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ALMANACS, AMERICAN. In 1637 there was the beauty and finish of their coloring. There is issued from the press of William Bradford, Phila- a preponderance among them of classical subjects. delphia, what is believed to have been the first gen- The following may be eral almanac published in the United States. From mentioned as a few of the 1726 to 1775 was issued an almanac from Dedhain, works embodying the genMassachusetts, commenced in the former year by eral characteristics of his Nathaniel Ames (q.v., in these Supplements), which art: Entrance to a Roman was conspicuous for its astronomical calculations. Theatre (1866); A Roman In 1732 Benjamin Franklin began his famous Poor Amateur (1868); The VinRichard's Almanac, which, on account of its thrifty tage (1870); The Mummy philosophy, achieved widespread fame. It was con- (1872); The Way to the tinued for twenty-five years. The next almanac of Temple, for which he reimportance was The American Almanac and Reposi- ceived the diploma of the tory of Useful Knowledge, commenced in 1828, and Royal Academy (1883); issued from Boston. It survived until 1861. It A Reading from Homer was revived as The National Almanac, with issues in (1885), exhibited at the 1863-64. In 1849 was commenced, by Lieutenant World's Fair; The Roses (afterward Rear-Admiral) Charles Henry Davis, of the of Heliogabalus (1888); A navy, The American Ephermis and Nautical Almanac, Dedication to Bacchus (1889), and At the Close of a which became the official authority in navigation. Joyful Day. In 1876 Alma-Tadeina exhibited a The first volume, computed for the year 1855, was series of three pictures at the Grosvenor Gallery, published in 1853. In 1878, A. R. Spofford, libra- entitled, respectively, Architecture, Sculpture, and rian of Congress, commenced the issue of his Painting; and at the same gallery, in 1883, there American Almanac and Treasury of Facts, Statistical, was a special exhibition of his works. He was Financial and Political. This compilation was con- elected A.R.A. in 1876, and R.A. in 1879. In tinued for ten years. Many of the leading news- 1878 he was made an officer of the Legion of papers have published almanacs for a number of Honor, and he has also received the decorations of years. Those published by the New York journals several continental orders of knighthood. His two cover a wide range and are excellent reference daughters, by his first wife, have already distinmanuals. Of these the best known are The World guished themselves by their artistic productions. His Almanac, The New York Herald Almanac, and The second wife—a daughter of Dr. George Epps—has Sun Almanac. The last is strong in its political secured notice, also, as an artist, having exhibited statistics, while the first is of general utility as a works at the Royal Academy and other galleries. year-book. These almanacs circulate all over the ALMEH OR ALMAH, the name given to a procountry. The ecclesiastical almanacs form an im- fessional female singer of the higher class in Egypt. portant class. They contain the statistics, each of The awâlim sing by appointment before the guests its own denomination, with clerical lists and an of the rich, being paid for their services. They account of educational and benevolent institutions. must be distinguished from the ghawazis, who are The sporting and dramatic interests are well served a common class of dancers. by yearly compilations of events and matters of a ALMEIDA, a seaport in the province of Espirito statistical and other nature. The manufacturing Santo, Brazil, founded in 1580 by the Jesuits. It is industries have also followed in this line, publishing situated at the mouth of the Reis-Magos, 20 miles and circulating condensed almanacs, accompanied N. of Victoria. Population, 4,000. by special information relating to their products. ALMEIDA-GARRETT, JOÃO BAPTISTA D', The vendors of patent medicines have very largely Portuguese statesman and poet, born at Oporto, Feb. adopted this means of advertising their remedies. 14, 1799. He became minister of public instruction So thoroughly have they developed this field that in 1820, holding the position until compelled to they issue these almanacs in all languages, making leave the country in 1823, on account of the politithem in many instances household necessities. All cal situation. Passing his exile in France, he there these almanacs have calendars which are based upon imbibed the ideas of the Romantic school, which led, the great Nautical for their astronomical data. For on his return to his native country in 1832, to his ageneral history of their origin and development, see making his remarkable collection of the folk-lore and ALMANACS, Vol. I, p. 590.

ballads of Portugal. He was thus the founder of a ALMANDINE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. national literature, pure and independent of foreign 411; also GARNET, Vol. X, p. 82.

influence. Besides this collection, called Romanceiro ALMANSUR OR ALMANZOR, four caliphs. See (3 volumes), he published a Historical Sketch of MANSUR, Vol. XV, p. 500.

Portuguese Literature; Adozinda, a romance in verse; ALMA-TADEMA, LAWRENCE, an English artist, and Camöens, an epic poem. He attempted to found

, was born at Dronryp, in the Netherlands, Jan. 8, a national drama, Auto de Gil- Vicente, the first of 1836, of a very ancient family. In 1852 he en- that class produced in Portugal (1838). After havtered the Academy of Antwerp, and subsequently ing been appointed minister to Belgium in 1834, studied under Baron Henry Leys. Having settled and holding other offices at home, he was made a permanently in England, he became a British peer in 1852. He died in Lisbon, Dec. 9, 1854. subject in 1873. His works are distinguished for ALMODÓVAR DEL CAMPO, a town of Ciudad their careful composition, accuracy of design, and Real, Spain, 22 miles S.W. of the city of that






The inhabitants are chiefly employed in amygdalin. The volatile principle is not originally silver - mining. Population, 10,362.

present in the bitter almonds. It does not contain ALMODÓVAR, ILDEFONSO DIAZ DE RIBERA, a trace of the oil already formed, so the oil is purely Count, born at Granada, Spain, 1777; distinguished the product of the fermentation of amygdalin, 100 himself in the war against the French upon their in- parts of which yield 47 of crude oil. Commercial vasion of Spain in 1808–14, for the purpose of estab- oil of the bitter almond has a golden color, but can lishing Joseph, the brother of the French emperor, , be purified until almost colorless. The crude oil is on the Spanish throne. On the restoration of Ferdi- very poisonous, owing to the prussic hydrocyanic nand VII, Almodovar, being suspected of favoring acid (chem. com. HC N) dissolved therein. the Liberal party, was confined in the dungeons of ALMONTE, a town in Lanark County, norththe Inquisition. Securing his freedom during the eastern Ontario, on the Mississippi River (a feeder revolution incited by the Spanish Liberals in 1820, of the Ottawa River), on the Canadian Pacific railhe retired to France in 1823, on the restoration of road, 35 miles S.W. of Ottawa. It has considerable the Spanish king. On the death of Ferdinand VII woolen manufactures and an iron foundry. Populain 1833, the count returned to Spain, and became tion 1895, 3,072. for a time minister of war, which office he relin- ALMONTE, JUAN NEPOMUCENO, a Mexican quished in 1843. He died Jan. 26, 1846, at Valencia. statesman, born at Valladolid, Mexico, in 1804.

ALMONACID DE TOLEDO, a Spanish town in He received his education in the United States, and the province of Toledo, 13 miles S.E. of the city of returned to Mexico, obtaining a position on the that name, noted as the place where King Joseph staff of Santa Anna. He served in the Texan cam(brother of Napoleon Bonaparte) defeated the Span-paign, and was made prisoner at the battle of San iards in 1809.

Jacinto (1836). On regaining his liberty he was ALMOND, a name applied to the stone or ker- made secretary of state under Bustamente, the nel of the fruit of Prunus communis, a genus of Mexican president, and quelled a rebellion in 1840. Rosacea. The plant is closely related to the peach, He was minister at Washington when the annexaand by some believed to be its ancestral form. The tion of Texas was resolved upon. Demanding his almond fruit has a hard and fibrous “flesh,” which passports, he returned home, and in 1845 was an has become pulpy and luscious in the peach. The unsuccessful candidate for the presidency of the kernel of the stone is the edible part. The almond Mexican republic.

Later he became minister of tree grows to the height of 20 or 30 feet, and is war under Paredes, who appointed him minister thought to be a native of the Mediterranean region to Paris, but he returned to Mexico before reaching and Western Asia, but has now become completely his destination, on hearing of the restoration to wild in the entire south of Europe. It appears to

It appears to power of Santa Anna. He took part in the war have been cultivated from a very early period, and is with the United States in 1847, and was present at mentioned in the Old Testament. It was intro- the battles of Buena Vista, Cerro Gordo and Chuduced into Britain before the middle of the sixteenth rubusco. He was again an unsuccessful candidate century as a fruit-tree, but it is only in the most for the presidency, but was appointed minister at favored situations of the south of England that it | Paris, from which post he returned to Mexico with ever produces good fruit. In California it is being the French in 1862. The French commander, deextensively and very successfully cultivated. The claring Juarez deposed, appointed Almonte in his wood of the almond tree is of a reddish color, and place, but the latter was unable to organize his gov. hard, and is used by cabinet-makers, etc. Almonds ernment. Subsequently he was made one of the are of numerous varieties, but they can all be grouped triumvirate to whom the French intrusted the manas sweet or bitter. The bitter appear to be the ori- agement of the affairs of the country. Under Maxginal kind, and the sweet a variety improved by imilian he was appointed lieutenant of the empire, cultivation. Large quantities of alinonds are an- and then marshal. On the fall of the emperor he nually imported into Britain and America from retired to Paris, and died there, March 20, 1869. France, Spain, Italy and the Levant. See ALMOND, ALMSHOUSES, termed poorhouses in Scotland Vol. I, p. 594

and workhouses in England. They are institutions ALMONDS, OILS OF. A fixed greasy oil exudes for the benefit of the sick and poor. In London, when almonds are subjected to pressure. Either almshouses were established in the reign of William bitter or sweet almonds may be employed; the former and Mary, and in Ireland in 1838. Compulsory are generally used, and are not so expensive as the labor for all paupers able to work was introduced in sweet. One hundredweight of the almonds gen- 16oo. In the United States, almshouses are mainerally yields from 48 to 52 pounds of the fixed oil. tained by municipal or county authorities, and It has a specific gravity of 918, and solidifies when town farms are attached in several states. Blackreduced to 13° F. It has no odor. It is used as well's Island in New York, Tewksbury and Deer medicine, and possesses a mild laxative property Island in Massachusetts, and Philadelphia County when administered in large does. The cake which Almshouse in Pennsylvania are among the celeis left after the expression of fixed oil from brated institutions of this character. The problem the bitter almonds is valuable in the preparation of involved in the treatment of the pauper class is one the essential oil. It contains, among other matters, of the most difficult among social studies. The sysa portion of two substances, called amygdalin tem in force is one of the miserable contemplations and emulsion. When the cake is made into paste of civilization. Whoever fail to be immediately comwith water, the synaptase, as a ferment, acts upon the mitted as vagrants, or to be sent to the houses of

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correction, find a ready asylum in the almshouses | 1,899 were illegitimate, 1,508 were said to have and learn to depend upon them, becoming chronic been abandoned by their parents, and 1,369 were refugees, whom nothing will seduce from such re- born in the institution. Of these children, 2,132 pose, or arouse to efforts of personal exertion for had their parents living, 2,666 had been surrentheir own support. Another deplorable phase of this dered to the institution, and 322 were foundlings. question is the treatment of idiots, epileptics and Of the causes of pauperism, 20,121 were classed as others afflicted similarly, constitutionally and incur- aged and infirm; 10,373 as being crippled; 4,094 ably. To these the doors of the almshouses have as drunkards, and 72,722 as having no other home. been open.

The more this tendency can be Of the total number, 29,521 were able-bodied. And checked, the simpler would be the general problem. as to the state of health, 22,695 were in good health, The distribution of this class of chronics among 13,236 were sick, 16,440 were insane, 7,811 were special hospitals and homes should be more system- idiots, 880 were crippled, and 3,983 blind and deaf; atically undertaken. In such an environment as is the rest being classed as paralytics, epileptics, etc. to be found in an almshouse, no children should be The total number of insane patients in asylums was reared. The congregation of such miscellaneous 58,866. Of the total number, 20,684 had no occuclasses cannot "fail to be prejudicial to the chil- pations, and 35,422 claimed residence in the states dren of inisfortune who have to be reared therein. to which the institution belonged. Of the total The more effective localization or settlement of number, 73,007 were maintained at the public cost, the poor in places wherein they have become iden- | 761 at the cost of the institution, and 311 at the tified is another of the chief means of dealing satis- expense of their friends. A comparison of the factorily with the problem. By this means proper figures shows that, among the larger cities, Philaidentification can be perfected, the tracing of wandelphia maintained, in 1890, 2,965 paupers; Chiderers made easy, and imposture rendered impossi- cago (Cook County) had 2,070; New York County ble. Uniformity of treatment is an important ele- (Blackwell's Island, etc.), 1,834; and King's County ment of success, that should be secured as far as organi- (Brooklyn), 1,036. zation and co-operation can accomplish. While ALMUCANTAR. See ALMACANTAR, in these nearly every county has its poorhouse, the systems Supplements. of different states, and even of the several counties ALMY, JOHN J., American naval officer, born in of one state, are not uniform. The following par- Rhode Island, April 25, 1814. He entered the ticulars furnish some interesting information on navy as midshipman, and rose through all the sucpoints which have been dealt with statistically. cessive grades to be rear-admiral in 1873. He saw The total number of paupers in the almshouses of much active service, and commanded the gunboats the United States in 1890 was 73,045; of which South Carolina, Connecticut and Juniata. While number 40,741 were males and 32,304 were females. commanding the second-nained he captured four Of the total number, 6,467 were colored, -3,354 blockade-runners with valuable cargoes, also destroy males and 3,113 females. In 1850 the total num

ing others.

He was retired April 24, 1877, and ber of paupers was 50,353 ; but the ratio to the mil- died May 16, 1895. lion of population was, in 1850, 2,171 ; while in ALMY, William, American philanthropist, born in 1890 the ratio was only 1,166 to the million. Of Providence, Rhode Island, Feb. 17, 1761. He was a the total number, there were 4,529 whose parents member of the Society of Friends, and became able (either one or both) were born abroad, and 10,608 to indulge his charitable inclinations on his marriage whose parents (one or both) were unknown to them; with an heiress. . Among his important charities was 27,648 were foreign-born, and 2,274 did not know the establishment of the New England yearly boardthe country of their birth. The preponderating ing-house, where he educated 80 young persons nationality represented is Irish, 16,246 fathers and at his own expense. He died Feb. 5, 1836. 16,173' mothers of the total number having been ALNWICK CASTLE. See Alnwick, Vol. I,

p. born in Ireland. From Germany came 7,836 596. fathers and 7,793 mothers. Of 16,991 male foreign- ALOE, AMERICAN. See Agave, under Aloe, Vol. born paupers, 8,094 were aliens, and 11,252 claimed I, p. 597. to have resided ten years or more in the United ALOES, a drug which is the inspissated juice or States. As to the literacy of the total number, extract of several species of the genus Aloë, one of 66,590 could speak English, 27,085 were illiterate, the Liliacea, and a native of tropical regions; a and 40,441 could read and write. Of the 5,871 stimulating and purgative drug of bitter taste, and children under sixteen years of age, 4,058 were much used in medicine, combined with other cathartaught neither in the institution nor in the public tics. The various kinds known in commerce are schools. As to the marital relations of the total named from their geographical source (Socotrine number, 39,278 were single, 11,571 were married, aloes, Zanzibar aloes, Barbadoes aloes, Cape aloes, 18,421 were widowed and 711 divorced; the balance Natal aloes, etc.), and are mostly obtained from were not classified. Of the total number 2,555 different species. were under 5 years of age, 1,783 were 5 and under 9, ALOES-WOOD is the heart-wood of Aquilaria 1,289 were 10 and under 14, and 1,623 were 15 to 20. Agallocha, a tree of the family Thymeleacea, native There were 68 inmates over 100 years of age, the old- of the tropical parts of Asia, and supposed to be the est recorded age being 123, attained by a pauper in lignaloes of the Bible. Aloes-wood contains a Georgia. Of 15,460 paupers, 9,828 had children; dark-colored, fragrant, resinous substance, much and of the 5,871 children under 16 years of age, l esteemed in the East as a medicine and for the



I 21.

pleasant odor it diffuses in burning, and especially eastern Michigan, situated on the shore of Lake by the Chinese as an incense in their religious cere- Huron, at the head of Thunder Bay and the mouth monies. Named also Agallochum.

of Thunder River. It is on the Detroit and MackALOFSEN, SOLOmon, historian and bibliophile, inaw railroad, 105 miles N.E. of Alger, the juncborn in Amsterdam, Netherlands, Nov. 22, 1808. tion of the railroad named with the Michigan He came to the United States in early manhood, in Central, and which point is 148 miles N. and W. the diplomatic service. Liking the country, he of Detroit. Alpena has three lines of passenger resolved to make it his home, marrying an Ameri- steamers. A United States fish-hatchery is located can lady, and became connected with the railroad here. The harbor is an excellent one; the annual business. He pursued the study of history and manufacture of lumber is about 130,000,000 feet. ethnology, and was an assiduous book-collector, The city is the headquarters of an extensive trade in especially of Americana, which became particularly extract of hemlock. Population 1894, 12,139. rich in works relating to the Civil War. He died ALPHAND, JEAN CHARLES ADOLPHE, a French in Arnheim, Holland, Oct. 10, 1876.

civil engineer, born at Grenoble, Oct. 26, 1817. ALOGI, a religious sect that came into existence Having received his training at the technical and during the second century. The Alogians denied the engineering schools of Paris, and being assigned to doctrine that Jesus is the Logos, or divine “Word,” Bordeaux, he was appointed, in 1843, engineer of and rejected the gospel of St. John and the Apoc- bridges and highways of that neighborhood. In alypse. They also considered that the gift of this position he came under the notice of the premiracle mentioned in the New Testament had ceased fect, Baron Haussman, who, on his becoming prefect to be operative.

of the Seine, called Alphand to his assistance as ALOMPRA, a Burmese king. See BURMAH, Vol.

See BURMAH, Vol. engineer of the improvements of the city of Paris. IV, p. 556.

This work gave Alphand full scope for the developALOPECIA. See Skin DISEASES, Vol. XXII, p. ment of his genius, and to him are due those mar

velous creations that transformed the old into the new ALORA, a town of Spain, in the center of the Paris. After the Franco-Prussian war he was approvince of Malaga. It is 24 miles N.W. of Mal- pointed by President Thiers, and also by President aga, on the Guadalhorce. Oil-pressing and soap- MacMahon, to fill the chief offices of the city's special manufacturing are its chief industries. It contains services. No work in the city or the prefecture of the ruins of an ancient castle. Population, 10,014. the Seine could be undertaken without Alphand's

ALOSA, a genus of fishes of the Clupeide or her- approval. He exhibited great ingenuity in obliteratring family. The name was originally given by ing the traces of the siege of Paris by the Germans Pennant to the allice-shad (A. communis). The genus and the destructive work of the Commune. Having contains two British species,—the one just named, had an important share in the work of the expoand the A. finta, or twaite shad; one American species, sition of 1878, he was chosen as the director-general the A. scepidissima, or white shad; and one Chinese of works of the exposition of 1889, with which he species, the A. reevesi. They are characterized combined other offices connected therewith. In this by compressed bodies, trenchant abdomens, ter- year he was promoted to the Grand Cross of the minal mouths and broad submaxillaries. They are Legion of Honor. He found time during his busy anadromous, like salmon, ascending rivers in career to write two important works : Les Promenspring, for spawning. The American shad is prized ades des Paris, and Arboretum et Fleuriste de la as a food-fish. It is found naturally all along the Ville de Paris, which he treated in a general and Atlantic coast, and has been propagated artificially interesting manner. He died Dec. 6, 1891. in the larger rivers of the Gulf and Pacific coasts. ALPHARETTA, capital of Milton County, northTheir roes are also regarded as a delicacy.

central Georgia, five miles N.E. of Roswell, the ALOYSIUS, LUIGI GONZAGA, Saint, an Italian terminus of a short spur from the main line between churchman, canonized in 1726 by Benedict XIII Charlotte and Atlanta. Population 1890, 256.


. (calendar day, June 21st). He was born March 9, ALPINE, capital of Brewster County, southwest1568, being a son of one of the most noble families ern Texas, on the Southern Pacific railroad, 223 in Italy. His mother imbued him with the spirit of miles S. and E. of El Paso by rail, and 20 miles early piety, which developed in him to a remarkable S.E. of Fort Davis. Population 1895, 396. degree as he grew into manhood, his self-denial ALPINE CLUB, The, was formed in 1857, in and mortification of the body, even while suffering London, England, for the promotion of mountainseverely under the effects of wasting disease, being climbing, which was at first confined to a few scienconspicuous. He commenced his novitiate with the tists. With the gradual accumulation of knowledge, Society of Jesus at St. Andrew's, Rome, Nov. 25, more concerted efforts were suggested, resulting in 1585, and took his vows two years later. In 1591, the formation of this club, its actual origination on the outbreak of a terrible epidemic, he fell sick being due to William Mathews. Its first president of the distemper and his life was despaired of; but was John Ball, who had been famed for his exploits he recovered, and fell into an ecstasy, during which in mountaineering, and who later published, in conhe realized the approach of his own death, which nection with the club, three volumes dealing with occurred, as he had foretold, June 21, 1591. He was the western, central and eastern Alps. The chiet buried at the Church of the Annunciation, a rich social events of the club are two annual banquets, memorial chapel being there built under his name. given, one during the summer and one during the

ALPENA, county seat of Alpena County, north winter, at the club's rooms, 23 Saville Row, London, ALPINE PLANTS-ALSATIA


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W. The Alps were the scene of the first deter- ALSACE-LORRAINE. For the earlier history mined attempts in mountaineering. Horace Benedict and the narrative of the transfer of this “Reichsland, de Saussure had, in 1760, offered a premium for the or imperial land, from France to the German empire, discovery of a practicable route to the summit of Mont see Alsace, Vol. I, pp. 636, 637. The laws under Blanc. This premium was secured by Jacques Bal- which the country is governed were voted by the mont, a guide, who reached the long-sought point, German Reichstag, June 9, 1871; June 20, 1872; June Aug. 8, 1786, accompanied by Dr. Paccard. The 25, 1873; May 2, 1877; July 4, 1879; and Sept. 28, following year Saussure himself accomplished the 1885. By the law of June 9, 1871, it is enacted that adventure, August 3d. Thus to the famous French “the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, ceded by physicist truly belongs the title of “Father of Moun- France in the peace preliminaries of Feb. 26, 1871, taineering." See SAUSSURE, Vol. XXI, p. 324. The under limits definitely fixed in the treaty of peace following is a summary of first ascents accomplished of May 10, 1871, shall be forever united with the by members of the club: The Matterhorn, by German empire.” The constitution of the German Whymper (1865); the Schreckhorn, by Stephen empire was introduced in Alsace-Lorraine on Jan. (1861); Cotopaxi and Chimborazo, in the Andes, by 1, 1874. The administration is under a governorWhymper (1880); Mount Cook, in New Zealand, by general, bearing the title of “Statthalter." Greene (1882). The members of the club maintain The present incumbent(1896) is Prince von Hohena periodical, established in 1863, and issued quar- lohe-Langenburg, Count von Gleichen. Accordterly, as the Alpine Journal. Austria, Switzerland, ing to the constitutional law of July 4, 1879, the Italy and Germany followed the example of England emperor of Germany appoints the statthalter, who by establishing Alpine clubs; and in America is the exercises power as the representative of the imperial Appalachian club, whose home is in Boston.

government, having his residence at Strasburg. A ALPINE PLANTS, an appellation given to plants ministry, composed of three departments, with a which are found at elevations above timber-line in responsible secretary of state at its head, acts under the the Alps of central Europe, or in mountainous statthalter, who also is assisted by a council of state, regions in any part of the world, whose natural place comprising the statthalter as president, the secretary of growth is near snows that are never melted. The of state at the head of the ministry, the chief provinsmall spaces clear of snow in the highest regions cial officials, and eight to twelve other members aphave a very characteristic flora, the plants of which pointed by the emperor, of whom three are presented are distinguished by a low, diminutive habit, and an by the landesausschuss, or provincial committee. inclination to form thick tufts; the stems are often this committee, which attends to local legislation, partly or altogether woody, and their flowers are in consists of 58 members. The Reichsland has an area proportion large and brilliantly colored. With these of 5,601 English square miles. It is administratively flowering plants are associated a number of delicate divided into three bezirke, or districts, called Oberferns and beautiful mosses. A remarkable similarity Elsass," Unter-Elsass, and Lothringen, the first of exists among the Alpine plants of the most widely which is subdivided into six and the other two each separated regions, and also between Alpine plants into eight kreise, or subdivisions. The population in and those of Arctic regions. In ascending a moun- 1890 was 1,603,506. The budget estimates of pubtain to the region of perpetual snow the same plant- lic revenue of Alsace-Lorraine for the year 1895-96 zones are traversed as those passed over in traveling amounted to 50,909,323 marks, the estimates of exfrom the lower latitudes to the Arctic region. It is penditure amounting to the same sum. held, therefore, that Alpine plants are but stranded also, an extraordinary revenue of 4,190,517 marks, Arctic plants, indicating a former very wide extension and an expenditure of the same amount. More than of Arctic conditions. See Arctic-Alpine and Antarc- half of the total revenue is derived from customs tic Alpine Floras, DISTRIBUTION, Vol. VII, pp. and indirect taxes, while one of the largest branches 287-289.

of expenditure is for public instruction. AlsaceALPINUS OR ALPINI, PROSPERO. See Alpini, Lorraine has a debt consisting of three-per-cent Vol. I, p. 619.

rentes in circulation to the amount, for the year ALPNACH, a village in the canton of Unter- 1894-95, of 740,286 marks. The farms support a walden, Switzerland, situated near Mount Pilatus, population of 627,800, of whom 302,593 were actively and some miles S.W. of Lucerne. It was famous engaged in agriculture. Alsace-Lorraine yields the for its wooden “slide," a trough by means of which usual cereals, and it is also a great wine-producing timber cut on Mount Pilatus was transported a dis- country. Of the 1,700 communes, 1,028 have vinetance of eight miles to the edge of that portion of the yards. In 1893–94, 1,126 hectares were planted lake of Lucerne called Lake Alpnach. Water was with tobacco, and yielded 2,801 metric tons of dried allowed to trickle continually into the trough to tobacco. The cotton manufacture is the most imprevent the effects of friction. The slide is now in portant in Germany; woolens are produced on a disuse, the timber being brought down by horses smaller scale. In 1894, minerals to the value 16,343,and oxen. Population, 1,679.

644 marks were raised in the Reichsland. There ALRANNEN OR ALRUNÆ, were priestesses were 1,005 miles of railway in Alsace-Lorraine in among the ancient German tribes. The word was also 1894, of which 922 belonged to the state. applied to the diminutive images cut from wood to ALSATIA, a cant name applied to the Whiterepresent these women. The images were friars district of London, adjoining the Temple, shiped as household divinities, and used also as Strand, between Fleet Street and the Thames, which, idols in the ceremonies of their religion.

on account of the existence therein of a convent of

There was,


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