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9. A change in the laws of naturalization, making Kansas. It is situated on the Missouri, Kansas and a continued residence of 21 years an indispensable Texas railroad, 10 miles N.E. from Emporia. Poprequisite for citizenship.

ulation, 393. 10. Opposition to any union between church and AMERIOLA, an ancient Sabine city, in central state; no interference with religious faith or wor- Italy. It was destroyed at a very early period by ship; and no test-oath for office.

the Romans, and its site cannot be determined. It 12. The maintenance and enforcement of laws is supposed to have been a city of the ancient Latconstitutionally enacted until said laws shall be ins, who formed a confederation of 30 states. repealed or declared null and void by judicial AMES, a town in Story County, central Iowa, on authority.

the Chicago and Northwestern railroad, 29 miles The third, seventh and ninth planks were put in W. of Marshalltown, and about 40 miles N. of Des to please the old-time Native Americans; the fifth Moines. Iowa State Agricultural College is situated and tenth were for the anti-Catholics; the sixth and three miles S.E. of the town, connected therewith twelfth, which related to the enforcement of the by the Ames and College railroad. Population, 1890, fugitive-slave law, were to satisfy the South; the 1,276; 1895, 1,910. seventh, and a hearty condemnation of the President AMES, ADELBERT, an American soldier and statesand the Kansas Bill, it was expected would win votes man, was born in Rockland, Maine, Oct. 31, 1835. in the North. In reality it ple

In reality it pleased no one, and He graduated at West Point in 1861 and became an after a short struggle fifty'“ North American” dele officer of artillery. He served with distinction

а gates, from seven free states, quit the convention, throughout the Civil War, and was wounded at Bull which then nominated Millard Fillmore and Andrew Run. In 1866 he became lieutenant-colonel of the Jackson Donelson. The Whigs, a few months later, Twenty-fourth infantry; and in 1868 was appointed indorsed the nominees. But it was too late; a wave provisional governor of Mississippi. He became of Republicanism was sweeping eastward from the United States Senator in 1869; was elected governor Northwest, and in November, 1856, swept Know- of Mississippi in 1873, and resigned his seat in the Nothingism out of the North. In a popular vote of Senate. The disorganized state of affairs, however, 4,053,967, the American party cast but 874,534; of finally led to his retirement, and he removed to 296 electors it secured but 8, and sent but 20 Minnesota in 1876. Representatives and five Senators to Congress. In AMES, CHARLES GORDON, an American preacher, 1858 it suffered still more, and to the Congress journalist and lecturer. He was born in Dorchester, which met in December, 1859, not one Native Massachusetts, Oct. 3, 1828. He became noted as American came from any state north of the Potomac an organizer of charitable reforms, and in 1889 and the Ohio save Maryland. In 1860 the Know- accepted the pastorate of the Church of the DisNothings became extinct. J. B. McMASTER. ciples, Boston, in succession to J. Freeman Clarke.

AMERICAN RIVER, in north-central Califor- Edited Minneapolis Republican and the Christian nia, is a branch of the Sacramento, formed by the Register. junction of three small confluents, which rise in the AMES, EDWARD RAYMOND, Methodist Episcopal Sierra Nevada and wind among those mountains in bishop, born in Athens, Ohio, May 20, 1806. In 1828 narrow, deep cañons. The land surrounding these he opened a school at Lebbranches affords a valuable supply of gold.

anon, Illinois, which afterAMERICAN SOCIAL SCIENCE ASSOCIA- wards became McKendree TION. See Social Science, in these Supplements. College. In 1830 he joined

AMERICAN SUNDAY SCHOOL UNION. the Methodist Episcopal See SUNDAY Schools, in these Supplements. Church, and 10 years later

AMERICAN UNIVERSITY, a post-graduate in- was chosen corresponding stitution in Washington, District of Columbia, char- secretary of the Missionary tered May 28, 1891, and placed a year later under Society. He became a the patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church. presiding elder in 1844, The citizens of Washington donated a site of 90 and filled the position till acres on Massachusetts Avenue for the buildings. he was chosen bishop in The President, the Vice-President, the chief justice 1852. Ames was the first of the supreme court, and the speaker of the House Methodist bishop to visit of Representatives of the United States are ex officio the Pacific Coast. He EDWARD RAYMOND AMES. members of the board of trustees, which number 50. died in Baltimore, April 25, 1879. Its faculty has been organized with the special AMES, JOSEPH, an American painter; born in object in view of providing advanced courses of Roxbury, New Hampshire, in 1816. He was wholly study for graduates of other colleges. Its chancellor self-taught when some of his best works were prois Bishop J. F. Hurst, D.D., LL.D.

duced, during his earlier period. He later studied AMERICUS, capital of Sumter County, south- at Rome. He returned to the United States, finally western Georgia. It is situated on the Georgia and settling in New York City. In 1870 he was elected Alabama and the Central of Georgia railroads, 71

a member of the National Academy of Design. miles S.W. of Macon. It has a female college. The Among his noted works were portraits of Emerson, country around produces live-stock, as well as cot-President Felton of Harvard, and the “ Death of ton. Population 1890, 6,398.

Webster.” He died of brain fever in New York, AMERICUS, a town in Lyon County, east-central | Oct. 30, 1872.

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. The bronze statues of Washington in AMHARA, the middle and largest of the three


AMES, MARY CLEMMER. See HUDSON, Mary, in AMESBURY, a city in Essex County, northeastthese Supplements.

ern Massachusetts. It is at the terminus of the AMES, NATHAN P., an American manufacturer, Salisbury and Amesbury branch of the Boston and was born in 1803. He began business as a cutler in Maine railroad, and is 42 miles N. of Boston. It 1829, and founded the Ames Manufacturing Com- contains an excellent high school, and is the headpany at Cabotville, Massachusetts, in 1834. He quarters of extensive manufactures of boots and became famous as a manufacturer of swords, cannon, shoes, carriages and woolen goods. It is famous as church bells, and bronze statuary, and supplied both the home of the poet Whittier, who, in 1840, removed

and there. Population . . New York and of Franklin in Boston were con- divisions of Abyssinia, extends from the Tacazze structed by him. He died at Cabotville, Massachu- River to the Blue Nile. In its center is the pictusetts, April 23, 1847.

resque Lake Tana, and to the north Mount Jared AMES, NATHANIEL, an American mathematician, (14,114 feet), and Ras Das Nan (15,160 feet). Its born in Bridgewater, Massachusetts, 1708. He ac- capital is Gondar, the population of which is about quired a household reputation throughout New Eng- 5,000, and the center of the internal trade of Abysland by his calculations as an astronomer, in his sinia. almanacs, which were published successively from AMHARIC LANGUAGES. See Semitic LAN1726 to 1775 (after 1765 by his son, N. Ames, Jr.). GUAGES, Vol. XXI, p. 655. He kept a tavern in Dedham, which in those days AMHERST, capital of Cumberland County, added to his celebrity His son, Fisher, was northern Nova Scotia. It is a port on an arm of a distinguished orator and patriot. See Vol. 1, p. Cumberland Bay, and is on the Intercolonial railroad, 735. Aines died at Dedham, Massachusetts, July 9 miles S.E. of Sackville, and 30 miles N.W. of II, 1764.

Oxford Junction. It is in a coal region. Ship-buildAMES, OAKES, American manufacturer, born in ing is its chief industry. Population, 3,781.

, . Easton, Massachusetts, Jan. 10, 1804. At an early AMHERST, capital of Ainherst County, southage he became a member of the firm of Oliver Ames western Virginia. It is situated on the Southern and Sons, manufacturers of shovels and picks, and railroad, 153 miles S.W. by W.of Alexandria. Popduring the gold excitement in California, and later | ulation 1890, 590. in Australia, turned out enormous quantities of these AMHERST, J. H., actor, born in London, Eng. supplies. During the Civil War the firm furnished land, in 1776. After appearing in his native city he the government with a large proportion of the emigrated to Philadelphia, and became director of swords and shovels used. In 1861 Mr. Ames be- “Cook’s Equestrian Company,” taking a part in came a member of the executive council of Massa- | Mazeppa. He was an accomplished classical scholar, chusetts. From 1862 to 1873 he served in Congress, and wrote many plays, among his most popular where he led in the development of the Pacific Rail-being Will Watch, or, The Black Phantom (1825); road legislation. He died in North Easton, Massa- Napoleon Bonaparte's Invasion of Russia, or, The chusetts, May 8, 1873.

Conflagration of Moscow (1850); Ireland As It Is AMES, OLIVER, American manufacturer, born in (1850); The Battle of Waterloo (1850), and Ireland Plymouth, Massachusetts, Nov. 5, 1807. He was a As It Was (1850). He died in Philadelphia, Aug. member of the firm of Oliver Ames and Sons, manu- 12, 1851. facturers of shovels, picks, swords, etc., and at his AMHERST, JEFFERY, BARON AMHERST, an Eng. brother's death became president of the firm. He lish soldier, born in Riverhead, Kent, England, Jan. was a member of the Massachusetts senate from 1852 29, 1717. When a boy he served in Flanders, where to 1857, and was elected president of the Union he won distinction and became a favorite of the Pacific Railroad Company in 1868. He died in king. Going to America in 1758, he accomplished North Easton, Massachusetts, March 9, 1877. the conquest of Canada from the French.

In 1760 AMES, Samuel, American jurist, born in Provi- he was appointed governor-general of the British dence, Rhode Island, Sept. 6, 1806. After gradu-l possessions in America, and in 1763 was made govating at Brown University in 1823, he became a ernor of Virginia. In 1776 he was raised to the member of the Rhode Island bar. He was a mem- peerage, and in 1787 received a patent as Baron ber of the city council of Providence, and for many Amherst, of Montreal. He died Aug. 3, 1797. years served in the state assembly, being speaker of AMHERSTBURG, a town in Essex County, Onthat body in 1844 and 1845. During the period of tario, Canada, situated on the Detroit River, near the rebellion in 1842 he was a quartermaster of the its entrance into Lake Erie. It is the terminus of state troops, and in 1853 was appointed by the legis- the Essex and Amherstburg branch of the Michigan lature to represent the state in the adjustment of the Central railroad, the distance between these two boundary between Rhode Island and Massachusetts. points being 16 miles. Amherstburg — which was He was one of the commissioners in 1855 to revise named after Baron Amherst (q.v., in these Supplethe statutes of Rhode Island, and in 1856 was ments)—was, during the war of 1812-14, first diselected chief justice of the supreme court of the mantled by the British under General Proctor, and state. Mr. Ames was the joint author of Angell and afterward destroyed by the Americans under GenAmes on Corporations, and the reporter of volumes eral Harrison. Its manufactures consist chiefly of 4 10 8 of Rhode Island State Reports. He died in mill products and iron. The principal buildings Providence, Dec. 20, 1865.

are the courthouse and a lunatic asylum. The city

AMHERST COLLEGE – AMISH COMMUNITY 169 owns its own water-works and electric-lighting plant. 1865, and in the following year was present at the Population, 2,279.

battle of Custozza, against the Austrians. After the AMHERST COLLEGE has its seat in the town capture of Rome by Victor Emmanuel in 1870, he

EGE of Amherst, Hampshire County, Massachusetts. It retired from service, and devoted himself to litera

He visited Spain, London, Morocco, Constantinople and other places, and published volumes which contained graphic descriptions and impressions of his travels, and which were highly praised. One of his earlier works was La Vita Militare (1869), and his last was Il Romanzo d'un Maestro (1889), which deals in a telling manner with the state of education among the Italian people.

AMIDE POWDER. See GUN-POWDER, in these Supplements.

AMIDES. See CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, pp. 554,


AMIDOGEN. Formerly this was regarded as a was founded as the Collegiate Institution of Am- hypothetical radical, with a supposed formula, NH”, herst in 1821, and incorporated under the name of known to exist in different organic compounds. Anı herst College in 1825. It is a famous institu- Curtius, however, produced the sulphate of amidotion; unsectarian, but founded under Congrega- gen, from which he isolated the amidogen by the tional auspices, one of its organizers being Noah action of an alkali. Its formula has been shown to Webster. It has, from time to time, benefited by be NH-NH2, and not NH? It is a gas with a many handsome donations of money to its funds, peculiar odor, somewhat like ammonia. The vapor, and by contributions to its art and museum depart absorbing moisture and forming minute drops of ments. Its property and endowments are valued at the liquid hydrate, produces a white cloud in the $2,000,000, and its annual income is $70,000. It is air. Brought in contact with water, it dissolves with celebrated for the number of its graduates who have evolution of great heat. It attacks the skin in the subsequently entered the ministry. But all its sci. most painful manner, and rapidly destroys cork and entific departments are richly endowed, and its caoutchouc. museum collections are, in some sections, particu- AMIEL, HENRI FRÉDÉRIC, was born at Geneva, larly the archæological and art collections, unrivaled. Sept. 21, 1821. He studied and traveled much Physical culture is one of the chief objects encour- abroad. At Berlin he was thoroughly imbued with aged ainong the students; every one, unless specially German science and philosophy. In 1849 he was excused, having to devote half an hour daily in the appointed professor of esthetics and French literaPratt Gymnasium to light exercise, a qualified physi-ture at the Academy of Geneva, which post he cian superintending the instruction. Outdoor sports exchanged four years later for the professorship of and athletics are also encouraged, Pratt Field having moral philosophy. Amiel died at Geneva, May 11, been donated for the purpose. The “Amherst sys- 1881. During his life he published very little. But tem,” by which the students govern themselves by a he was at work daily upon the work published senate, original here, has been adopted in other col- posthumously, entitled Journal Intime, the first porlegiate institutions. The number of instructors in tions of which appeared in 1882 and the second in 1895 was 33, and the number of students 460. 1884. This proved a remarkable work and secured

AMHERST ISLANDS are a group lying west of fame to the dead scholar. In 1889 an English the southwestern extremity of the peninsula of translation appeared, by Mrs. Humphry Ward. The Corea, in the Yellow Sea.

work has left a deep impression, dealing as it did AMI, Henry M., Canadian scientist, born in Belle- with the spiritual and intellectual doubts that assail Rivière, Quebec, Nov. 23, 1858. After he was gradu- the greatest minds. ated at McGill College in 1882, he was appointed AMIRANTE ISLANDS, a group of 11 low, on the staff of the geological survey of Canada, be- wooded islands, situated southwest of the Seychelles, came assistant paleontologist in 1886, and the same opposite the eastern coast of Africa. They belong to year was engaged in classifying the fossil remains of Great Britian, and form a dependency of Mauritius. Canada. He has published numerous reports on AMISH OR AMMANITE COMMUNITY, a restratigraphic and paleontologic subjects. In 1883 ligious sect of Pennsylvania, of Dutch descent, he becaine a permanent civil service officer.

originally settled in the southeastern portions of the AMIA, a genus of ganoid fishes of an archaic state, principally Lancaster County. They proceeded type. A. calva, the only existing species, is found north in 1848, and located in Buffalo valley. This in the fresh waters of North America. It is variously was a famous horseshoe-shap ed region, formed by known as dogfish, lawyer, bowfin, mudfish, brindle the towering mountains around, the open side lying and grindle.

along the Susquehanna River, in Union County. AMICE OR AMICTUS. See CoSTUME, Vol. VI,

See CoSTUME, Vol. VI, The Amish religion was a form of the German BapP. 462.

tist, but in the ceremony of baptism it was a peculiar AMICIS, EDMONDO DE, an Italian soldier and feature of their function that there should be three author, born at Oneglia, Oct. 21, 1848. Receiving immersions instead of one. Great crowds assembled a military education, he entered the Italian army in to witness these immersions and congregated along




the banks of the Buffalo Creek, chosen for the pur- prince of Jutland, whose story is told by Saxo-Grampose. The Amish were unable, however, to secure maticus, and who is therefore believed by many to possession of the entire valley, as they had intended. be the original hero of Shakespeare's Hamlet They were thrifty and soon became wealthy. They it is a fact not taken into account by these believers, devoted themselves to the cultivation of the soil that there was no English translation of the work of entirely, and there were no better farmers in the Saxo-Grammaticus available by Shakespeare. If it state. They held their property individually, and could be proved, as has lately been attempted, that helped their less fortunate brethren to secure farms, Shakespeare actually visited Denmark, the immortal by lending them money without interest. The com- bard might have obtained knowledge of the story munity built a meeting-house, a short distance from there himself. the creek, and standing alone in the valley, a few AMMAN OR AMMON (the ancient Rabbah, remiles from Mifflinburg. It is a plain building, built and called Philadelphia by the Greeks), a without a steeple, consisting of a commodious hall ruined city of Syria, on the Zurka, an affluent of the and a basement. Therein they hold their annual Jordan. It has numerous remains of Grecian edi. . love-feast, which lasts three or four days. The fices. See AMMONITES, Vol. I, p. 742. women use the basement for cooking and providing AMMELINE is a white crystalline substance, meals for the members in attendance. An important whose chemical formula is CH'N'O, produced by ceremony during the feast is the washing of feet. the action of an acid or an alkali on melam, and reThe men sit on one side of the hall and the women garded as an amic acid of cyanuric acid. Called also on the other,—the men washing the feet of their diamidocyanuric acid. brothers and the women the feet of their sisters. AMMEN, DAniel, American naval officer, born The men's clothes are devoid of buttons, the place in Ohio, May 15, 1820. He entered the navy as of these being taken by hooks and eyes. Their coats midshipman in 1836. From 1861 to 1865 he saw are shaped in a style their neighbors have called constant and active service, distinguishing himself "shad-bellied.” The women dress according to

on many occasions. He was on the Merrimac in Quaker simplicity, wearing sun-bonnets.

The men

1859-60. In 1863 he was promoted to commander, never shave. The Amish set their faces against war and assigned to the command of the monitor Paand law processes. They exhaust all means to tapsco. He was commissioned captain in 1866, and arrange any dispute with their neighbors, and if continued in special and active service until Dec. 11, these fail, they bear the loss that might otherwise 1877, in which year he was made rear-admiral, and have been avoided by legal recourse. With the placed on the retired list after a service of forty-nine growth of the community, colonies were formed in years and six months. He is the author of The Atother parts of the state and in neighboring states. lantic Coast (1883), a volume of The Navy in the The first general conference of the sect was held at Civil War Series. He resides at Ammendale, MaryLewisburg, where a younger community had sprung land. up, and as being more central to the communities AMMEN, JACOB, American soldier, born in Botefurther removed. To the Lewisburg community tourt County, Virginia, Jan. 7, 1808. He was gradbeionged Shem Zook, a prominent figure in state uated at the United States Military Academy in affairs of that day. Attention has been recently 1831, and then served as instructor in mathematics attracted toward the Amish by the formation of a at West Point, Bacon College, Jefferson College, and new colony in the Northwest. The Eastern com- the University of Indiana. He resigned from the munities sent their elders to North Dakota to arrange army in 1837. At the outbreak of the Rebellion he for the purchase and homesteading of a tract of became captain of volunteers. He served during the land of from 5,000 to 10,000 acres. There, in the Civil War, through all the successive grades from spring of 1896, emigrants from the East proceeded captain of volunteers to brigadier-general. He was with their families, fully equipped with stock and in command of the military district of East Tennesgear for converting the wilderness into a garden. In see in 1864, retiring from the army service the folthe features detailed above there is a resemblance to lowing year. He died in Lockland, Ohio, Feb. 6, the Dunkards.

1894. AMITE, a river about 150 miles long and naviga- AMMERGAU MYSTERY. See OBERAMMERble for about 50 miles, rises in the southwestern part GAU, Vol. XVII, p. 703. of Mississippi, and flows in a southerly direction AMMETER. Ammeters, or ampere-meters, are through Louisiana into Lake Maurepas.

made in numerous forms, frequently being conAMITE CITY, capital of Tangipahoa Parish, structed to serve also as voltameters and wattnorthwestern Louisiana. It is situate on the Illinois meters. The Siemens aimeter makes use of a Central railroad and on the Tangipahoa. It is 68 | tube of annealed soft iron, supported at each end miles N. W. of New Orleans. It has a female sem- in jeweled centers. The surrounding coil does not inary. Population, 1,510.

touch the tube, but serves to magnetize it, so that AMITYVILLE, a town in Babylon township, on the arms, which form polar extensions of the tube, the south coast of Suffolk County, Long Island, are deflected, operating the pointers. Bristol's New York. It is on the Long Island railroad, 31 ampere-meter makes use of knife-edge spring-supmiles E. of New York City, and about half a mile ports, a recording arm noting the effect of the curfrom Long Island Beach. It is a summer resort. rent by means of the variations in the springs. MorPopulation, 2,293.

ris's ampere-meter acts on the principle of a solenoid AMLETH, an ancient, or perhaps mythical, on a suspended piece of iron wire. .



It is 300

AMMODYTE, a serpent usually known as Eryx. animals consist of a mass of protoplasm without any 9.v.; in these Supplements. Also same as SAND-EEL, | limiting membrane. The name was applied to the Vol. XXI, p. 257.

animals because of their continual change in form. AMMONITES, an extinct genus of mollusks be. They are often called proteus-animalcules. The longing to the Ammonitide. They closely resemble common forms occur in the ooze and mud at the in structure the existing Nautillus, to which they bottom of slow-flowing streams and ponds, or living are allied. See MOLLUSCA, Vol. XVI, p. 669. on aquatic plants. See under Lobosa, in PROTOZOA,

AMMONITIDÆ, a family of extinct mollusks of Vol. XIX, pp. 841-843. the class Cephalopoda (cuttle-fishes). They are very AMEBEAN VERSES are such as are composed numerous, and are the most characteristic mollusks so as to be reciprocally responsive to one another, in the rocks of the secondary period. The well- in the form of dialogue. In the Third Eclogue of known genera Goniatites, Ceratites and Ammonites Virgil this form of verse is used. are representatives of the group.

AMOMUM, a monocotyledonous genus of the AMMONIUM, a celebrated oasis in the Libyan family Zingiberacea, to which belong plants yielding Desert, the site of the famous temple and oracle of cardamoms and the grains of paradise of coinmerce. the god of Ainmon. It is the inodern Siwah, and is AMORETTI, CARLO, an Italian naturalist, born about 15 miles long and 12 miles wide.

at Oneglia, March 13, 1741. He made a study of the miles S.W. by W. of Cairo. The oasis possessed a history and geography of Swiss lakes, the result well called Fons Solis, the water of which was cold being his work, A Journey from Milan to the Three at noon and warm at night and morning. There Lakes. He published a biography of Leonardo da was no regular town, the inhabitants dwelling in Vinci in 1784, and in 1797 he became librarian of scattered villages throughout the oasis. The ruins the Ambrosian Library in Milan, dying at the latter of the ancient temple are still visible. See Oases, place, March 24, 1816. Vol. XVII, p. 695.

AMORGOS, an island among the Sporades group, AMMONIUM THEORY regards the ammonia- in the Grecian Archipelago, 18 miles S.E. of Naxos. cal salts as analogous in their constitution to ordi- It is 13 miles long and 6 miles wide, and contains nary salts, the only difference being in the substitu- many mountains. The chief town is Amorgos, and tion of a compound radical ammonium (NH) for the port, situated on the northeast coast, is Santa the simple radical of other salts.

Anna. It belongs to Greece. AMMONOOSUC, LOWER, a river of New Hamp- AMORY, ROBERT, American physician; born in shire. It rises in Coos County, in the neighbor- Boston, May 2, 1842. He graduated at Harvard in hood of Mount Washington. It flows southward 1863, and after studying medicine in Paris and Duband westward through Grafton County, falling into lin, he settled in Longwood (Brookline), Massachuthe Connecticut at Woodsville, a village in Haver- setts, in 1867. He occupied several important offices hill township, opposite the village of Wells River, in the town, and in 1869 was elected lecturer at Vermont. The length of the Lower Ammonoosuc Harvard College, and later professor of physiology is about 100 miles.

in the medical school at Bowdoin College. He AMMONOOSUC, UPPER, a river of New Hamp-resigned in 1874, and became assistant surgeon in shire. It rises in Coos County in the vicinity of the Massachusetts volunteer militia, surgeon two Mount Randolph, and flows northward, and falls years later, and then medical director. He has into the Connecticut River at Northumberland, devoted much study to chemistry, and has written a after a course of 75 miles.

great deal on this subject. Among his published AMMUNITION. See Gun-POWDER, in these works are Bromides of Potassium and Ammonium Suppleinents; and Vol. I, pp. 744-6.

(1872), and Action of Nitrous Oxide (1870). He has AMNESIA, loss of memory; specifically, a mor- also contributed numerous important papers to varibid condition of forgetfulness. See Amnesic, under ous scientific periodicals. APHASIA, Vol. II, p. 171.

AMORY, THOMAS, an eccentric author, of Irish AMNION, a fætal membrane which invests the descent, who was born about 1691, and died Nov. embryos of reptiles, birds and mammals. It is formed 25, 1788. He was a son of Councilor Amory, who early in embryonic life from folds of the body wall went to Ireland with William III, and was made (somatopleure) which gradually surround and meet secretary of the forfeited estates. Amory lived a so as to completely inclose the embryo in two sacs, retired life. His chief works are: Lives of Several one within the other. The inner sac constitutes the Ladies of Great Britain; A History of Antiquities, true amnion. The space between it and the embryo Productions of Nature, Etc. (1755); and the Life of is filled by a fluid, the liquor amnii. The outer sac John Buncle (1756). is often called the false amnion.

AMORY, THOMAS COFFIN, American lawyer; born AMNION, in botany, is an obsolete term, for- in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1809. He graduated merly given to the Auid contents of the embryo-sac. from Harvard College in 1830, and was admitted to Sometimes wrongly written amnios.

the bar four years later. For many years he was conAMNIOTA, a term applied to those animals nected with municipal affairs in Boston. He pubwhich possess the fætal membranes,-amnion and lished numerous pamphlets connected with the war allantois. The group includes reptiles, birds and of the Revolution, and on Ireland. He was also a mammals.

writer of verses. He died in 1889. AMEBA, a genus which includes some of the AMORY, THOMAS J. C., an American soldier; simplest unicellular animals (Protozoa). These born in Massachusetts about 1830. He graduated at

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