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ALIENATION - ALKALIMETRY
time politicians habitually resorted to such inso- ALIMENTARY CANAL. See DIGESTIVE OR-
and is usually fixed at about one third of their
He was asserted that Amendment I forbade Congress to educated at the universities of Glasgow and Edinpass any law restricting freedom of speech or of burgh, and entered the military service in 1846. the press.
Doubting the impartiality of the His father died in 1867, and he assumed the Federal judges, were they to attempt legal pro- baronetcy, having at that time the rank of colcedure, the Republican leaders determined to onel; served in the Crimea at the siege and fall intrench the party in the state legislatures, while of Sebastopol; in India, during the Mutiny, as the Federal party, until then enjoying the height military secretary on the staff of Lord Clyde; and of popularity, having become responsible for as second in command upon the Ashanti expethese odious laws, passed into rapid and perma- dition of 1873. He had lost an arm at the relief nent decline.
of Lucknow, served with honorable distinction The legislatures of Virginia and of Kentucky in the Egyptian operations of 1882, and was prosimultaneously passed the memorable “resolu- moted to the rank of lieutenant-general in Notions of 1798." These, formulated by Jefferson, vember of that year; was placed in command of asserted the alien and sedition laws to be null the Egyptian army of occupation. He attained and void, as being beyond the powers delegated his present rank on the 20th of February, 1889. to Congress, asserted the sufficiency of the state, He has published an authoritative treatise, On and perilously suggested secession. The laws Army Organization. were never executed, and by their own stipula- ALIWAL, a Punjab village in northwestern Intion expired in 1801, the same year in which dia, is on the left bank of the Sutlej. Here, June Thomas Jefferson, the Republican candidate, was 28, 1846, Sir Henry Smith, with 12,000 British elected President. Their passage, which is uni- troops, defeated Sikh forces of double that numversally regarded as a grave political blunder, ber. dates the downfall of the Federal party.
ALKALIMETRY, the process of determining ALIENATION is the transfer of an estate from the strength of alkaline mixtures, such as comone person to another, whether effected by sale, mercial solutions of sodium or potassium carbongift or other means, where the transmission of ate. The process is based upon the fact that, the estate occurs by mutual consent of the parties. given an amount of alkali, the amount of acid It is particularly applied to a transfer of real es- which it can saturate or neutralize may be detertate by deed. Any conveyance of an interest less mined, or vice versa. Sulphuric acid is run from than the absolute title of the party making the a burette into a given quantity of the solution to conveyance is not an alienation; for the term has be tested, until the alkali is neutralized. The a technical meaning, and refers to a transfer of an amount of acid necessary to neutralize is proporentire interest.
tional to the amount of alkali contained in the ALIMA, an African river tributary to the Congo, solution undergoing test. The apparatus used rises in the neighborhood of the Ogowe Springs has been called an alkalimeter. A similar process and flows west. Its course was traced by Balloy is used by mint assayers to determine the strength in 1878, and De Brazza founded two stations on of a solution of silver. This process of analysis its banks. It is navigable for steamers for some has given rise to a new department of analytical distance.
chemistry, designated volumetric analysis.
ALKALINE LAND AND WATER— ALLEGHENY
ALKALINE LAND AND WATER. See IR- of the Sikh army, which he organized and trained RIGATION, in these Supplements.
in the European modes of warfare. On his ALKALOIDS. See Vol. I, p. 578; CHEMISTRY, return to Paris he was received with distinction, Vol. V, p. 576; also CHEMISTRY, in these Supple- and in 1833 was made chargé d'affaires in Lahore. ments.
He subsequently distinguished himself in the ALLAN, GEORGE WILLIAM, Canadian senator, battles of Runjeet Singh with the Afghans. born in Toronto, Jan. 9, 1822; graduated at Up- ALLATIUS, LEO, Italian writer, was born on per Canada College in 1839; called to the bar in the island of Scio in 1586, and died at Rome in 1846. In 1855 he was elected mayor of his native 1669. His parents were Greeks. He appeared city, and from 1858 until the confederation sat in Rome in 1600, and was employed by Pope in the legislative council for York division. In Gregory XV in the library of the Vatican, of 1867 he was elected to the senate, and on the 17th which he became librarian in 1661, eight years of March, 1888, was appointed speaker of that before his death; edited the works of many body. He has been chancellor of Trinity College classic writers, and was a prolific writer on matsince 1876, and is now president of the Historical ters of church history. Society and the Society of Artists of Toronto. ALLATOONA, Bartow County, northwestern ALLAN, Sir Hugh, born in Scotland, Sept. Georgia, is a village on the Western and Atlantic
a 29, 1810; died in Edinburgh, Dec. 8, 1882. In railroad, 40 miles from Atlanta. In General Sher1824 he came to Canada, engaged in the shipping man's pursuit of General Johnston, May, 1864, the business, and established the Allan line of ocean latter made a stand at Allatoona Pass, in the steamers. He was a director of several banks vicinity, and fought until his flank had been and public companies, and was knighted in 1871; turned. Population 1880, 778; 1890, 706.
| became well known in Canadian politics on ac- ALLBUTT, THOMAS CLIFFORD, English physicount of his connection with the Canadian Pacific cian, was born at Dewsbury in 1836, son of the railway scandal.
Rev. Thomas Allbutt; was educated at Caius ALLAN, JOHN, American soldier, born at the College, Cambridge, and went from there into Castle of Edinburgh, Scotland, Jan. 13, 1746. He St. George's Hospital, and, later, into the hospiemigrated to Nova Scotia in 1749, and was brought tals of Paris. He built up a very large practice up as a farmer. In 1770 he went into politics, in Yorkshire; retired from it in 1889, and in 1892 occupied several local offices, and gained influence was appointed regius professor of physic in the with the Indians. In 1777 Congress gave him a University of Cambridge; has contributed largely colonel's commission, and with his Indians he to medical literature, and has recently published protected the exposed line of the northeastern the System of Medicine (1895). frontier. The authorities of Nova Scotia offered ALLEGAN, capital of Allegan County, southa price for his arrest; his house was burned, and western Michigan, is situated on the Kalamazoo his wife thrown into prison. In compensation | River, 160 miles W. of Detroit, and 33 miles by for the losses he had sustained the Massachu- rail S. of Grand Rapids; has a considerable lumsetts government gave him 22,000 acres of land, ber trade.
ber trade. Population 1880, 2,305; 1890, 2,669. and Congress granted him 2,000 acres in Ohio. ALLEGHANY OR ALLEGANY, a manufacHe died in Lubec, Maine, Feb. 7, 1805.
turing town in Cattaraugus County, New York, is ALLAN-KARDEC, HIPPOLYTE LÉON DENI- 55 miles S. of Buffalo and connected with it by ZARD, French author and spiritualist, was born in rail. It is the seat of a Roman Catholic college Lyons, Oct. 3, 1803, and died in Paris, April 1, and Franciscan convent. Population 1880, 4,044; 1869. He was the leader of French spiritualists, 1890, 3,611. and wrote The Book of Mediums; The Book of ALLEGHANY SPRING, a post village of Spirits; and The Imitation of the Gospels According to southwestern Virginia, in Montgomery County, Spiritualism.
about 80 miles W. of Lynchburg, and three miles ALLANTOIS, one of the fætal membranes from Alleghany Station. It is noted for its springs which surround the embryos of reptiles, birds and of saline water, and is much frequented as a summammals. It is a saclike diverticulum which mer resort. Population of district in 1890, 3,787. grows ventrally from the posterior end of the ALLEGHENY OR ALLEGHANY, an important alimentary canal and out into the space between residence and manufacturing city of western inner and outer amniotic folds. It is essentially Pennsylvania, capital of Allegheny County, is sita respiratory structure. In most mammals the uated on the Allegheny River, opposite Pittsburg, chorion, formed by fusion of allantois and outer with which it is connected by nine bridges. It is amniotic fold, comes into close relation with uter- the terminus of important railway lines, and has ine blood-vessels, forming a “placenta.” See numerous public institutions of importance, such MAMMALIA, Vol. XV, p. 369.
as the Western University of Pennsylvania, WestALLARD, JEAN FRANÇOIS, French general, ern (Presbyterian) Theological Seminary, and was born at Var in 1785, and died in India, Jan. | Allegheny Observatory. It contains 3 theological , 23, 1839. In 1815 he was adjutant to Marshal schools, 3 national banks, 80 churches, a college
, Brune, after whose assassination at the time of for colored persons, 2 public libraries, several the Restoration he quitted France. He entered hospitals and charitable institutions, and a city the service of Abbas-Mirza of Persia, and went park of 100 acres. It has numerous factories, to Lahore in 1820. He was made generalissimo including rolling-mills for iron, woolen and cotton
ALLEGHENY COLLEGE - ALLEN
mills, foundries, breweries, a blast-furnace, a He served one year, when he was mustered out of steel - factory, and locomotive - works.
It is a
the service, with his regiment, as captain. He favorite place of residence for the business men studied law at Ann Arbor, and was admitted to of Pittsburg, and in many respects is really a practice in 1867. He was elected to the lower suburb of that city, although it has a separate house of the legislature in 1876, and again in municipal organization. Nearly half of the inhabi- 1878; became assistant assessor of internal revetants are Germans. Population 1880, 78,682;nue in 1869, and United States Indian agent for 1890, 105,287. See PITTSBURG, Vol. XIX, p. 151. Michigan in 1882–85; was elected as a Repub
ALLEGHENY COLLEGE, a co-educational lican to the Fiftieth Congress, and again to the institution, was organized at Meadville, Pennsylva- Fifty-first. nia, in 1815. In 1833 it came under Methodist ALLEN, ELISHA Hunt, American diplomat, control and is still connected with that denomi- was born at New Salem, Massachusetts, Jan. 28, nation; possesses three well-equipped buildings 1804, and died at Washington, District of Columand a library of 14,000 volumes. There are 17 bia, Jan. 1, 1883. He graduated from Williams instructors and 300 students. The president College, and became a member of the Maine legis(1896) is Dr. William H. Crawford.
lature in 1836; member of Congress from the same ALLEGRI, ANTONIO. See CORREGGIO, Vol. VI, state (1841-43); member of the Massachusetts legp. 437.
islature (1849); United States consul at Honolulu ALLEGRO, the fourth of the five principal (1852–56); chief justice and chancellor of the degrees of movement in music, implying that the Sandwich Islands (1856–76). At the time of his piece is to be performed in a lively style. It is death he was resident minister of the Sandwich often modified by other terms. Allegretto is a Islands at Washington. diminutive form of this word and denotes slower ALLEN, ELIZABETH AKERS, American poetess, time.
was born at Strong, Maine, Oct. 9, 1832. In 1886 ALLEMANDE, a German national dance in she published, over the pseudonym of “Florence various kinds of waltz tempo. The name has also Percy,” The Silver Bridge, and Other Poems. In been applied to an orchestral composition in slow, 1860 she married the sculptor Paul Akers, and measured time, not for dancing.
after his death, E. M. Allen, of New York. ALLEN, ALEXANDER Viets GRISWOLD, Episco- ALLEN, ETHAN, soldier; born in Litchfield, palian minister, was born at Otis, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Jan. 10, 1737; died in Burlington, May 4, 1841; educated at Kenyon College, Ohio, Vermont, Feb. 13, 1789. and graduated from Andover Theological Semi- | About 1763 he removed nary in 1865; was appointed to the chair of eccle- to near Bennington, Versiastical history at the Episcopal Theological mont, and in 1770 was School in Cambridge in 1867. Besides a Life of sent to Albany to plead Jonathan Edwards, he has written The Continuity the cause of the New of Christian Thought.
Hampshire settlers whose ALLEN, CHARLES, American jurist, was born title to land had been disat Worcester, Massachusetts, Aug. 9, 1797, and puted by Governor Tryon, died there Aug. 6, 1869. Admitted to the bar in of New York. The decis1818, he became in 1859 chief justice of the ion of the court was adMassachusetts superior court; was a Free-Soil verse to the settlers. member of Congress 1849–53, and was a delegate Soon afterward Allen was to the peace congress of 1861.
made colonel of the “Green Mountain Boys," ALLEN, CHARLES GRANT BLAIRFINDIE, Eng- who sided with the New Hampshire grantees, and lish author, was born at Kingston, Canada, Feb. expelled the New York settlers. In 1775, when 24, 1848. He is best-known to his readers as the news of the battle of Lexington spread Grant Allen. He graduated from Merton College, throughout New England, the condition of Fort Oxford, in 1871, and soon afterward began to Ticonderoga attracted the attention of the pawrite on scientific subjects in a popular manner. triots. It was well supplied with military stores, His expositions of Darwinism are clear and cap. but only feebly garrisoned. Early on May 1oth, tivating. He first turned his attention to fiction when only 83 of his men had as yet crossed in 1883, and has written extensively since that the lake, Allen rushed into the fort and sumtime. Of his best known novels are Strange Sto- moned the astonished commander to surrender, ries; Babylon; This Mortal Coil; Tents of Shem; In “In the name of the Great Jehovah and the All Shades; of his writings o more serious sub- Continental Congress!” The garrison consisted jects, The Evolutionist at Large; Flowers and their of only 50 men, but the fort contained a large
a Pedigrees; Charles Darwin. He is the author of amount of artillery and arms. Allen received the the article on MIMICRY in this ENCYCLOPÆDIA. thanks of Congress for his services on this occaALLEN, EDWARD P., American Congressman, sion.
. Later in the same year he was sent by born in Sharon, Washtenaw County, Michigan, General Philip Schuyler on a secret mission to Oct. 28, 1839. He was graduated at the state Canada, to learn the views of the Canadians as to normal school in 1864, taught for three months in emancipation; was captured and sent to England. the Union School at Vassar, Michigan, and then After Burgoyne surrendered at Saratoga, Conenlisted in the Twenty-ninth Michigan infantry.gress secured Allen's release on May 3, 1778. In
1779 he published a Narrative of his treatment was born at Schenectady, New York, May 10, while a British prisoner. In 1777 Vermont had 1802; died at Montrose, New Jersey, Dec. 31, declared its independence and sought to join the 1889. He was graduated at Columbia College other colonies on equal terms. This proposition in 1823, and went into the service of the Dela. was opposed by New York. Allen, on obtaining ware and Hudson Canal Company. In 1828 he his freedom, was appointed major-general of the was sent to England by this company to purchase Vermont militia, and sent as an agent to Congress the first locomotives used in America, and on to secure the admission of Vermont to the con- Aug. 9, 1829, he engineered the Stourbridge Lion federation.
in the first locomotive trip made in America. ALLEN, FREDERICK DE FORREST, American Directly afterward he became connected with the classical scholar, was born at Oberlin, Ohio, 1844. South Carolina railroad, and built the first 100 After his graduation from Oberlin College (1863), consecutive miles of railway track ever operated; he studied at the University of Leipsic, and in 1866 also built High Bridge over Harlem River, New became a professor at the University of Tennes- | York City, and was first assistant engineer of the
After holding professorships at the Uni-Croton aqueduct. versity of Cincinnati and at Yale, he became, in ALLEN, IRA, American soldier, born in Corn1880, professor of classical philology at Harvard. wall, Connecticut, April 21, 1751. He was assoHe revised Hadley's Greek Grammar in 1884, and ciated with his brother, Ethan Allen, in the dishas edited a number of classical writings. He pute between New Hampshire and New York died Aug. 4, 1897.
over the land grants; and when the Revolution ALLEN, GEORGE, American scholar, was born broke out he became colonel of the militia, and at Milton, Vermont, Dec. 17, 1808; died at Wor- took part in the battle of Bennington. From 1776 cester, Massachusetts, May 28, 1876. He was to 1777 he was a member of the Vermont legislaprofessor of Greek at the University of Pennsyl- ture, and later of the constitutional convention of vania from 1845 until his death; published, in Vermont, the first secretary of the state, then 1860, a Life of Philidor.
treasurer, and surveyor-general. He was one of ALLEN, HENRY, a religious enthusiast, and the founders of the University of Vermont. While founder of the Nova Scotian sect, “Allenites," on a trip to France to purchase arms for the state was born at Newport, Rhode Island, June 14, of Vermont he was seized by the English and 1748; died at Northampton, New Hampshire, thrown into prison on a charge of furnishing the Feb. 2, 1784. He preached that Adam and Eve, Irish rebels with arms, and not until after eight in their state of innocence, were non-corporeal, years of litigation in the court of admiralty was and that all human beings in spiritual form par- he acquitted. He died in Philadelphia, Pennsylticipated in the original transgression. He denied vania, Jan. 7, 1814. the resurrection of the body.
ALLEN, JAMES LANE, an American author; born ALLEN, HARRISON, American physician, born near Lexington, Kentucky, in the heart of the bluein Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, April 17, 1841. He grass region. He was the youngest of a large famstudied medicine, and entered the United States ily, being of Scotch-Irish parentage. His writings army in 1862 as surgeon, resigning in 1865, after have attracted much attention, and are exceptionally attaining the brevet rank of major. Since then bright and interesting. They include Flute and Viohe has been professor of physiology in the Uni- lin (1891); The Blue Grass Region of Kentucky versity of Pennsylvania, professor of anatomy and (1892); John Gray (1893); A Kentucky Cardinal surgery in the Philadelphia Dental College, and (1894), and its sequel, Aftermath (1896); and A Sumsurgeon of the Philadelphia Hospital; has pub- mer in Arcady (1896). lished Outlines of Comparative Anatomy, and System ALLEN, JOEL Asaph, American zoölogist, was of Human Anatomy.
born in Springfield, Massachusetts, July 19, 1838. ALLEN, HEMAN, American lawyer, born in He studied at Wilbraham Academy, then at the Poultney, Vermont, Feb. 23, 1779. He was grad- Lawrence Scientific School under Agassiz, and uated at Dartmouth College in 1795, and then was with him on the expedition to Brazil in 1865. studied law; subsequently was sheriff of Chitten- He accompanied scientific exploring parties to den County, Vermont, chief justice of the county Florida and the Rocky Mountains, and was at the court, a member of the legislature, United States head of an expedition sent out by the Northern marshal for the district of Vermont, and from Pacific railroad in 1873. He became assistant in 1823 to 1827 minister to Chile. He died in High-ornithology at the Museum of Comparative Zoölgate, Vermont, April 9, 1852.
ogy at Cambridge in 1870, one year later receivALLEN, Henry Watkins, American soldier ing the Humboldt scholarship, and since 1885 has and statesman, born in Prince Edward County, been connected with the American Museum of Virginia, April 29, 1820. He fought in the Texan Natural History at New York; is the author of war against Mexico, and in the Civil War as a Monographs of North American Rodentia; History Confederate colonel, always acquitting himself of North American Pinnipeds; and works of a simihonorably. He was twice elected to the legisla- lar nature. ture, and in 1864 was made governor of Louisi- ALLEN, JOHN BEARD, American lawyer and ana. He died in the City of Mexico, April 22, Senator, born at Crawfordsville, Indiana, May 18, 1866.
1845. He lived at or near his native town, eduALLEN, HORATIO, American civil engineer, cating himself as best he could, until the spring of
1864, when he enlisted in the One Hundred and was the author or compiler of several volumes of
He was law school at Ann Arbor, Michigan. He was an uncle of Allen G. Thurman, of Ohio. At the admitted to the bar in 1869, and in 1870 removed early age of 24 years he acquired considerable to Olympia, Washington Territory, and entered fame by his successful defense of a client charged upon the practice of his profession. Within a with murder. This led, on account of his brilliant twelvemonth his practice grew to unprecedented pleading, to his election in 1831 to Congress, and dimensions for one so young, and he was regarded as the youngest member of the House. In 1837 as a lawyer of great promise and an orator of he took his seat in the Senate, being also the unusual force and ability. In 1875 he was ap- youngest member of that body. He was re-elected pointed United States attorney for Washington in 1843. In 1848 he refused the offer of the nomTerritory, a position which he held for more ination of the Democratic national convention than 10 years.
In 1887, he was elected to Con- for President because he was pledged to Lewis gress, and in 1889 he was chosen to represent the Cass's interests. He was made governor of Ohio new and vigorous state of Washington in the in 1873, and was a candidate again in 1875, but United States Senate.
was defeated by R. B. Hayes, afterward PresiALLEN, JOHN M., American Congressman,
Mr. Allen was
an impetuous, vehement born in Tishomingo County, Mississippi, July 8, speaker, advocated greenback currency as the 1847. He received a common-school education basis of the national monetary system, and was up to the time of his enlistment in the Confederate noted for the popular sobriquets attached to his army, in which he served through the war. He name. He died July 11, 1879. then studied at the law school of the Cumberland ALLEN, WILLIAM, an English chemist, was University, and subsequently at the University born in London, Aug. 29, 1770; appointed a lecof Mississippi, being admitted to the bar in 1870. turer in chemistry in Guy's Hospital in 1802; In 1875 he was made district attorney for the elected a fellow of the Royal Society in 1807; first judicial district of Mississippi, retiring four and was a contributor to Philosophical Transactions. years later. He was elected and served from the He was also famous as a philanthropist, becoming Forty-ninth to the Fifty-fourth Congresses, inclu- an active promoter of reformatory and benevolent sive, as a Democrat.
institutions. As a preacher of the Society of ALLEN, RICHARD, a Methodist minister, and Friends he made numerous visits to the continent first bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal of Europe. In 1822 he met the czar of Russia, (U.S.) Church, was ordained by Francis Asbury in their interview relating chiefly to school questions, 1799; became bishop in 1816, and died in Phila- the slave-trade and the independence of Greece. delphia, March 26, 1831.
He organized two labor training-schools in 1825 at ALLEN, RICHARD L., writer on agricultural | Lindfield, Sussex. He died at the latter place, subjects, was born in Hampden County, Massa- Dec. 30, 1843. chusetts, 1803, and died at Stockholm, Sweden, ALLEN, WILLIAM, cardinal, was born at Ros. Sept. 22, 1869. He became a merchant at Buffalo, sall, Lancashire, England, in 1532.
He was New York, and in 1842 established the American elected fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, 1550, Agriculturist, which soon obtained large cir- and, although a Catholic, retained this office until culation; wrote Diseases of Domestic Animals; 1560. The following year he sought refuge in American Farm Book; and works of a similar Flanders. He received priest's orders at Mechnature.
lin, founded the English College at Douay in ALLEN, THOMAS, an American artist. He 1568, and in 1587 was created cardinal, during was born in St. Louis, Missouri, 1849. Having his fourth visit to Rome. He possessed intellecstudied in the Rhenish provinces, he returned to tual and moral gifts of a high order, and as long America and opened a studio in Boston.
as he lived was the unrivaled leader of his co. an associate of the Academy of Design in New religionists. He died at Rome, Oct. 16, 1594. York and a member of the Society of American ALLEN, WILLIAM FRANCIS, American educator, Artists. His best work is in landscape.
born in Northboro, Massachusetts, Sept. 5, 1830. ALLEN, WILLIAM, author and educator, was He was graduated at Harvard College in 1851, born at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, Jan. 2, 1784; and passed two years of study in Germany and graduate of Harvard (1802); licensed to the Con- Italy; became instructor in the ancient languages gregational ministry (1804); succeeded to his in Antioch College, Ohio, and in 1867 professor father's charge in Pittsfield (1810); president of of Latin and history in the University of WisconDartmouth University (1817–20), and of Bowdoin sin. He published a number of text-books, also College (1820–39); retired to Northampton, Mas- a collection of Slave Songs. He died Dec. 9, 1889. sachusetts, where he died, July 16, 1868.
ALLEN, WILLIAM HENRY, an American edua prolific writer, but his American Biographical and cator, was born in Readfield, near Augusta, Maine, Historical Dictionary was his most noticeable pub- March 27, 1808. He was graduated at Bowdoin lication and went through several editions. He College (1833); successively professor of Latin