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AL SIRAT-ALTENSTEIN

the Carmelites (White Friars) founded in 1241, was that city. The river widens into the sound of the believed to have possessed the privilege of sanctuary. same name, a prominent feature of the Atlantic The name Alsatia was derived from the French Al- coast of Georgia.

Below Seward the towns of sace, which was associated in the popular mind as Altamaha and Matlock are on its left bank and the seat of repeated contests, and was first applied Doctor's Town on its right. In its course it flows to the district defined about 1680. The locality through a rather poor section of the state as to soil, became so notorious that in 1697 any privileges that but it and its main confluents are navigable by veswere supposed to have existed were abolished by law. sels of low tonnage. See GEORGIA, Vol. X, p. 434A recent investigator asserts that no such right of ALTAMIRANO, IGNACIO MANUEL, a Mexican sanctuary was ever possessed by the district.

soldier and poet, born about 1835, in the province AL SIRAT, literally, “the way,” is an imaginary of Guerrero, of pure Aztec blood. He studied law bridge as narrow as a spider's thread, believed by and entered politics, allying himself with the Mohammedans to extend between earth and para- extreme radical party. He fought against the dise. In its passage, those overladen with sin fall French upon their invasion of Mexico and during into the abyss of Hades below.

the rule of the emperor Maximilian, reaching the ALSOP, RICHARD, American author, born in Midrank of colonel. Retiring from active military life dletown, Connecticut, Jan. 23, 1761. Meant for at the close of the war, he became a member of the a mercantile career, he studied at Yale College, but constitutional congress of 1861. He was a remarkdesiring to devote himself entirely to literature, he able linguist, had no equal as an orator in Mexico, left college before the completion of his course. and was a graceful writer of prose and verse, his He organized the “Hartford Wits,” an association of novel Clemencia being well known. He died in active local littérateurs of strong Federal sympathies, Italy in February, 1893. who were relentless in their ridicule of all that ALTAMONT, capital of Grundy County, central did not meet their approval. The vehicle for southern Tennessee. It is in the center of the these effusions was the publication called The Echo, county, about 13 miles N. of Tracy City, on the which appeared, in series, from 1791 to 1795, Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis railroad.

, . republished in collected form in 1807. Alsop had Population 1890, 67. a powerful influence on public opinion and was ALTAZIMUTH, an astronomical instrument for strongly anti-Democratic. He published, among determining the apparent places of the heavenly other works, a Monody on the Death of Washington bodies in the celestial sphere. It consists of a hori

a . (1800); The Enchanted Lake of the Fairy Morgana zontal and vertical circle, both graduated, the latter (1808); The Natural and Civil History of Chili, a attached to the axis of the telescope. By it the translation of an interesting work by the Italian, altitude and azimuth (angle) of the heavenly body Juan Ignacio Molina.

He died in Flushing, Long under observation is ascertained. The principal Island, Aug. 20, 1815.

one in existence is that at Greenwich, designed by ALSTER, a river in Holstein. At Hamburg it Sir George Airy. Small instruments of this kind forms a lake called the Great, or Outer, Alster, are used in surveys. See GEODESY, Vol. X, pp. 164which was outside the old fortifications, and within 171. the town the Inner Alster. It flows into the Elbe. ALTEN, KARL AUGUST, COUNT von, Hanoverian See HAMBURG, Vol. XI, p. 404.

general, born at Burgwedel, in the vicinity of HanALSTROEMER OR ALSTRÖMER, KLAUDIUS, over, Oct. 20, 1764; entered the army in 1781. In a Swedish naturalist and pupil-friend of the great 1803 he went to England, where he became comLinnæus, who named a botanical genus (Alstre-mander of the German legion. He was actively MERIA, q.v.) after him. In Spain he studied the engaged in the Peninsular War, and also at Quatrenative fine-wooled sheep, and published a treatise on Bras and Waterloo. He became minister of war on the subject in 1770. He died March 5, 1796, aged his return to Hanover. He died April 20, 1840, at 60. He was a son of JONAS ALSTROEMER; q.v., Vol. I, Bozen, Austria-Hungary. p. 638.

ALTENA, a town in the district of Arnsberg, ALSTREMERIA OR ALSTRÖMER'S LILY, a Westphalia, Prussia. It manufactures needles, pins genus of Amaryllidacea, cultivated for its flowers and and hardware. Population, 8,787. curious leaves. The A. Salsilla, a native of Peru, is ALTENESSEN, a town 2 miles N. of Essen, cultivated in the West Indies for its tubers, which are in Rhenish Prussia, and 21 miles N.E. of Düsseleaten like those of the potato. A kind of arrow- dorf. It is noted for its coal-mines, which supply root is prepared in Chile from the roots of A. pallida the extensive iron-foundries at Essen. Population and other species. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, 1890, 12,295. D. 250.

ALTENGAARD, a hamlet in Finmarken, the ALTAMAHA, a river in Georgia, which, with its northernmost province of Norway, situated on the two feeders, the Ocmulgee and Oconee and their south side of the Alten Fiord, in 69° 55' N. lat., 53 numerous affluents, drains the middle-central portion miles S.W. of Hammerfest. It is the most northern of the state as far north as Hall and Gwinnett | European point at which grain (barley) is cultivated. counties. The junction of the Ocmulgee and The only other vegetable produced is the potato. Oconee is effected near a small town named Seward, A meteorological and magnetic station is located in the southeastern corner of Montgomery County. there. The junction is in a direct line 85 miles N.E of ALTENSTEIN, KARL, BARON VON, a Prussian Darien, the mouth of the river being 12 miles above | statesman, born at Anspach, Bavaria, Oct. 7, 1770.

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ALTERATIVES- ALTHEN

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He is remembered in Germany as having been the sporophyte becomes the leafy phase, and the instrumental, in 1815, with Baron Humboldt, in gametophyte is reduced to the small, inconspicuous, securing the return of the works of art and literature but usually independent, phase called the prothalwhich the French had carried away to Paris. He lium. In 'the spermophytes (flowering plants) the held the office of minister of public instruction and gametophyte becomes so much reduced that it is deworship from 1817 to 1838. He died in Berlin, veloped in connection with the sporophyte, and lives May 14, 1840.

upon it parasitically. The ordinary flowering plant ALTERATIVES, in medicine, is a term applied to is the sporophyte phase, incapable of producing sexremedies which have a tendency to alter the nutri- organs, the stamens and pistils (wrongly called tive processes. This group includes a number of “sexual") being only organs for the development substances of diverse properties, of which the action of non-sexual spores (the pollen grain and embryois obscure, but the results often of great value. sac). The gametophytes, developing the true sexual Among the most important alteratives are various cells, or gametes, are developed by the germination preparations of arsenic, mercury, iodine, phosphorus, of these non-sexual pollen grains and embryo-sacs, gold, cod-liver oil, colchicum, sarsaparilla,-many of the development, however, being so feeble that the thein irritant poisons when taken in improper doses, gametophyte from the spore known as the embryobut, when used in small, continuous doses, effect im- sac remains entirely within it; while the gametophyte provements in the nutrient and digestive functions, from the pollen-spore is composed of but a cell or that are highly important in the treatment of cer- two, but develops the structure known as the “pollentain eruptive troubles and glandular swellings, with tube.” See Biology, Vol. III, p. 687; REPRODUCout causing other derangements characteristic of TION, Vol. XX, pp. 429-431. JOHN M. COULTER. such drugs when taken in large doses.

ALTGELD, JOHN PETER, politician. He was ALTER EGO, meaning “another self,” is a born in Germany, Dec. 30, 1847, and came with his term sometimes given as a title to one who is at parents to Ohio two years later. He entered the complete liberty to act for another. It was applied Union army in 1864; was elected judge of the superior

| to a Spanish viceroy when exercising regal power, court of Cook County, Illinois, in 1886, and governor and was also used in other kingdoms, including of the State in November, 1892, as a Democrat, his France. It is now used to refer to a particularly term expiring January, 1897. Governor Altgeld has dear friend,-a second self."

published two volumes of essays on Live Questions, ALTERNATOR, an electrical term applied to of broad views on social matters. He attracted the apparatus by means of which the generation of national attention in June, 1893, by pardoning the alternate currents is obtained. Dynamos with such Chicago anarchists, and again in July, 1894, by his apparatus have become of special interest and im- bitter public criticism of President Cleveland for portance in connection with electric lighting. ordering out Federal troops to suppress the great

ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS, in railroad strike in Chicago. At the National Demoplants, is one of the most fundamental facts of cratic Convention in Chicago, July 7-11, 1896, he morphology. It signifies that in the life-history of is said to have inspired the following clause in its a single plant two dissimilar phases occur which platform: “We denounce arbitrary interference by alternately produce each other. A simple illustra- Federal authorities in local affairs as a violation of tion may be taken from a moss-plant: The ordi- the constitution of the United States, and a crime nary leafy plant bears the two sex-organs (antherid against free institutions, and we especially object to ium and archegonium), each of which develops its government by injunction as a new and highly danpeculiar sexual cells (gametes). This leafy phase, or gerous form of oppression, by which Federal judges, “ generation,” is therefore called the gametophyte. in contempt of the laws of the states and rights of When the two gametes fuse in the act of fertiliza- citizens, become at once legislators, judges and execution the result is a reproductive cell, called the ioners." He was defeated, Nov. 3, 1896, by John oospore. When this oöspore germinates it does not R. Tanner, the Republican nominee for governor. reproduce the leafy phase, or gametophyte, on which ALTHÆA, a genus of plants of the family Malit was produced, but gives rise to a totally different vaccæ, including the hollyhock (Althæa rosea) and the phase, or “generation,” which consists usually of a marsh-mallow (Althæa officinalis). It is a common long stalk bearing a capsule full of spores. As this name for the Hibiscus Syriacus of botanists, somephase is characterized by producing no sex-organs, times called Shrubby Althæa and Rose of Sharon. but producing abundant spores in non-sexual The genus Althæa is a native of the warmer parts way, it is called the sporophyte

. When the spores of of Europe, but it thrives well in America, and is one the sporophyte germinate they give rise to a new of the most frequent of ornamental plants. There leafy generation, or gametophyte. In this way the are a great number of varieties raised by florists. gametophyte generation alternates with the sporophyte It is also cultivated in Japan, where it is called generation, each in turn producing the other. This “Mukinge," and is used for hedges. alternation of generations appears in a somewhat ALTHEN, EHAN OR JEAN, a Persian who introindefinite way in thallophytes, but is very distinct duced the cultivation of madder into France. He and constant in all the higher plant-groups. The was born in 1711, his father being a provincial govsporophyte and gametophyte are most distinct from ernor of Persia. He was the only member of his each other, and most independent in the bryophytes family that escaped massacre in the revolution (liverworts and mosses) and pteridophytes (ferns, accomplished by Thanas-Kouli-Khan. He was horse-tails, and club-mosses). In the latter group captured by a roving band of Arabs and was sold

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into slavery at Smyrna. He effected an escape, and, ployed him, in 1840, to make historical research in concealing some madder seeds about his person (the the north of Europe. After his return Dr. Altmeyer penalty for the exportation of which was death), he published The Diplomatic and Commercial Relations carried them with him to Marseilles. The soil and of the Netherlands with the North of Europe in the climate of Vaucluse appeared to him to suit the plant, Sixteenth Century. The great work of his life, in and he experimented therein with great success, thus which he spent 40 years, was his labor among the adding largely to the wealth of the district. Treated archives of Belgium for the purpose of publishing with neglect in after-life, he died in poverty, but an exhaustive work on The Netherlands in the Sixwas posthumously honored by the erection of a teenth Century. He had published five volumes when marble slab to his memory in Avignon, while his he was compelled by failing health to desist from the daughter was the inmate of a charitable institution. work. At his death the government took possession He died at Caumont, in 1774.

of his manuscripts, for preservation and future pubALTHING, the ancient parliament or general lication. Among his most important works are a assembly of Iceland. It was formed soon after the Course of Philosophy of History (1840); Margaret of first settlement, when the inhabitants organized | Austria: Her Life, Policy and Court (1840); Sumthemselves into a republic and adopted one consti- mary of Modern History (1842); The Sea-Beggars tution for the whole island. The first althing met and the Capture of Brille (1863), and Campaigns of 930 A.D., and adopted a code of laws arranged by Louis XIV in Belgium (1864). He died at Brusone Ulfjot, who, it is said, spent three years in sels, Sept. 15, 1877. Norway fitting himself for the task.

The althing, ALTMÜHL, a river, rising near Hornau, a village in which all authority was vested, both legislative in Bavaria, flowing southeastward, and falling into and judicial, met once a year, in the month of June, the Danube after a course of 100 miles, at Kelheim, and was presided over by a " speaker of laws." In west of Ratisbon. The Altmühl constitutes part of 1263, when Iceland was united with Norway, the the Ludgwigs canal, from Dietfurt to Bambergalthing was deprived of its legislative authority, on-the-Regnitz (33 miles N.W. of Nuremberg), by but continued to meet as a judicial body until the means of which it is possible to make a passage by year 1800, when it was abolished. It was, however, boat from the Black Sea to the German Ocean, and reorganized in 1843 as a parliament to consider Ice- also opens communication between the Danube and landic local interests, and in 1874 its powers were the Rhine. This was first accomplished August, 1836. considerably increased. See ICELAND, Vol. XII, pp. ALTO, in music, is properly the same as counter618,621.

tenor, the male voice of the highest pitch. The ALTISCOPE, an instrument having a telescopic lowest female voice is properly contralto, though in tube and mirrors arranged so as to enable the printed music the second part in a quartet is always observer to look over a parapet, wall, or other object entitled alto. intercepting the view. It is really a form of field- ALTO AMAZONAS, a province or state in telescope which is designed to be pointed upward Northern Brazil, is bounded on the north by Dutch vertically and extended until the object-glass is and British Guiana and Venezuela, west by Colonabove the object to be overlooked. The tube turns bia, Ecuador and Peru, south by Bolivia and the with a right angle at the top and with a reverse right province of Matto Grasse, and east by the province angle at the bottom, and mirrors are inserted at of Para. In its extensive western area it is drained these points to change the direction of vision. The by the chief constituents of the river Amazon; viz., principal use of the instrument is for looking over the Madeira, the Purus, the Jurua, the Javari, the embankments during military operations, when it Yapura, and the Rio Negro.

Yapura, and the Rio Negro. Above Manaos, or would be dangerous for an observer to expose him- Barrado Rio Negro, at the junction of the Rio self.

Negro, the Amazon is called the Soliinões River. ALTITUDE, in astronomy, is the height of a The Madeira joins the main river about 150 miles heavenly body above the horizon. It is measured below Manaos, the capital of the state. The eastern by the angle which a line drawn from the eye to the portion is also drained by numerous branches of the heavenly body makes with the plane of the horizon, great river. The area of the state is 732,460 square or by the arc of a vertical circle intercepted between miles, and population in 1888 was 80,654. Manaos the body and the horizon. The correct determina- has a population of 6,000. The state provides two tion of altitudes is of great importance in problems deputies to the chamber, and three senators to the of astronomy and navigation. See NAVIGATION, senate. Vol. XVII, pp. 268,271.

ALT-OFEN, a part of BUDAPEST; q.v., Vol. IV, ALTMEYER, JEAN JACQUES, a Belgian historian, p. 423. was born at Luxemburg, Jan. 24, 1804, and educated ALTON, a city and port of er on the northat the athenæum of his native place and at the Uni- western boundary of Madison County, western Illiversity of Louvain. He first held the position of nois, on the Mississippi River, 21 miles above St. professor of rhetoric in the college at Ypres. In Louis. Its situation upon the river is magnificent, and 1834 he took charge of the department of history here the Burlington railroad decided to build their in the Free University at Brussels, and in 1837 was bridge across the river. It is the terminus of the placed in charge of the department of political Chicago and Alton railroad. It has increasing faceconomy and commercial law in the commercial tories and valuable limestone-quarries. It is conand industrial school, afterward annexed to the nected with Upper Alton by an electric railroad, Royal Athenæum. The Belgian government em- at which place is located Shurtleff College, a Baptist ALTON - ALUMINIUM

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institution founded in 1827, with 24 instructors, and, of others. The term was first used by the French in 1895, 201 students. Population 1890, 10,184. positivist Comte, and adopted in Britain and else. See Alton, Vol. I, p. 643.

where, as useful in defining the highest principle of ALTON, county seat of Oregon County, south-moral action recognizable by agnostics. See Meteastern Missouri, 15 miles N.E. by E. of Kosh- APHYSICS, Vol. XVI, p. 101. konong, on the Kansas City, Fort Scott and Mem- ALUCONIDÆ, the family of barn-owls. There phis railroad. Population 1895, 325.

are two genera, Aluco and Phodilus. ALTON, RICHARD, Count of, an Austrian gen- ALUDEL. See MERCURY, Vol. XVI, p. 32. eral, was born in Ireland in 1732. He was a com- ALUMGIR. See AURUNGZEBE, Vol. III, p. 99. mander in the Netherlands in 1789. Being com- ALUMINA, the most abundant of the earths, is pelled to evacuate Brussels, he died while retreating the oxide of the metal aluminium. It is a common to Vienna in 1790.

constituent of silicate minerals, associated with other ALTON BAY, a village of Belknap County, on bases. Its best-known native compound is feldspar, the bay of the same name, the southeastern arm of one of the constituents of granite, and several other Lake Winnipiseogee, New Hampshire, on a branch kinds of volcanic rocks. of the Boston and Maine railroad, 28 miles N.E. ALUMINITE. See Alum, Vol. I, p. 645; Minof Dover. It is a summer resort. Population 1895, ERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 401. 300.

ALUMINIUM OR ALUMINUM, the base of ALTOONA, a city in Blair County, south-central alumina. Its symbol is Al, and atomic weight 27. Pennsylvania, at the base of the Alleghanies. It In nature, aluminium is not found in a separate or manufactures locomotives and railroad-cars. It also metallic state. It was formerly very rare, and cost contains extensive hydraulic-works and an electric- as much as gold, but as a result of recent discoveries car plant. Population 1890, 30,337. See ALTOONA, the cost has been greatly reduced. Until very late Vol. I, p. 643.

years it was imported from Greenland, being obALTO ORINOCO (High or Upper Orinoco), a tained from the mineral cryolite, a double fluoride territory in the southern portion of Venezuela, of aluminium and sodium. Another source of alubounded on the north by Bolivia; on the northeast minium is bauxite, originally found largely near by the territory of Caura and that of Guiana, on Baux, France, and later in other localities in the east by Brazil, on the south by the territory of Europe and in the southern part of the United Alto Amazonas, and on the west by Colombia. On States. In combination with oxygen it forms the all sides but the west it has natural boundaries, common earth alumina (Al’O”), the most abundant either rivers or mountain ranges. The surface is of the earths, as diffused over the globe in the shape generally mountainous, with some wide plains and of clays, loams, and similar substances. It enters wooded tracts, the whole being drained by the largely into the composition of a great number of branches of the Orinoco. Though exhibiting a great minerals, principal among which are the feldspars, diversity of climate and productions, the territory is from whose decomposition are the many forms of thinly peopled. See VENEZUELA, Vol. XXIV, p. clay (kaolin, etc.); also a large number of silicates, 140.

as the andalusite, cyanite, fibrolite, topaz, etc. In ALTÖTTING. See Alten OETTING, Vol. I, p. its various compounds it is estimated that it forms 642.

fully one twelfth of the crust of the earth, and on ALTRANSTÄDT, a village in Saxony, noted for account of its abundance, its lightness of weight

, the treaties signed there. In 1706 Charles XII of resistance to tarnish, ease in working, and its nonSweden signed a treaty with Augustus II, elector of poisonous qualities, every effort is being made to Saxony, by which the latter lost Poland. In 1707 reduce the cost of its production. It has heretofore Charles XII signed a treaty with the emperor Joseph been used, to a limited extent, by itself, and in alloys I, by which the Swedes and Silesian Protestants in many articles where great strength and extreme benefited.

lightness were required. As a gauge of its lightALTRICES is the name given to that class of ness, it may be stated that a cubic foot of silver birds whose young are at birth helpless and gener-weighs four times as much, and a cubic foot of iron ally almost naked. It is not used in recent systems three times as much, as a cubic foot of aluminium, of classification.

and, with its extreme ductility, and its tensile strength ALTURAS, capital of Modoc County, northeast of 25,000 to 30,000 pounds per square inch, it is ern California, on the Pit River, which falls into destined to occupy a highly important position in Goose Lake, eight miles north. Amedee, on Honey the arts. Lake, the nearest railroad point, is distant S.E. An alloy of nine parts of copper to one of alu30 miles, which is the terminus of the Nevada, Cali-minium resembles gold in luster and color, and is fornia and Oregon railroad, and is 80 miles N.W. -much used in the manufacture of cheap jewelry, of Reno, in Nevada. Population 1890, 1,145. ornamental work, and for various industrial pur

ALTRUISM is the name by which is known that poses. Three per cent of silver mixed with alumintheoretical condition of perfection of human prin- ium gives the alloy the color and brilliancy of pure ciple, or action toward which the benevolent aim silver, and while silver is tarnished by sulphureted to attain in their relations with their fellows. It hydrogen, the alloy remains unchanged. An alloy ineans the entire subordination of self to the inter made of gold, silver, copper, and for soft solder a ests and wellbeing of others, or rather the finding little zinc, is used in soldering bronze. It enters of one's own highest welfare in seeking the welfare | largely into the mechanic and ornamental arts. It

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ALUMNUS-ALVARADO has proven especially valuable in the manufacture of Heuchera Americana, a plant of the family Saxifine wire lace, certain surgical instruments, suture fragacea. They are both natives of America. wire, dental plates, etc., and, on account of its ALUM SCHIST, ALUM SLATE OR ALUM remarkable strength, aluminium brass has been SHALE. See Alum, Vol. I, p. 645.

, selected by the government of the United States as ALUNITE OR ALUM-STONE. See ALUM, Vol. the best material for the propeller-blades of the war- I, p. 645; MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 402. vessels in course of construction. It has also been ALUNOGEN OR ALUNOGENE. See ALUM, found especially valuable for gun-metal, cartridge-Vol. I, p. 645; MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 401. shells, etc. It is used in boat-building, especially of ALURED OR ALFRED OF BEVERLEY, same racing-shells,—the racing record on the Schuylkill as ALLRED, Vol. I, p. 425. River having been reduced 9 seconds by boats of ALUTA, a river of Austrian Transylvania and not more than 50 pounds' weight. It has been satis- Rumania. It rises in the Carpathians, in the factorily employed in the construction of sextants, northern portion of Transylvania, and flows south transits, and other instruments of precision. Com- and then east, generally parallel with this mountain plete kitchen utensils have been manufactured from range, till, reaching the Rotherthurm Pass, it enters it. One of its most interesting uses is for sounding. Wallachia and Rumania, and flows in a southerly and boards for musical instruments, the sound emitted easterly direction, joining the Danube opposite being more musical than that from wood, and also Nikopoli, after a rapid course of 300 miles. peculiarly different from that usually produced from ALVARADO, a city in Johnson County, northmetal.

central Texas. It is situated at the junction of the The raw materials or ores from which aluminium | Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and the Gulf, Colorado is produced are bauxite and cryolite. The com- and Santa Fé railroads; on the latter it is 42 miles inercial process of obtaining the metal is by electro- S.W. of Dallas. It is in the center of a good corn lytic reduction. A mixture of prepared fuorides and cotton region and has cotton gins and mills. is placed in a suitable iron bath lined with carbon. Population 1890, 1,543. The bath is subjected to heat, and the contained ALVARADO, a town in the state of Vera Cruz, mixture becomes fused. The electrodes of the bath Mexico, situated at the mouth of the river Alvarado, are connected with an electric generator. On the which enters that portion of the Gulf of Mexico addition of bauxite, and its dissolution within the more particularly known as the Gulf of Campeche. It bath, the aluinina is reduced by the action of the is on the Interoceanic railroad, southeast by east of anode current. The light metal falls to the bottom, Vera Cruz. Alvarado is a port, and can admit vesfrom which it can afterward be tapped. The oxygen sels of about 13 feet draught. is liberated at the positive pole, where, if the cathode ALVARADO, ALONSO DE, a Spanish general, born is of carbon, it escapes in the form of carbonic acid in Burgos about 1490, his early history being obor oxide. Continual additions of alumina-contain- scure. He joined the fortunes of Cortez in 1518, ing material being made to the bath, the process of participating in the conquest of Mexico. He then reduction can go on indefinitely. See ALUMINIUM, went to Peru and assisted in quelling an insurrecVol. I, p. 647.

tion in Chachapoyas, a territory on the Upper ALUMNUS (literally, “foster-child”), applied to Marañon. Recalled to relieve Cuzco, which had a graduate of a college or university, expresses his been seized by Almagro, with only a handful of men, relation to the alma mater, or “fostering-mother.” he was easily defeated, but the following year, at the Alumnus and alumni refer to male students, and battle of Las Animas, April 26th, he captured his since the free admission of ladies to colleges, the former opponent. He took part in the campaign, in feminine forms of the word have come into use; viz., 1542, against the younger Almagro, and returned to alumna and alumnæ. These sections form among Spain, being there made a marshal. Afterward he theinselves an increasing number of societies, which became governor of Cuzco, also of Charcas, and capmeet during the college year, and also in annual tain-general of Peru. In attempting to reduce a

. reunions. In the United States there are 28 Greek- rebellion in 1553, promoted by Giron, he was, the letter college societies, having a membership of succeeding year, defeated May 21st, at Chuquingua. 100,000, with perhaps about 650 active chapters, and This defeat is believed to have hastened his death, 350 inactive. The societies own 70 halls in the which occurred soon after. various college towns. The Kappa Alpha, which ALVARADO, JUAN BAUTISTA, governor of Caliwas founded at Union College, Schenectady, New fornia from November, 1836, to December, 1842. York, in 1825, is the oldest fraternity. There are He led the revolt against Mexican rule, which reeleven ladies' societies, the oldest being Pi Beta Phi, sulted in his declaring the freedom and unity of founded in 1867, at Monmouth, Illinois. There are California in 1837. Alvarado was declared gov16 professional fraternities, founded by professionalernor, and succeeded in winning over the southern schools attached to colleges, and these have some 50 portions of the state, which had previously held out active chapters and 350 members.

against the movement. The Mexican government ALUM ROOT. The naine is given to two plants had to acknowledge his authority, but a few years very different from one another, but agreeing in the later Alvarado was deposed, and lost command over astringency of their roots, which are medicinally his followers. It was during this time, in 1842, used. One of these plants (Geranium maculatum) that Commodore Jones, of the United States navy, contains more tannin than kino does. The other hoisted the American flag for the first time over plant to which the name alum root is given is | Monterey.

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