cambrian rocks of the United States and annual value of 215,000,000 francs, and to which Canada lies the Fundamental Complex, a formait exports cereals, wines, animals, wool, etc., to tion of the Archæan period, and regarded by geolthe value of 207,000,000 francs. Its greatest ogists as the earliest of the whole. Next above exports (next to France) are to Great Britain and this series occurs the enormous succession of Ireland, value of 14,000,000 francs; Belgium, rocks roughly called Algonkian. Several distinct 4,000,000; Spain, 2,400,000; Tunis, 2,280,000; formations are found in this succession, which Russia, Italy, Austria and the United States of leads to the conclusion that this period may have America, about 1,500,000 francs (or $300,000) equaled in duration the sum of several succeeding each. The chief imports (outside of France) are periods. In all later periods a fossil fauna may from Morocco, worth nearly 11,000,000 francs; be found, of which no traces have yet been Tunis, 11,300,000; Great Britain, 4,442,000; | observed in the deposits of the period in question. Spain, 4,700,000; Austria, 1,000,000; Italy and The following table gives the formations of this the United States, worth a little over 1,000,000 period. Further details may be found in Geikie's francs each. The annual imports from Turkey Text-Book of Geology. average 250,000 francs, and the exports thereto

Detrital rocks, derived, in scarcely 22,000 francs.

large measure, from the degra

dation of the volcanic series beAbout 3,600 vessels, of 2,165,000 tons, enter KEWEEN AWAN.

low; 15,000 feet. Algerian ports from abroad, and 3,400, of 2,100,000 (Nipigon of W. Sheets of basic and acid lavas, tons, clear annually. There is also a large coast- Ontario.)

with intercalated masses of ing-trade. In 1893 the mercantile marine of

sandstone and conglomerate.

Said to reach a thickness of Algeria consisted of 626 vessels, of 9,504 tons,

35,000 feet.






at the time mentioned in the indictment or charge UPPER HURONIAN.

he was in another place, and therefore could not (Animikie and Upper Quartzites, carbonaceous and

have been guilty of the offense. This defense, Kaministiquia of argillaceous shales, slates, con- when fully proven, is, of course, an absolute bar W. Ontario, Ani- glomerates, and ferruginous mikie and Upper rocks, with intrusive green

to the criminal prosecution, and because it is Vermilion N. stones; at least 12,000 feet. pecnliarly liable to be supported by perjury and Minnesota, Upper Traces of organisms occur in all kinds of false evidence, it is said that this Marquette of Mich- this series.

defense must be subjected to the most careful igan.)

scrutiny, and must even be proven by the preUnconformability,

ponderance of the evidence; but in proving an LOWER HURONIAN. (Keewatin, Lower Limestones, quartzites, phyl

alibi the defendant is not required to prove where lites, slates, mica-schists,

he was at the exact time the crime was comKaministiquia, Ontario, Lower Vermil

green chloritic schists, schis- mitted, but he is required to show only such facts

tose ion of N. Minne

conglomerates, jaspers, as would reasonably exclude the possibility of his

iron ores, diabase and quartzsota, Lower Marporphyry lavas, volcanic ag

having been at the place where the crime was quette, Felch Mountain iron-bearing

glomerates and tuffs, with acid committed at the time charged. See Alibi, Vol.

and basic intrusions. Probably series, Menominee

I, p. 574. of Michigan.) more than 5,000 feet.

ALICE MAUD MARY, Princess of Great Bri

tain, and Grand Duchess of Hesse-Darmstadt, ALGONA, capital of Kossuth County, north was born at Buckingham Palace, April 25, 1843, central Iowa, is 52 miles by rail from Mason City; and died on the 14th of December, 1878. She has three newspapers and several factories. Pop- was the third child of Queen Victoria, and marulation 1890, 2,068.

ried, on July 1, 1862, Prince Louis of Hesse, ALGONQUIN, a post township in McHenry nephew and successor of Louis III, Grand Duke County, northern Illinois. Crystal Lake, a popu- of Hesse-Darmstadt. She became the mother lar summer resort, is located in the township, and of five daughters and two sons. She and her eld. the village of Algonquin is the center of an im- est daughter, Victoria, died of diphtheria within portant dairy-farm region. Population 1880, 2,321; a month of each other. Her death caused uni1890, 2,512.

versal mourning in England and Germany, her ALGONQUINS OR ALGONKINS. See IN- charity and affection having made her greatly beDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 827.

loved. Her fourth daughter, Princess Alix Victoria ALGORISM OR ALGORITHM. See NUMER-Hélène Louise Beatrix, is the Empress of Russia, ALS, Vol. XVII, p. 626.

having been wedded to Nicholas II, Nov. 2, 1894. ALGUAZIL, the general name applied in Spain ALIEN, in the United States, is one who was to inferior officers intrusted with the execution of born outside of its territory and who has not bejustice.

come a citizen by naturalization under the laws ALHAGI, a genus of trees of the family Legu- and constitution of the United States, or any minosa, found from Egypt and Greece to India. of the states. In many of the states of this The name is of Arabic origin, and the best-known country a non-resident alien cannot obtain lands species, A. camelorum, is named from the fact that by descent, or by mere operation of law. But an the manna which exudes from its leaves and alien can acquire personal property, make and branches is a favorite food of camels.

enforce contracts, and sue and be sued. An AL-HAKEM. See MOKANNA, Vol. XVI, p. 608; alien, even after becoming naturalized, cannot MOHAMMEDANISM, Vol. XVI, p. 580.

hold the office of President of the United States, ALHAURIN-EL-GRANDE is a Spanish town and cannot become a member of Congress until in Andalusia, southern Spain. Malaga, the nearest seven years after he has become naturalized An railway point, is 15 miles N. E. of it. It is noted for alien enemy is one who is a citizen of a foreign its parks, its numerous fountains, the ruins of an country which is at war with this country. He ancient Roman aqueduct and of a Moorish fortifi- usually is accorded almost the same rights and cation. In the neighboring mountains are quar- privileges as an alien friend, unless ordered from ries of granite, marble and freestone. Popula- the country.

the country. See ALIEN, Vol. I, p. 574. tion, 6,781.

ALIEN AND SEDITION LAWS were passed ALIBAMU INDIANS, same as ALABAMA IN- by Congress in the summer of 1798, John Adams DIANS, in these Supplements.

being President, and the Federal party in full ALIBERT, JEAN LOUIS, BARON, French physi: power. They raised the number of years neces

Louis cian and medical writer, was born at Villefranche, sary for naturalization from five to fourteen, perin Aveyron, May 12, 1766, and died at Paris, Feb. mitted the arrest of subjects of any foreign power 6, 1837. In 1814 he was called as consulting with which the United States should be at war, physician to Louis XVIII, and soon afterward was and made it a crime to publish false, scandalous made first physician-in-ordinary. He wrote Traité and malicious writings concerning the government Complet des Maladies de la Peau and other medical of the United States and its officers, for any works, celebrated on account of their elegant purpose whatsoever. Finally, they empowered language.

the President, for two years, to cause the arrest ALIBI, in law, means the defense that is fre- of, or to banish from the country, any alien whom quently made by a person charged with crime, that he regarded as dangerous to its welfare. At that



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