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West Point in 1851, and served in several battles C. 338. Amphissa is noted for its acropolis, which of the Civil War. He became major of volunteers contains the remains of an ancient citadel. in September 1864, and brevet brigadier-general AMPHITHERIUM, a genus of extinct insectivoron the ist of October of the same year, but died ous mammals found in the Lower Qölite, and resemseven days later, of yellow fever, in Newbern, North bling in many points the living Myrmecobius. Their Carolina.

exact affinities are uncertain. AMOTION, in law, is removal from office, as AMPHITRYON, in Greek mythology, a king of of an officer of a corporation, and is distinguished | Tiryns, son of Alcæus. He was the husband of from disfranchisement, which is the removal of a Alcmene, and putative father of Hercules. The story member.

connected with the origin of the latter has been AMPELIDÆ, a family name variously applied to treated by Plautus in his Amphitruo, and in modern oscine passerine birds. The family was classed by times by Molière in his Amphitryon. Swainson in 1831 as without distinctive characters. AMPHIUMA, a North American tailed amphibIt has been restricted of late by American authorities ian, which loses the external gills of its youth. It to the Ampelida proper and placed between Tyran- belongs to the caducibranchiate group of the order nida and Cotingida. They are commonly known as Urodela. The form is eel-like and about two feet in chatterers.

length; the eyes are covered with skin, and there AMPELOPSIS, a genus of the Vitacea, closely are numerous teeth. A. means is found in the Southresembling the grape vine. See VINE, Vol. XXIV, ern and Southwestern states burrowing in the mud p. 237.

in the ditches of the rice fields. The negroes call it AMPERE, an electrical term adopted by the elec- the Congo snake. See AMPHIBIA, Vol. I, pp. 758 trical congress held at Paris in 1881, to designate et seq. the practical unit of current-force. It is a current AMPUDIA, PEDRO DE, Mexican soldier, was apsuch as would be given with an electro-motive force pointed general by President Santa Anna in 1840; of one volt through a wire having the resistance of in December, 1842, he commanded the land forces one ohm. The unit received its name from André | in the siege of Campeche, Yucatan. Soon afterMarie Ampère, the French physicist. See TELE- ward Ampudia was dismissed from command for GRAPH, Vol. XXIII, p. 116.

practicing military barbarities. Later he was in AMPEREMETER. See AMMETER, in these command of Monterey, where, Sep. 24, 1846, he Supplements.

surrendered to General Taylor, of the United States AMPERETURN, an electrical term, applied to forces. an ampere current through one turn of a coil, con- AMPULLARIA, a genus of mollusks of the gassidered in regard to electro-magnetic force. An teropod class. Most of the species live partly in electro-magnet with 1,000 convolutions, and with a fresh water, and partly on land. In adaptation to 5-ampere current, would have 5,000 ampere-iurns. this mode of life, the vascular mantle functionates as

AMPHIBOLE, in mineralúgy, the name of a lungs when the animals are on land, and thus group of minerals, varying in color and composi- takes the place of the ordinary process of respiration tion, of which hornblende, tremolite and actinolite by gills. may be mentioned as examples. They may be AMPUTATION, a surgical operation. See Surdescribed chemically as calcium magnesium meta- GERY, Vol. XXII, pp. 678, 679, 688. silicates, with sometimes potassium, sodium or alu- AMRITA, literally, "without death,” denotes in minium. Dana classifies them according to the Hindu mythology the drink of immortality, the existence or non-existence of the latter substances. product of the mysterious churning of the ocean. They all resemble each other in form, but differ in AMROHA, a town in the district of Muradabad, their manner of crystallization. See MINERALOGY, in the northwest provinces of India, 20 iniles N.N.W. Vol. XVI, p. 417.

of the city of Muradabad, in the midst of an extenAMPHICTYON, a mythical king of Attica. See sive cotton and sugar district. Population, 36, 145, AMPHICTYONY, Vol. I, p. 772; also GREECE, Vol. XI, mainly Moslems. p. 92.

AMSTERDAM, a city of Montgomery County, AMPHICTYONIC COUNCIL. See AMPHICTY- east-central New York, is situated on the north bank ONY, Vol. I, p. 772.

of the Mohawk, 33 miles N.W. of Albany. Its local AMPHIMORPHÆ, a term equivalent to Odon- trade in general merchandise is extensive. There toglossa, and applied by Huxley to a super-family of are large manufactories of knit goods and carpets, birds which contains only the flamingos Phænicop- and numerous other industries, including the inakterida. See FLAMINGO, Vol. IX,

ing of paper, brooms and steel springs. Amsterdam AMPHIPODS, an order of small crustaceans, most is the seat of a Roman Catholic institute, an acad. of which are marine. The genus Gammarus lives eniy, and excellent public and private schools. Popuin fresh water. The beach-flea (Orchestia) is a lation, 17,336. very common form. See CRUSTACEA, Vol. VI, p. AMSTERDAM CANAL. See Canal, in these 661.

Supplements. AMPHISSA, a Grecian town near Salona Bay, AMSTERDAM TREATY, a treaty concluded Gulf of Corinth. It is situated at the base of Mount Aug. 4, 1717, between Russia, Prussia and France on Parnassus, 87 miles W.N.W of Athens. The Am- the one hand, and Sweden on the other. Frederick phictyons, having declared a sacred war against it, William I of Prussia had involved himself in the war it was destroyed by Philip, king of Macedonia, B. between Sweden and Russia, and attacked Sweden.

P. 286.



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By this treaty Russia abandoned the invasion of rock, the term amygdaloid no longer denotes a rock Mecklenburg, and France agreed not to renew its species, and has fallen into disuse. It is now only treaty as to subsidies with Sweden, peace being employed in the adjective form, amygdaloidal, indiestablished between the northern powers.

cating a cellular or slag-like structure, in which the AMU DARIA, the Oxus River. See Oxus, Vol. pores and cells are more or less filled up with XVIII, p. 101.

nodules of mineral matter, sometimes agate, chalceAMUNATEGUI, MIGUEL Luis, a Chilean his-dony, etc. torian, born at Santiago, Jan. 11, 1828, at the uni- AMYGDALUS, an old generic name, which inversity of which place he was educated. He became cluded the peach and almond, but now usually renoted as a scholar, and aided Andres Bello in the ferred as a subgenus to the genus Prunus. latter's History of Greece and Rome. In most of his AMYL is a hypothetical monatomic alcohol radiown works he had the collaboration of his brother, cal, obtained by heating amyliodide with an amalGregorio Victor. The important works to his credit gam of zinc in a closed tube at a temperature of are Memoria Sobre la Reconquista Española (1850); about 350° F., and is one of the natural products of Biografias de Americanos (1854); Compendio de la the distillation of coal. Obtained thus, it is repreHistoria Politica y Eclesiastica de Chile (1856); sented by two molecules of the radical in unionDescubrimiento y Conquista de Chile (1862); and Los (C'H") 2, and is called diamyl. The single molePrecursores de la Independencia de Chile (1872–73). cule Ch" has not yet been isolated. It enters He died in 1888.

into a large number of chemical compounds. It AMURNATH, a cave in the northeastern moun- exists largely in amylic alcohol or fusel-oil (crude tains of Cashmere. It is a natural cave, occurring in alcohol). the gypsum rock, and thus at an early period super- AMYLENE, a limpid liquid produced by the denatural attributes were ascribed to it. It is believed hydration of amylic alcohol by means of zinc chloto be the residence of the god Shiva, and is visited by rid; is sometimes used as anæsthetic, but is exmultitudes of pilgrims. Numberless doves inhabit tremely dangerous. it, and upon being disturbed by the pilgrims, fly out, AMYLOID, a term used in chemistry and in making a loud noise, which the superstitious visitors botany for starchy substances, like starch, dexregard as a sign of the acceptance of their prayers trine, sugar, gum, etc., which consist of carbon, by the god.

hydrogen and oxygen, the latter two being always AMUSSAT, JEAN ZULÉMA, a French surgeon, in the proportion in which they occur in water. born at St. Maixent, in Deux-Sèvres, Nov. 21, 1796. AMYOT, JOSEPH, a French orientalist, was born Entering the army he became assistant surgeon at Toulon in 1718, and lived as a Jesuit missionary under Esquirol in La Salpêtrière Hospital, and also in China from 1750 till his death, which occurred prosector at the Paris Faculty of Medicine. He was at Pekin in 1794. His knowledge of the Chinese and an inventor and improver of many surgical instru- Tatar languages enabled him to acquire his knowlments, and was the first to prove the use of torsion of edge of the antiquities, history, language and arts arteries in hemorrhages, upon which subject he of China from the most authentic sources. His published a work in 1829, obtaining for it a prize at principal writings may be found in the Mémoires conthe Institute. He was also an authority on lith-cernant l'Histoire les Sciences et les Arts des Chinois otomy, and wrote a treatise entitled Researches Into (16 vols. Paris, 1776-1814). In 1789-90 appeared the Nervous System (1825). He died in Paris, May his Dictionaire Tatar-Mantchou Français, in three 13, 1856.

voluines, and was edited by Langlès. AMYCLÆ, an ancient town of Laconia, on the AMYRIS, a tropical dicotyledonous genus of the eastern bank of the Eurotas, in Greece. It was the family Burseraceæ, notable for its abundant yield of home of Castor and Pollux, the “ Amyclæan broth- fragrant resinous products. It gives name to a crysers.” The place was finally destroyed by the Lace- talline resin known as amyrin. dæmonians under Teleclus. The story ran that the ANABANTIDÆ, a family of teleostean fishes beinhabitants had been so long alarmed by false reports longing to the largest order Acanthopterygii. The of the approach of the Spartans that it was forbidden perch, bass, mackerel and swordfish are representafor any one to speak of the enemy again. When tive examples. the Lacedæmonians did appear no one dared to ANABLEPS, a genus of cyprinodont fishes found mention the fact. Hence it was said that “ Amyclæ principally in tropical American waters. They are was lost by silence,” which saying passed into a pro-interesting on account of the unique structure of verbial phrase.

their eyes. A dark horizontal stripe divides the AMYGDALIN is a crystalline principle exist- cornea, and two pupils are present in each orbit, so ing in the kernel of bitter almonds, the leaves of that the fish appears to have four eyes. the Prunus laurocerasus, and various other plants, ANABOLISM, in physiological botany, denotes which by distillation yields hydrocyanic acid. See

See all those chemical processes going on in a plant ALMONDS, Oils of, in these Supplements.

which lead to the formation of complex substances AMYGDALOID, “almond-shaped,” in geology from more simple ones. The whole range of chemiapplied to an igneous, crystalline or vitreous rock cal processes is included under the term metabolism. containing numerous almond-shaped vacuities, or Anabolism is therefore often called constructive cells, which were formed by steam or gas while the metabolism,” as opposed to catabolism, or “destrucrock was in a molten state. As cells and cellular tive metabolism." Assimilation refers only to those structure occur in many different kinds of igneous anabolic changes in the plant which concern its




food. Anabolism affects not only the state of the ANAHEIM, a village in Orange County, southern substance of a plant, but also the state of its energy, California. It is located on the Southern Pacific for it is accompanied by a conversion of kinetic into railroad, about eight miles N.W. of Santa Anna, in potential or latent energy. The anabolic process the center of the largest valley in the state, and is most characteristic of plants, as opposed to animals, the headquarters of the wine interest of that region, is the power possessed by green parts of plants, producing annually more than one million gallons. under the influence of sunlight, of constructing or- Since the establishment of the sugar refinery at ganic substance from carbon-dioxid and water, a Chino, the culture of the sugar-beet has become an process so peculiar as to have received the special important industry in the vicinity of Anaheim. name photosyntax.

Population, 1,273. ANABOLISM. See PhysioLOGY, Vol. XIX, pp. ANAKIM, a race of giants who inhabited the 13, 19, 22, 49.

south of Palestine, especially about Hebron, called ANACANTHINI, a group with uncertain limits, at that time Kirjatharba. They were also called which includes a great number of teleostean fishes. “Sons of Anak,” though by the name Anak we It contains many fishes of great economic impor- should properly understand a race instead of an tance, such as the cod, hake, halibut, flounder, sole, individual." After the time of Joshua they disapand many others.

pear from history. ANACHARIS, a monocotyledonous genus of the ANALCITE OR ANALCIME, a mineral, chemfamily Hydrocharidacea. It is a native of North ically a hydrated silicate of alumina and soda found America, growing in ponds and slow streams. It in the trap-rocks of Nova Scotia, Lake Superior, has been introduced into Britain, where it is now Ireland and Scotland. It occurs in the vacuities of very abundant and troublesome in some of the the amygdaloids found in the situations named. It rivers,—in fact, much more so than it ever becomes receives its name on account of its feeble electric in America. The generic name now used is Elodea. power when subjected to heat or friction.

ANACLACHE, a lofty peak of the Bolivian ANALEMMA, in geometry, denotes a projection Andes, is more than twenty-two thousand feet above of the sphere on the plane of the meridian, made the ocean-level, and is covered with perpetual snow. orthographically by a straight line and ellipses, the

ANACLETUS, an anti-pope. See INNOCENT II, eye being supposed to be at an infinite distance and Vol. XIII, p. 82.

in the east or west point of the horizon. Hence it ANACONDA MINE. See SILVER AND SILVER- | denotes an instrument in use before the invention MINING, in these Supplements.

of trigonometry for drawing such a projection with ANACORTES, a town in Fidalgo Island, off an horizon or cursor fitted to it. The instrument Skagit County, in northern Washington. It is was formerly used in the solution of astronomical situated at the terminus of the Seattle and Northern problems. railroad, 95 miles N. of Seattle. It is a fishing. ANAL GLANDS, a term applied to a number of center and ships coal and iron. Population, 1,131. glands, in various animals, which lie near the anus.

ANÆMIA. See PATHOLOGY, Vol. XVIII, p. 377. Strictly applied, the term is limited to the glands of ANAËROBIA is a name applied to those bacteria carnivore and rodents. The secretions usually have which have become so adapted to a life based upon a strong and repulsive odor, and are employed for fermentative changes that they can exist without defense. The secretions from the anal glands of coming in contact with free oxygen, and for some the civet and other animals are prepared and used of them the access of free oxygen is destructive. See as perfumes. BACTERIOLOGY, in these Supplements.

ANALOGUE, a technical term in biology for an ANÆSTHESIA. Localanæsthesia, artificially pro- organ in one species or group of animals or plants duced, is of great value in minor operations, and in having the same function as an organ of different painful affections of limited areas of the body. structure or origin in another species. It refers to Local anæsthesia is often produced by freezing the physiological, independent of morphological, resempart with ether spray. Of medicinal agents, the blance; an organ showing the latter being called a best is_cocaine, prepared from the coca shrub of homologue. Peru (Erythroxylon Coca). In the form of a five to ANALYSIS, VOLUMETRIC. See VOLUMETRIC ten per cent watery solution, this drug is introduced ANALYSIS, in these Supplements.

, . into the tissues, by a hypodermic needle, and pro- ANAMORPHOSIS, in perspective, is a distorted duces complete anæsthesia of the part thus treated picture, which appears in its proper form only when in from three to fifteen minutes. Thymol, menthol, viewed from a particular point, or through a poly. aconite, belladonna, chloroform, phenol, chloral, and hedron, or reflected by a curved mirror. In natural Indian hemp have also a local anæsthetic action, if history the term is used for that gradual change of rubbed on the skin or applied to abraded surfaces. form which can be traced in a group of plants or Guaiacol has been announced by Dr. Pize of Monté- animals, the members of which have succeeded each limar, France, as a new anæsthetic. By injecting other in point of time, from the earlier development this substance under the skin in small doses he to the later. Called also Anamorphism. found that he could perform operations without pain ANAMOSA, capital of Jones County, central eastto the patient. A committee appointed by the ern Iowa, on the Buffalo and Wapsipinicon rivers. local academy of medicine examined its application It is on the Chicago and North-Western and Chicago, in this manner and reported favorably upon its use. Milwaukee and St. Paul railroads, 50 miles S.W. of See ANÆSTHESIA, Vol. I, p. 789.

Dubuque. It contains a state penitentiary, and is

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noted for its quarries of excellent building-stone. emperor, and, in consequence, the passage of strinPopulation, 2,006.

gently repressive measures directed against the social ANANIEV, a town on the Black Sea, province of democrats. These measures had the result of drivKherson, on the Tiligool, southern Russia. It is 95 ing most of the least reconcilable to America, some miles by rail N. of Odessa. Population, 16,449. of them finding their way to Chicago. Anarchism

ANAPA, a naval station and port town for small in America made its pubic appearance at the convessels on the eastern shore of the Black Sea, in gress of the International Workingmen's Association Russian Caucasia. It is an important tactical point. at Pittsburg, in October, 1883. The anarchist con: Its fort was built upon a projecting crag by the tingent from Chicago had an opportunity of advoTurks in 1784, and taken by the Russians in 1791. cating the putting into practice Karl Marx's theory It has a brisk trade with Trebizond. Population, of the use of force; which force was dynamite. This 10,614.

seemed to meet the approval of the congress. August ANAPESTIC METER, in prosody this con- Spies was the English secretary of the association, sists of a foot of three measures, the first two short and he and his associates went home to Chicago to or unaccented, the third long or accented. It is the formulate plans for the spread of the new gospel, opposite of dactylic meter.

the terrible climax to which was reached on the ANAPHORA, in rhetoric, is that figure of speech night of May 4, 1886, when the Haymarket riot which consists in repeating the same word at the occurred in Chicago. Anarchy in America is an beginning of two or more successive clauses or sen- exotic growth, and its few advocates are men and tences, as in i Cor. i, 20. In: liturgics, the more women of foreign names or foreign birth. See Ansolemn part of the eucharistic service which begins archism, Socialistic, under Socialism, Vol. XXII, pp. with the Sursum Corda.

216, 217. ANARCHISM has quite a distinct meaning from ANARRHICHAS, a genus of blennioid fishes, typi

, a anarchy in the usual acceptation of the word. An-cal of the Anarrhichadida family. A. lupus, the comarchism is the name adopted by a phase of revolu- mon wolf-fish, is the most familiar example. Their tionary socialism,--an exaggerated idea of individ- mandibular, palatine, and vomerine bones are armed ual freedom, which considers government of man by with prominent tubercles capped with enameled man to be oppression. Anarchism has two aspects: teeth. it has a political theory, the negative of government ANAS, a genus of birds of the subfamily Anatina. or of external authority; and it has an economic Many of the ducks, geese and swans were formerly theory as to land and capital, which is common to it classed together in this group, but the name is now with other forms of socialism. The acknowledged restricted to the mallard duck and closely allied father of anarchism, as a form of recent and con- species. temporary socialism, is Proudhon (1809-65), who ANASARCA. See DROPSY, Vol. VII, p. 472. declared that "the true form of the state is anarchy," ANASSA SATIVA. See PINE-APPLE, Vol. XIX, by which he meant, not disorder, but the absence of p. 106; also HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 274. government. Modern anarchism has adopted prin- ANASTASIUS, the name of four popes.

Anasciples and means, never contemplated by its former tasius I was the most eminent, and held office advocates. In Germany, though still a political for only three years (398–402). He enforced celiforce, those anarchistically inclined now abstain bacy on the higher clergy. Anastasius II (496-498) from the more extreme methods that have been used succeeded Gelasius I. Anastasius III (911-913) sucin Russia, France and elsewhere. But such whole- ceeded Sergius III. Anastasius IV (1153-1154) sucsome condition has been achieved only by the exer- ceeded Eugenius III. During his pontificate Arnold cise of severe repressive measures. German “scien- of Brescia preached in favor of the abolition of the tific" socialism became the doctrine taught to re- papal office. cruits to socialism in all countries. It originated with ANASTASIUS, surnamed BIBLIOTHECARIUS (“the Johann Karl Rodbertus, who, becoming prominent Librarian”), was a Roman priest, famous for his Greek about the middle of the present century, was for a scholarship. He became librarian of the Vatican, short period minister of education and public wor- hence his surname, and translated from the Greek, ship in Prussia. He was more of a theoretical | into Latin, a work entitled Historia Ecclesiastica, writer than most socialists, but his ideas had wide-composed chiefly of extracts from Nicephorus and spread influence. He died in 1875, in his 70th Syncellus. He died 886 A.D. year, and was followed by Karl Marx, of Hebrew ANASTASIUS GRÜN. See GERMANY, Vol. extraction, who was a deep student. He produced X, p. 546; Grün, Vol. XI, p. 224. a book, Capital, which has been called the "Socialists' ANASTATICA, a genus of plants of the family Bible." In 1864 was formed, in London, the Inter-Crucifera, or mustards,” natives of the deserts of national Workingmen's Society, with Marx at its Arabia, Syria, and North Africa. A. Hierochuntina is head. But the anarchistic element was constantly the rose of Jericho, one of the “ resurrection plants," antagonizing Marx, who had to expel M. Bakunin so named because, after flowering, its leafless branches in 1872, his bitterest opponent. The latter formed bend together upwards, forming an apparently lifea new international society, its principles being less ball, which coming in contact with water absorbs based upon pure anarchism, backed up by the doc- it greedily and rapidly expands. In the dry, rolled

, trine of “force.” The new “red society" grew in up condition, the plants are blown along the sands, strength at the expense of the older. In 1878 com- like tumble-weeds, scattering their seeds, and menced the attempts upon the life of the German upon coming to a damp spot, unroll, rapidly put out



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leaves and develop flowers and fruit. The plants the Chlorophycea (ordinary green algæ of fresh are abundant in the Dead Sea region, and have been waters) seem to have descended, and from these in frequently noted by travelers.

turn the Phaophycee and Rhodophycea (the ordinary ANASTOMOSIS. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. 902. brown and red algæ of sea-coasts). This completes

ANATHOTH was a Levitical city of refuge, situ- the alga assemblage from which the fungi are thought ated about four miles from Jerusalem. It is sup- to have been derived by the cultivation of parasitic posed to have been the native place of Jeremiah. and saprophytic habits. Among Thallophytes (algæ There are remains of the ancient city's walls and and fungi) the brown and red seaweeds and the fungi foundations to be seen to-day. Quarries in the are generally regarded as specialized lines, while the neighborhood still supply Jerusalem with building green algæ (Chlorophyceæ) are looked upon as the material.

ancestral forms of Bryophytes, and hence, more reANATIDÆ, a family of birds corresponding to the motely, of the groups above. Of the two groups of genera Anas and Mergus, and equivalent to the Bryophytes, the liverworts (Hepatica) are regarded as order Lamellirostres, exclusive of the flamingoes. It the more primitive forms,--that is, those which have includes ducks, geese, swans, and mergansers. There been derived directly from the Chlorophycea,—while are five subfamilies: Cygninæ, the swans; Anserinæ, from liverworts, in turn, the mosses (Muscinea) are the geese ; Anatine, the river or fresh-water ducks; thought to have been derived and developed as a Fuliguline, the sea-ducks; and Mergina, the mer- specialized line.

specialized line. The Pteridophytes (ferns, horsegansers.

tails, and club-mosses) also seem to have been deANATINÆ, a large subfamily of Anatidæ, which, rived from the liver worts, and although the three with a general term, are called “ducks.” The shape existing groups are very much unlike each other in of the bill constitutes the common character. the development of their sporophytes, the similar

ANBURY. See Club-root, under AGRICULTURE, structure of their gametophytes indicates a closely Vol. I, p. 368; and BOTANY, Vol. IV, p. 95. associated if not common origin among the liver

ANCACHS, a department of Peru, lying between worts. The origin of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms the Andes and the Pacific, north of the department (together forming the group Spermaphytes) is a muchof Lima; it is rich in undeveloped silver-mines and discussed question. The former are much more in gold. Capital, Huaraz. Population, 284,091. closely allied to the Pteridophytes than are the Angio

ANCESTORS, Worship of, a form of religion sperms, and by some are regarded as an intermediate which arises naturally from the primitive conception group. It is becoming more common, however, to of a soul during life animating the body and exer- regard them as groups of independent origin; the cising influence over it, and after death retaining its Gymnosperms having arisen from the lycopods (clubpower, and continuing into the unseen world the life mosses), or possibly the cycad division of them havand social relations of the living world. Having ing come from the ferns proper; while the Angio become a deity, it goes on protecting its people and sperms have arisen independently from the heterosreceiving service from them. The worship of ances- porous Pteridophytes, possibly from some such forms tors is a subdivision of animism, and its universality as Isoetes.

John M. CoultER. has led Herbert Spencer to the opinion that it was ANCHISAURUS, a dinosaurian reptile of the the origin of religion everywhere. See MYTHOLOGY, Triassic period. Vol. XVII, p. 141; Totemism, Vol. XXIII, pp. 467, ANCHITHERIUM, a fossil genus of three-toed et seq.

mammals of the equine type, which existed in Europe ANCESTRY OF PLANTS OR PHYLOGENY. and America from late Eocene to far into MioOne of the most conspicuous results of the recent cene times. By some authors it is supposed to belong study of plant morphology is the developinent of in the ancestral line of the horse. Others think that knowledge concerning the origin of modern groups. it stands between the tapir-like Palæotherium and That they are the modified descendants of earlier one of the ancestors of the horse. See also HORSE, forms is no longer doubtful, and the increasing details Vol. XII, pp. 173, 174. of embryogeny, as well as the revelations of paleobot- ANCHORAGE, a toll levied on the owner or any, have enabled botanists to draw many conclu- captain of a ship for the privilege of casting anchor sions concerning ancestral forms. As a general on special anchoring-grounds. It is usually payable statement, it is true that the higher groups have come to the state, but sometimes the right is vested in from the lower, and such low alga-forms as Cyan- corporations or individuals. Anchorage also signiophyccæ are regarded as representing the primitive fies “anchor-ground.” See ANCHOR, Vol. II, p. 8. forms from which the plant kingdom has developed. ANCHOR-ICE OR GROUND-ICE, a kind of ice While a succession of species has appeared and dis- which forms upon the beds of rivers, or shallow, appeared throughout geologic time, the great groups, brackish seas. It forms most readily where the flow after their first introduction, have always been rep- of the water is most interrupted and tụmultuous. resented. When reference is made, therefore, to It begins to form when the temperature of the one group as the ancestor of another, it should be atmosphere falls to within 10° F., and does not remembered that the group as a whole, is referred to, adhere strongly to the bottom until zero is reached. rather than any specific representatives of it in the When it rises to the surface it frequently brings Aora of to-day. In this large sense the Cyanophycea with it the stones to which it is attached. are regarded as ancestral forms whose origin is too ANCHORITE OR ANCHORET. The terms obscure to permit us szíely to carry our conclusions anchorite and hermit are now used as synony as to origin further back. From the Cyanophycea | mous, but originally there was a distinction made

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