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and Greek in the Cazenovia Methodist Semin- 150 miles in length; rises near Magdeburg and ary (1833); of chemistry and natural philos- Aows northwestward, joining the Weser about 25 ophy in Dickinson College (1836); of philos- miles above Bremen. ophy and English literature in the same college ALLERTON, ISAAC, one of the “Pilgrim (1846); president of Girard College from 1850 to Fathers”?; born about 1583, sailed for America in his death, except during an interval of five years the first voyage of the Mayflower, and was an from 1863, for a part of which time he presided enterprising member of the colony until 1631, over the State Agricultural College. In 1872 he when he had a dispute with the settlers, and became president of the American Bible Society. removed to Marblehead, establishing several tradHe died at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, Aug. 29, ing-stations. He died in New Haven, in 1659. 1882.
Allerton's daughter, Mary, was the last survivor ALLEN, WILLIAM SULLIVANT VANDERBILT, an
of the Mayflower company. American painter, and illustrator in black and ALL-HALLOWS, ALLHALLOWMAS white. He was born Oct. 8, 1860, in New York ALL SAINTS' DAY, a church festival, celeCity; was a pupil, in France, of Gérôme and Claude brated on November ist.
brated on November ist. In 731 Pope Gregory Monet, and adopted the style of the impression- | III consecrated a chapel in Rome to the Virgin ist school, introducing it into his figure-pieces; a and all the saints, since which time the festival is member of the Society of American Artists; re- said to have been observed in that city. The sides in New York.
fourth pope of that name in 837 gave it obserALLENDE, a city in the southern part of the vance in France, where it is called La Tousaint. state of Chihuahua, in north-central Mexico. It It commemorates the faithful dead who have not is situated in a valley that penetrates the Sierra a special day of their own in the calendar, these Madre range of mountains from the east, and saints having become more numerous than days settled by the Spaniards in 1570. It is about 60 could be provided for them. The choice of the miles W. of Jiminez, on the Mexican Central day was probably due to the fact that the eve railroad, and was long a mere hamlet, but mining preceding .was one of the four great festivals developments have caused its recent rapid growth, among the northern nations, the policy of the and it has an estimated population of 12,000. Church being to substitute Christian for heathen
ALLENDE, a town in the northeast of the celebrations. This day is observed by Catholics, state of Coahuila, in northeastern Mexico. It is Lutherans, and Anglicans; but the Greek Church on Eagle Pass division of the Mexican Interna- observes a like festival on the Sunday following tional railroad, at its junction with a railway to Whit-Sunday. See HALLOWEVEN, Vol. XI, p. 398. Zaragoza, 10 miles to the N., and is 32 miles ALLIANCE, a manufacturing town situated S. from Ciudad Porfirio Diaz, on the Rio Grande. on the Mahoning River, about 57 miles from It is a place of growing commercial importance, Cleveland, Ohio, with which it is connected by railand has a reputed population of 15,000.
roads. It is 12 miles E. of Canton by the PittsALLENDE, JEAN RAFAEL, playwright and poet burg and Fort Wayne railroad, and is a railroad of Chile, and the Tyrtæus of his country during center. It is in a rich agricultural region, and is her war with Peru and Bolivia in 1879–83, his noted for manufactures of hardware, agricultural inspiring lyrics being published by the govern- implements, lumber, and carriages. It has bankment. In 1869, at the age of 19, he became a ing, express and other municipal facilities. Its journalist, and in 1884 founded El Padre Padillo, population in 1890 was 7,607. Mt. Union College in Santiago, his birthplace. He was the author is situated one mile from the town. of several successful plays and a number of vol- ALLIANCE OF REFORMED CHURCHES umes of verse.
THROUGHOUT THE WORLD is known as ALLENTOWN, a city and the county seat of Le- the Presbyterian Alliance, or Pan-Presbyterian high County, Pennsylvania. See Vol. I, p.583. Im- Council, the plan of which was discussed in New mense quantities of coal and iron ore pass through York City by representative men of various this city, and extensive blast-furnaces, rolling- Presbyterian communions who were in attendmills and iron-works are in constant operation. ance upon the meetings there of the Evangelical There are also numerous tanneries, machine-shops, Alliance in 1873. Communications were subsetube-works, shoe manufactories, fire-brick works, quently opened with the churches of Presbyterian and woolen and other mills. Allentown contains order everywhere for the purpose of forming an a prison which cost a quarter of a million dollars, association or council to consider matters of a handsome courthouse, and is the seat of Muh- common interest and to promote harmonious lenberg College and of Allentown Female College. action as to missionary work. These measures Population 1890, 25,228.
resulted in a conference in London in 1875, 100 ALEPPI OR ALLEPPI is a town in Travan- | delegates being present, during which a plan of core, India, on the coast of Malabar. It is 32 organization was formulated, and arrangements miles S. E. of Cochin, and has a considerable made for holding the first general council in marine commerce. A canal connects it with a Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1877, to be composed of coast lake called Backwater. The place is im- delegates from such Presbyterian communions as portant on account of its trade in teak, carda- should adhere to the union. At this first council moms and pepper. Population estimated at 25,000. there were present 249 delegates, ministerial and
ALLER, a navigable river of Prussia, about lay, from 40 different communions. The comALLIBONE- ALLINGHAM
mon ground upon which they met is thus defined every book published in the English language, in the constitution: “Any church organized or with sketches of each author, and excerpts from Presbyterian principles, which holds the supreme leading reviews or critical writers concerning each authority of the Scriptures of the Old and New important book. The first volume was published Testaments in matters of faith and morals, and by Peterson and Childs, of Philadelphia, in 1854, whose creed is in harmony with the consensus of and the third appeared 17 years later. It is a monuthe reformed churches, shall be eligible for ment of unwearying diligence, and comprises admission into the alliance.” The council is notices of about 46,500 writers. While not free composed of clerical and lay delegates in equal from errors and imperfections, there is no other numbers, formally chosen by the legislative body work extant to take its place among reference of the specific denomination they represent, but books, and the marvel is that one man should have it is without authority “to interfere with the creed had the requisite industry to produce it. or constitution of any church in the alliance, a continuation in two volumes appeared, edited by or with its external or internal relations." The John Foster Kirke.
The John Foster Kirke. Mr. Allibone compiled sevsecond general council was held in Philadelphia eral volumes of prose and verse quotations, dis(1880), and the third in Belfast (1884), the num- tributed by topics, and some pious books in the ber of delegates at each being close upon the interests of evangelical faith. He was twice an number at the Edinburgh meeting. The fourth editor and secretary for the American Sunday meeting was held in London (1888). The num- School Union, while between the ages of 50 and ber of delegates present was 275, representing 63. In 1880, he became librarian of the Lenox 25 countries and provinces, 78 branches, 1,392 Library in Newport. He resigned at the age of presbyteries, and 209 synods. The total num
72, went abroad, and died, Sept. 2,1889, in Lucerne, ber of church members represented at this coun- Switzerland. cil was 3,603, 209, who had contributed $30,000,000 ALLIES, THOMAS WILLIAM, born at Bristol, to religious objects during the year preced- England, in 1813. He was examining chaplain to
At the meeting in Toronto (1892) there Bishop Blomfield, who, in 1842, presented to him was an increase of four over the number that the rectory of Launton, Oxfordshire. He joined had been present in London. The sixth council the Roman Catholic communion in 1850, and met (1896) in Glasgow, Scotland. The objects of published the See of St. Peter, in which he accounted the organization are to promote fellowship, dif- for his conversion. He was excluded from the fuse information, advance missionary work and priestly office by his marriage, and subsequently reform, and to counteract infidelity and intoler- became secretary to the Catholic School Commitance. The alliance in 1896 embraced 91 different tee. He published, among other works, St. Peter, Presbyterian denominations throughout the world, His Name and Office as Set Forth in Holy Scripture; many of them, however, being missionary organi- The Formation of Christendom; Per "Crucem ad zations, and it is estimated that these denomina- Lucem, The Result of a Life; and Dr. Pusey and tions comprised about 26,000,000 adherents. Of the Ancient Church. these denominations, 10 were in the United States, ALLIGATION, meaning “to bind together," and include those denominations known as the is a rule of arithmetic relating to the solution of Dutch and German Reformed Churches before questions concerning the compounding or mixing they dropped the national epithet. Another or- of different ingredients, or ingredients of different ganization is the Welsh Presbyterian Church in qualities or values. The simplest form of alligation the United States. With the 600,ooo adherents is seen in the following example: 3 lb of coffee, @ of the Presbyterian Church in Canada, this Eng- 45C, are mixed with 5 tb, @ 550: what is the price
5 lish-speaking constituency of North America is of 1 lb of the mixture? The result is attained by believed to embrace 6,500,000 souls. The pro- adding the products of the price and quantities of ceedings of the councils are published in London each and dividing by two sums of the quantities; and other authorized papers from time to time, that is, add 135 to 275 and divide by 8. This
and are on sale by the gives the solution, 51/4 c.
VI, p. 729.
was Paterson. Going to London, she entered the delphia, Pennsylvania, schools of the Royal Academy in 1867, eventually and entered upon a mer- becoming one of the art staff of the Graphić. cantile career. While Amongst other bookwork, she furnished illusthus engaged he began to trations to the novels published in the Cornhill compile his laborious and Magazine. She also produced many watergreat Critical Dictionary color drawings, exhibiting at the leading galler
of English Literature and ies. The Milkmaid and Wait for Me were S. A. ALLIBONE. British and American hibited at the Royal Academy in 1874.
Next Authors, more briefly known as Allibone's Diction- year she was elected an associate of the Royal ary of Authors. It attempted to give the title of Society of Painters in Water Color, and in 1890
ALLINGHAM - ALLOPATHY
to the full membership. Her portraits of Carlyle | about 300 species. They are perennial, or rarely biare well known.
ennial, herbaceous plants, natives chiefly of the temALLINGHAM, William, a popular poet, of perate or colder regions of the northern hemisphere. English family, born at Ballyshannon, in Ireland, They are bulbous, with a characteristic odor, and bear in 1828. He contributed to the Athenæum, House- their flowers in an umbel at the summit of a scape hold Words, and other journals, while doing the which arises from the middle of a cluster of radical duties of a commissioner of taxes in London, and leaves. Some of the more common cultivated species in 1874 he succeeded Froude as editor of Fraser's are the garlic, onion, leek, shallot and chive. Magazine. In this year he married Helen Paterson, ALLMAN, GEORGE JAMES, an Irish naturalist, the artist. His first volume of poems appeared in was born at Cork, Ireland, 1812. Graduating in the 1850; his second, Day and Night Songs, in 1854, medical department at Trinity College, Dublin, 1844, and in an enlarged form, illustrated by Rossetti and he was appointed the same year to the chair of Millais, the year after. In 1864 first appeared, in botany in that college. In 1855, he became profesbook-form, Lawrence Bloomfield in Ireland, a narra- sor of natural history in the University of Edintive poem of contemporary Irish life. He published, burgh, Scotland, which position he held till 1870. in 1877, Songs, Ballads and Stories, a collection of His chief works include a History of the Freshnew pieces, together with revised versions of earlier Water Polyzoa, and Hydroida of the Challenger poems, and in 1887, Irish Songs and Poems. He Expedition. He was elected a fellow of the Royal died in London, Nov. 20, 1889.
Society, London, in 1854; and received the honoALLIOLI, JOSEPH FRANZ, a German Roman rary degree of LL.D. from Edinburgh University Catholic theologian, was born at Sulzbach, Aug. 10, after his retirement from his chair therein. In 1879 1793. He was appointed to the chair of theology at he was president of the British Association for the Munich, 1826, and later provost of Augsburg Ca- Advancement of Science. He was president of the thedral. He is known chiefly through his transla- Linnæan Society from 1874 to 1883. tion of the Bible into German, which work reached ALLMOUTH. See DEVIL-FISH, Vol. VII, p. 138. a sixth edition. He died, Aug. 22, 1873, in Augs- ALLOBROGES, a Celtic race of Gaul, allies of burg.
Hannibal at the time of his invasion, 218 B.C. They ALLISON, capital of Butler County, northeastern were subjected to the Roman yoke in 121 B.C., by Iowa, is situated in the center of the county, on Quintus Fabius Maximus, and from that time govthe Chicago and Great Western railroad, 23 miles erned as a part of Gallia Narbonensis. Their capital W. of Waverly. Population 1895, 436.
was Vienna (now Vienne), on the Rhône. ALLISON, John, an American politician. He ALLOCUTION, in the language of the Vatican, was born at Beaver, Pennsylvania, Aug. 5, 1812. denotes the address delivered by the pope to the After having served several terms in the state legis- College of Cardinals on any important ecclesiastical lature, he served two terms in Congress (1852-53, or political circumstance. When the papal court
. 1856-57). Conspicuous in founding the Republi- desires to guard a principle which it is obliged to can party, in 1860 he was also a delegate to the relinquish in a particular case, or to reserve a claim Republican convention which nominated Abraham for the future which has no chance of present Lincoln. He served as a staff-officer during the recognition, it makes use of this form of address. Civil War, and died at Washington, District of Allocutions are published by being affixed to the Columbia, in 1878, while holding the office of Regis doors of St. Peter's at Rome. trar of the United States Treasury.
ALLOMERISM, in chemistry, is the term applied ALLISON, WILLIAM B., an American Republican to crystalline matter possessing the property of restatesman, was born in Perry, Ohio, March 2, 1829, maining unchanged in form while varying in its
and educated at the West-chemical constituents or proportions.
1862, served four terms, 1865 to 1887. He published the Congregational and in 1873 was chosen United States Senator, in Psalmist and The Vision of God (1876), the latter succession to James Harlan. In 1878, 1884, and being a volume of his own sermons, which had an ex1890 he was re-elected. His present terın of office tensive sale. Yale College, New Haven, Connecticut, will expire March 3, 1897. In the Fifty-second conferred upon him the degree of D.D. in 1871. Congress he was chairman of the finance committee. St. Andrew's University, Scotland, conferred the In 1892 he was a delegate from the United States same degree upon him in 1885. He died in Lonto the international monetary congress at Brussels. don, Oct. 16, 1892.
ALLIUM, the largest genus of Liliacea, containing ALLOPATHY, a term originated by Hahnemann
WILLIAM B. ALLISON.
for a system of medical treatment founded on the found, of two tenths of one per cent zirconium with dictum expressed by Hippocrates that “opposites gold, yielding a bright green alloy, useful in the are remedies for opposites,” and which proceeded manufacture of jewelry. upon the plan of using medicines that in a healthy A committee of English engineers in 1895 made person induced conditions of a character antagonis- an exhaustive report on the subject of alloys, showtic to ose sought to be removed. The term has | ing the freezing-points of many combinations, and long been obsolete. It is objectionable, as scientific that many of them have two freezing-points. practitioners cannot restrict themselves to such ALL-SAINTS' BAY indents the coast of the provlinitations on the treatment of disease; as with the ince of Bahia, Brazil. It has a fine natural harbor, development, for instance, of bacteriology, entirely in which the navies of the world might ride at annew resources have been brought into prominence chor. The harbor has easy entrances on both sides and taken advantage of extensively. The practice of the island Itaparica. Its length from north to of allopathy was opposed to that of HOMEOPATHY; south is 37 miles, its breadth 27. q.v., Vol. XII, p. 129; Vol. XV, p. 814; also Hah- ALL SAINTS' DAY. See ALL-HALLOWS, in NEMANN, Vol. XI, p. 333.
these Supplements. ALLOTMENTS. In England allotments are ALLSOPP, SAMUEL, born in 1780. He was a small plats of common-land let to agricultural member of the brewing establishment of Alsopp and laborers, who cultivate them during their spare time. Sons at Burton-on-Trent, England. He was noted The custom of letting allotments varies in different for his charities. He died in 1838, and was sucparts of the country, a quarter of an acre being ceeded in the business by his sons, Charles, James, about the average size of plats. When wisely applied and Henry. The last-named entered Parliament in it has been found to be a beneficial system.
1874, and in 1880 was named a baronet. After his ALLOWAY, the birthplace of Robert Burns, the retirement from the firm he was raised to the peerScottish national poet. It is situated on the right age as Baron Hindlip. He died April 3, 1887. bank of the Doon, south of the town of Ayr, Scotland. ALL SOULS' DAY, a day of devotion in the The low, thatched cottage in which the poet was Roman Catholic Church, held on the ad of Novemborn, Jan. 25, 1759, was converted in 1880 into a ber. By prayers and almsgiving it is sought to Burns museum. The roofless ruin of the “haunted alleviate the sufferings of the souls in purgatory. It kirk” is still standing, and near by is the Burns was first instituted in the monastery of Clugny monument and the “aul'brig o’ Doon.”
(Cluny), France, in 993, A.D. Its origin is related ALLOXANTIN, a compound obtained by the mix- as follows: Returning from the Holy Land, a pilture of dialuricacid with alloxan. It formssmall, white, grim, by stress of weather, was stranded on a rocky hard, brilliant prismatic crystals, is freely dissolved isle between Sicily and Thessalonica. A hermit, , by boiling water, and its solution reddens litmus. whom he met on the isle, told him that among the
ALLOYS OF COPPER, TIN AND ZINC. See rocky ravines was the opening to the lower world. STRENGTH OF MATERIAL, in these Supplements. Flames were to be observed issuing from this open
ALLOYS, New. The study of alloys is carried ing, and even the agonized cries of the souls in toron systematically in connection with various trades, ment below could be heard. The hermit had also and is often discussed by engineering societies. heard the loud denunciations of the evil spirits Most of the valuable alloys of recent years contain against those who, by their prayers and alms, had aluminum, which metal has been subjected to a very been successful in securing the release of the torwide examination in many quarters. Aluminum mented souls therefrom. These evil spirits were bronze alloys are the most valuable yet discovered. specially exercised against the monks of Cluny. At
. The proportion of aluminum used is from 5 to 11% length, on reaching this monastery, the pilgrim per cent. The 10-per-cent mixture affords great acquainted Odilo, the abbott. The latter theretensile strength. It is yellow, melts at about 1700° upon announced the dedication of the day named F., and is malleable at a red heat.
for the special purposes mentioned above. Electrotypers have found an alloy of about 13 ALLSPICE, the fruit of Eugenia Pimenta and parts tin with aluminum to form a useful non- E. acris, also called pimento and Jamaica pepper. shrinking combination. A six-per-cent alloy of It is supposed to combine the favor of cinnamon, copper with aluminum has been found best for nutmeg, and cloves. The name is also applied to sheathing torpedo-boats. Steel alloyed with 8 per certain spicy plants, such as Calycanthus floridus cent of copper and 12 per cent of aluminum is (“sweet-scented shrub"); Chimonanthus fragrans, used for bicycle-frames. German silver and aluminum and Lindera Benzoin ("spice bush"). are also added to steel for the same purpose, a high ALLSTON, Robert FRANCIS WITHERS, tensile strength being secured, and the color being American governor; was born in All Saints' Parish, whiter than pure aluminum.
South Carolina, April 21, 1801. He graduated at Promethium of titan metal is the name of a new West Point in 1821, and was assigned to the artilalloy, consisting of 60 per cent copper, 38 zinc, 2 lery service, but resigned at the end of a year. He aluminum, a minute quantity of sodium being added returned to his native state, engaging in agriculture to the molten mass in casting. It possesses remark- and surveying, in both of which pursuits he became able resistance.
noted. He was made state surveyor-general in Recent tests show that a little arsenic adds strength 1823, holding the office four years. In 1828 he was to copper. Some experimenting has been done with elected to the legislature, and in 1831 was appointed the rarer metals, and one interesting alloy has been deputy adjutant-general, which office he held till
ALLSTON — ALMADEN
1838. He entered the state senate in 1832 and nomical term derived from the Arabic, applied to a became successively acting president and president. circle of altitude of the celestial sphere parallel to In 1856 he was elected governor of the state. He the horizon, or simply a circle or parallel of altipublished several works on rice culture and the cul- tude. The word is now commonly applied to an tivation of sea-coast plants. He died at his home instrument recently invented by S. C. Chandler for near Georgetown, April 7, 1864.
the observation of heavenly bodies as they cross a ALLSTON, WASHINGTON, American painter and given “almacantar line,” for the purpose of ascerpoet, born in Waccamaw, South Carolina, Nov. 5,1779. taining their right ascension and declination with He was graduated at Harvard in 1800, and studied greater accuracy than with a meridian circle, and at the Royal Academy, London, and also at thus affording more accurate data in determining Paris and Ronie, He returned to America in time and latitude. Its essential parts consist of a
1809, but again sought telescope accommodated with horizontal wires, the England in 1811, re- whole attached to a float sustained in a trough of maining seven years, mercury. The float, by being turned around the during which time he telescope, can be pointed east of the meridian, so produced The Dead Man that the time of a star's rising over the horizontal Revived, Uriel in the Sun, wires can be noted. Similarly, the time of its deand Jacob's Feast, be- scending can be fixed. Hence, the positions of the sides other pictures. In
In stars being known, it is possible to obtain correct 1818 he was elected an time and to determine latitude. If the correct timeand associate of the Royal latitude are known, the apparent positions of the stars Academy, London, and as to ascension and declination can be ascertained. in this year removed his ALMACK'S, the name of two places in London studio to Boston, where during the end of the last and earlier part of the pres
he painted Jeremiah, The ent century. The former was a gaming-club situated Witch of Endor, Miriam, Rosalie, Madonna, Spanish in Pall Mall; the latter place consisted of a suite of Girl, Spalatro's Vision of the Bloody Hand, and Bel- assembly-rooms in King William Street, St. James. shazzar's Feast. He also painted portraits of Cole. Both places became famous. They were under the ridge, Benjamin West, a countryman, who was management of William Almack, a tavern-keeper, president of the Royal Academy, and one of him whom his descendants claim to be a Yorkshireman, self. Allston was also a man of literary talent; his but who is generally believed to have been a Scotch books are The Sylphs of the Season, published in Highlander named MacCall, who disguised his naLondon (1813); The Paint King; The Two Paint- tionality, then little esteemed in London, and iners; Monaldi (1841); and Lectures on Art, and Poems, verted the syllables of his patronymic. The firstpublished posthumously (1850). He died in Cam- named resort became later known as “Brook's,” the bridge, Massachusetts, July 9, 1843.
resort of a famous Whig club. Among the original ALLUVION. See RIPARIAN Laws, Vol. XX, pp. members were the Duke of Portland and Charles 565, 566.
James Fox, subsequent members being Edward ALMA, capital of Wabaunsee County, northeast- Gibbon, William Pitt, and others of distinction. ern Kansas. It is situated at the intersection of the The other resort, “Almack's Assembly Rooms,” beUnion Pacific and Manhattan, Alma and Burlington came famous for the balls given there under the railroads, about 35 miles W. and S. of Topeka. It has management of a committee of ladies of high rank, good stone-quarries, and water-power furnished by and was noted for its exclusiveness. After the year a branch of the Kansas River. Population 1880, 362; 1840 its credit began to wane. The rooms have 1890, 1,125
since become known as Willis's Rooms, so called ALMA, a town in Gratiot County, northeastern from the name borne by Almack's heir. They are Michigan, on the Pine River. It is on the Detroit, used for dinners and concerts, as well as balls. Lansing and Northern, and Toledo, Ann Arbor and ALMADA, a town of Portugal, in the province Northern Michigan railroads. It is about 32 miles of Estremadura. It is built upon a height over the W. of Saginaw and 9 miles N. of Ithaca. It has Tagus, opposite Lisbon. It is principally known as considerable miscellaneous manufactures. It is the a depot for wine. Population, 5,091. seat of Alma College, a Presbyterian institution. ALMADEN is a township of Santa Clara County, Population 1880, 437; 1890, 1,655.
west-central California, named, on account of its ALMA, capital of Harlan County, central south-cinnabar-mines, from the Spanish Almaden, where ern Nebraska, situated on the left bank of the Re- were situated the most famous quicksilver-mines publican River, on the Grand River and Burlington ever known. The most productive mine is located and Missouri River railroads, about 20 miles W. of at the town of New Almaden, situated on a hill Bloomington. Population 1880, 298; 1890, 905. overlooking a picturesque valley. New Almaden
ALMA, capital of Buffalo County, central west- is connected by two spurs oi the Southern Paern Wisconsin, situated at the junction of the Mis-cific railroad, with Hillsdale in the northeast and sissippi and Buffalo rivers, on the Chicago, Bur-Campbell in the northwest. New Almaden is about lington and Northern railroads, 52 miles N. of La 20 miles S. of San José. The total amount of ore Crosse. In its vicinity are the noted “ Beef Slough of all descriptions roasted from 1880 to 1889 was Booms." Population 1890, 1,428; 1895, 1,529. 346,888.39 tons, from which were produced 217,095
ALMACANTAR OR ALMUCANTOR, an astro- flasks of quicksilver (76.5 pounds per flask).