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between them. Anchorite signified one who, having no fixed dwelling-place, made mountains and deserts his place of retreat, where, alone with God and Nature, he could perform works of penance and subdue the flesh and the Devil. The most famous anchorites of the East were Paul of Thebes, called "first hermit," St. Anthony and St. Hilarion. In the West there were few followers of this sort of life. The term hermit was originally applied to one who occupied a cell attached to some religious house. In course of time the title was extended to include all solitary ascetics, in distinction from "monk," which was assigned to ascetics living in communities.

ANCHOVY-PEAR, the fruit of Grias cauliflora, a myrtaceous tree growing in boggy places in the mountainous districts of Jamaica and other West Indian islands. The fruit is pickled and eaten like the East Indian mango.

ANCIENT ORDER OF UNITED WORKMEN, a secret friendly or mutual benefit association. It was organized in 1868, in Meadville, Pennsylvania, by John J. Upchurch. There are no restrictions of occupation upon membership, and its aims are purely benevolent or reciprocal. There are three degrees in the association, and it has about 5,000 lodges, under 34 grand or state lodges, with a membership of 355,000 scattered over the Union. Beneficial disbursements to members have averaged over two million dollars annually since its organization, and have grown to over seven million dollars in a single year. Grand lodges represent the subordinate lodges, and in turn send delegates to the supreme lodge, in which supreme officers are annually elected. Headquarters are where the master workman for the time being resides. See BENEFIT SOCIETIES, in these Supplements.

ANCIENTS, COUNCIL OF, an assembly (1795-99) of the legislative body of France, dissolved by the revolution of the 18th Brumaire. It consisted of 250 members, none of whom might be less than 40 years of age. See NAPOLEON, Vol. XVII, p. 202, 203.

ANCILE, a shield of brass supposed to have been thrown down from heaven, on the secure possession of which the augurs taught the safety of Rome depended. By order of King Numa Pompilius, the ancile, with 11 other shields made to resemble it, in order that the genuine one might not be easily distinguishable by a thief, was placed in the temple of Mars, and 12 priests were appointed to keep guard over them. The shields were carried in procession on each 1st of March, through the city, by the guards, who sang warlike songs and beat time on the ancilia with rods.

ANCONA, ALESSANDRO D', a noted Italian critic and philologist of romance literature. Born in Pisa in 1835, he at first took part in the movement for Italian independence. In 1861 he was appointed to the chair of Italian literature in the university of his native city. His publications and pupils were many and famous. His Dante's Sources of Inspiration (1847), The Folk Song of Italy (1878) and Studies of Early Italian Literature (1884) are his most noted works.


ANCRE, CONCINO DE CONCINI. See CONCINI, in these Supplements.

ANCRUM MOOR, in Roxburghshire, about five miles N. of Jedburgh, Scotland, the scene of the defeat of 5,000 English under Sir Ralph Evars and Sir Brian Latoun, in 1544, by a Scotch force under the Earl of Angus and Scott of Buccleuch. A defaced monument still marks the spot where a Scottish prototype of Moll Pitcher, a maiden named Lilliard, is said to have performed prodigies of valor.

ANDAGOYA, PASCUAL DE, a Spanish soldier and traveler, born in the province of Alava, Spain, about 1495. He went to Darien when very young, and in 1522 became inspector-general of the Indians on the isthmus. The same year he heard of a province farther south, called Peru, and he set out for that place; but before he reached the empire of the Incas, a serious illness forced him to return to Panama. It was through the information received from him that Francisco Pizarro was sent to conquor Peru. Andagoya was banished in 1529 by the governor to Santo Domingo, but returned a few years later as lieutenant to the new governor, and acted as agent to the conquerors of Peru until 1536, when he was sent back to Spain. In 1540 he became governor of the country around the San Juan River, but owing to a dispute with a neighboring governor, went back to Spain. He returned five years later to Manta, Peru, where he died, June 18, 1548. His account of his travels is the standard historical work for its period. ANDALUSITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI,

p. 408.

ANDANTE, a tempo mark, in music, indicating, in modern usage, a movement somewhat slow, but in a gentle and soothing style. It is often modified as to time and style by the addition of other words.

ANDERAB OR INDERAB, a town in Afghan Turkestan, situate on the river Anderab, on the northern slope of the Hindu-Kush Mountains, 85 niles N.E. of Kabul. It is an entrepôt of commerce between Persia and India. Population, 6,500.

ANDERLECHT, a suburb of Brussels, in the province of Brabant, Belgium, distant 10 miles S.W. from that city. It has considerable brewing and dyeing industries. Population 1895, 32,240.

ANDERMATT OR USERN, a village in the canton of Uri, Switzerland, situated at the junction of the St. Gotthard road with that over the Furka Pass and the Oberalp route. It has long been famous as a tourist center. Population, about 750.

ANDERSEN, CARL CHRISTIAN, Danish poet and archæologist, born in Copenhagen, Oct. 26, 1828. He was sent, at the age of nine years, to a relative of his mother in Iceland, to be educated. Returning to Copenhagen in 1848, he devoted himself to the study of law, but soon turned to literature, in which he ranks high, both as poet and scholar. He has also given evidence of considerable power as a prose-writer. Among other works, he has published Rosenborg (1867); De Danske Kongers Kronologiske Samling (1870); Gusle, serbiske Folkesang, paa Dansk (1875); and Islandske Folkesang (1862, 1864, 1867). The two last-mentioned are collections of Serbian and Icelandic folk-tales and ballads. His

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largest work is Genrebilleder (6 vols.; 1867-79); | which has passed through many editions, and been translated into German and other tongues. Died at Copenhagen, Sept. 1, 1883.

ANDERSEN, HANS CHRISTIAN, the most widely popular of Danish authors, and one of the great story-tellers of the world, born at Odense, in Fünen, April 2, 1805, died at Copenhagen, Aug. 6, 1875. The son of a poor shoemaker, he worked for some time in a factory, but his wonderful singing and extraordinary talent soon procured him friends. He went to Copenhagen, hoping to obtain an engagement in the theater, but HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN. was rejected because of his lack of education. He next tried to become a singer, but soon found that his heavy face and ungraceful form were not fitted for the stage. Through the assistance of generous friends he was placed at an advanced school, and was thus enabled to remedy his defects of education. Some of his poems, particularly the one entitled The Dying Child, had already been well received, and he became better known by the publication of his Walk to Amak, a literary satire. He published his first volume of poems in 1830, and in 1831 a second. A traveling pension, granted him by the king in 1833, afforded him opportunities for mental development, and some of its fruits were his Traveling Sketches, Agnes and the Merman, and The Improvisatore. It was through these that he first attained general popularity. In 1840 he made a somewhat lengthened tour in Italy and the East, and 1844 visited the court of Denmark by special invitation, receiving an annuity the following year. Among other works of Andersen may be mentioned O. T. (1836); Only a Fiddler (1837); a drama entitled The Mulatto (1840); The Story of My Life (1855); Tales from Jutland (1859); and Tales for Children (1861). His fame has long been more than European. On his seventieth birthday he was presented with a book containing one of his tales in fifteen languages. See DENMARK, Vol. VII, p. 93.

ANDERSON, an important manufacturing town and railroad center of Indiana, and the county seat of Madison County. It is situated on the west fork of White River, 35 miles N. of Indianapolis. Four important railroads center in Anderson, which has a remarkable hydraulic canal with a fall of 44 feet. It is in the heart of the natural-gas belt. Population 1891, 10,741.

ANDERSON, a town of southeastern Texas, capital of Grimes County. It is situated 65 miles N.W. of Houston and 100 miles E.N.E. of Austin. Population 1891, 572.

ANDERSON, ALEXANDER, the father of American wood-engraving, was born in the city of New York, April 21, 1775; educated at Columbia College; became a physician, but soon abandoned medicine, to follow his penchant for engraving. Among

his principal works is a fine reproduction of the "Birds" of Thomas Bewick. He died in Jersey City, Jan. 17, 1870.

ANDERSON, CHAPMAN L., was born in Noxubee County, Mississippi, March 15, 1845. He attended the public schools until the beginning of the Civil War, when he entered the Confederate army and served through the successive grades from private to second lieutenant. After the war he entered the law department of the University of Mississippi, and was admitted to the bar in 1868. In 1879 he was elected to the Mississippi legislature, in 1886 to the Fiftieth Congress, and in 1888 to the Fifty-first Congress.

ANDERSON, ELIZABETH GARRETT, born in London, England, in 1837. She studied medicine with much credit at the Middlesex Hospital in 1860, but was prevented from pursuing her studies there by a petition from the students against the admission of women. After experiencing considerable difficulty in qualifying, Miss Garrett passed the Apothecaries' Hall examination with credit in 1865, and the next year received a dispensary appointment. In 1870 she became visiting physician to the East London Hospital, and headed the poll in the election for the London School Board. During this year, also, the University of Paris conferred on her the degree of M.D. She has practiced regularly as a physician for women and children since her marriage to Mr. Anderson, which took place in 1871.

ANDERSON, GALUSHA, born in Bergen, New York, March 7, 1832; educated for the Baptist ministry, he has held pastorates in Brooklyn and Chicago, and from 1878 to 1885 was president of the Chicago University.

ANDERSON, GEORGE B., a Confederate general, born in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1831; died Oct. 16, 1862. He graduated at West Point in 1852. He commanded the Confederate coast defenses of his native state. He died from the effects of a wound received in the battle of Antietam.

ANDERSON, HENRY JAMES, an American scientist and prominent Roman Catholic, was born in New York in 1799, and was educated at Columbia College, with which he was long identified as professor of astronomy and mathematics. He traveled extensively on the continent of Europe, and in Africa and Asia, and was prominently connected with several scientific expeditions. He died in India, while returning from the transit of Venus expedition to Australia, in 1875.

ANDERSON, JAMES, a Scotch agriculturist and political economist; born near Edinburgh, in 1739; noted as the inventor of an improved plow. His Essays Relating to Agriculture, (1777), and a periodical called Recreations in Agriculture, in which he forecasted the Malthusian and Ricardoan theory of rent, are among his principal works. Died at Isleworth, Middlesex, England, Oct. 15, 1808.

ANDERSON, JAMES PATTON, a Confederate general, was born in Tennessee about 1819; was lieutenant-colonel of volunteers in the Mexican War; and served with distinction in the Confederate army, attaining the rank of major-general. He died in 1873.

ANDERSON, JOHN, a noted Scotch zoologist,



born in Edinburgh, Oct. 4, 1833. After holding the chair of natural science in the Free Church College, Edinburgh, he proceeded to India in 1864 as the curator of the Calcutta Museum. He accompanied various expeditions as scientific officer. He retired from the Indian service in 1887. Dr. Anderson has written many zoological works, including accounts of his various expeditions.

ANDERSON, JOHN A., born in Washington County, Pennsylvania, June 26, 1834. He graduated at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1853, and was ordained as a Presbyterian minister four years later. He was made trustee of the California state insane asylum in 1860, and chaplain of the Third Infantry, California volunteers, in 1862, 62, accompanying General Conner's expedition to Salt Lake. He was agent of the United States sanitary commission from 1863 to 1867, and president of the Kansas State Agricultural College from 1873 to 1879. He was appointed a judge by the United States Centennial Commission in 1876, and was elected Republican Congressman from the Fortysixth to the Fifty-first Congresses, both inclusive. Died in April, 1892.

ANDERSON, JOSEPH, soldier, jurist and statesman, born Nov. 5, 1757, near Philadelphia. He was a student of law when the Revolution began, and, enlisting, was appointed an ensign in the New Jersey line. Made a captain at the battle of Monmouth, he afterward rendered valued service with Sullivan against the Iroquois Indians, was present at Valley Forge and at the siege of Yorktown, at the close of the war retiring with the brevet rank of major. Beginning the practice of law in Delaware, President Washington appointed him territorial judge in 1791. His territory being the region south of the Ohio River, he became prominently identified with the development of Tennessee, taking part in preparing the constitution of that state, and being afterward chosen as United States Senator from 1797 to 1815. At the latter date he was appointed first comptroller of the Treasury, which position he held until 1836. His death occurred in Washington, District of Columbia, April 17, 1837.

ANDERSON, MARTIN BREWER, an American educator, was born in Brunswick, Maine, Feb. 12, 1815; studied theology, and was for some years professor of various branches of study in Waterville College. In 1850 he removed to New York and became editor and owner of the New York Recorder, a weekly Baptist journal. Three years later he became president of the University of Rochester, New York. He died at Lake Helen, Florida, Feb. 26, 1890.


ANDERSON, OPHELIA BROWN, an American actress, was born in Massachusetts in 1813. She acted in juvenile parts at a very early age, and throughout her life was one of the chief favorites of Boston theater-goers. She died in 1852.

ANDERSON, RASMUS BJÖRN, an American writer of Scandinavian descent, was born in Wisconsin in 1846. He was educated in Iowa, and was for some


years professor of Scandinavian languages in the University of Wisconsin. He has written numerous works on the history and folk-lore of the Norsemen. He was United States minister to Denmark during President Cleveland's first administration, 1885-89. ANDERSON, RICHARD HENRY, a Confederate lieutenant-general, was born in South Carolina in 1816, and entered the army from West Point in 1842. He served with distinction throughout the Mexican War. In the Confederate service he was intrusted with important commands, and participated in the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg and Spottsylvania. He died at Beaufort, South Carolina, June 26, 1879.



ANDERSON, ROBERT, soldier; born near Louisville, Kentucky, June 14, 1805; died in Nice, France, Oct. 27, 1871. He graduated at the United States Military Academy in 1825, and served in the Black Hawk war of 1832. Later he became instructor of artillery at West Point, served in the Seminole war, and in 1838 was assistant adjutant general on the staff of General Winfield Scott. In the Mexican War he served as captain, and in the battle of Molino del Rey was wounded. In 1857 he was promoted major of artillery, and on Nov. 15, 1860, was ordered to assume command of Fort Moultrie. He transferred his command of 83 men to Fort Sumter for better defense, leaving the guns at Fort Moultrie spiked and their carriages burnt. On April 13, 1861, Fort Sumter was surrendered to the South Carolinians, after a destructive bombardment. Major Anderson and the officers and men under his command received the thanks of the nation for their courage and patriotic conduct. courage and patriotic conduct. In May, 1861, he was appointed brigadier-general, organized the volunteer regiments of Kentucky. On Oct. 27, 1863, he retired from active service, on account of ill health, and in 1868 went to Europe. He translated several military text-books from the French, and adapted them to the American service.

ANDERSON, RUFUS, an American Congregational minister and corresponding secretary of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions for 34 years. He was born in Maine in 1796, and died in 1880. He spent his life in the interest of foreign missions, traveling, lecturing and writing extensively in that cause.

ANDERSON, WILLIAM, an American soldier and statesman, born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1763. He served through the Revolutionary war, and was present at the battle of Brandywine as colonel on the staff of Lafayette. He was with Washington at Valley Forge, and took part in the battle of Germantown and was at the surrender at Yorktown. From 1809 to 1815 and from 1817 to 1819 he was in Congress, and was afterward a county court judge and collector of customs. His daughter Evelina




married Com. D. Porter. He died in Pennsylvania, | While archdeacon in Strengnäs, he was instrumental Dec. 14, 1829.

ANDERSON, WILLIAM, a noted English civil engineer, director-general of the ordnance factories; born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Jan. 5, 1835, and educated in Russia. After passing a period of instruction as pupil of Sir William Fairbairn, he was for nine years from 1855 the active partner in a contracting firm, building bridges and railroad appliances. Then he became the responsible head of the firm of Easton and Anderson. He contributed extensively to technical literature, and in 1889 was appointed director-general of the royal ordnance factories.

ANDERSON, WILLIAM WARDEN, GENERAL, an English soldier and political officer in India, was born at Surat, in India, in 1824, and entered the Indian army in 1840. He saw much service in the Punjab campaign of 1848, and was severely wounded by the rebels at Gwalior during the mutiny. From 1854 to 1864 he held high office for the Guicowar of Baroda, in addition to his duties as English political agent.

ANDERSON, a village in the northwestern part of South Carolina, county seat of Anderson County, and the local center of the corn and cotton trade. It is situated at the intersection of the Blue Ridge railroad with the Port Royal and Western Carolina | railroad, is the seat of the Carolina High School for Boys and Girls, and is drained by the Rocky River, an affluent of the Savannah River. Population 1891, 3,018.




in converting King Gustavus Vasa to the principles of the Reformation. Andersson superintended the translation of the New Testament into Swedish (published in folio, 1526), and labored successfully for the introduction of the Reformation into his native country at the diet of Westerås in 1527. became chancellor of Sweden under Gustavus Vasa, and actively opposed the plan of rendering the church independent of secular power. In 1540, being accused of misprision of treason, he was condemned to death, but the sentence was commuted to fines. The remainder of his life was spent in seclusion at Strengnäs, where he died, April 29, 1552.

ANDERSSON, NILS JOHAN, Swedish botanist, was born at Småland, Feb. 20, 1821, and died in Stockholm, March 27, 1880. He accompanied a Swedish expedition around the world in 1851-53, and on his return published a description of the journey in A Voyage Round the World (3 vols.; 1853-54). In 1856 Andersson became professor of botany and curator of the botanical collections in the Academy of Science in Stockholm.

ANDERTON, THOMAS, an English choral compositor. His principal cantatas are The Song of Deborah and Barak (1871); a fine setting of Longfellow's Wreck of the Hesperus (1882); The Norman Baron (1884); and Yule Tide (1885). He has taken deep interest in the advancement of choral music in his native land.

ANDESITE, a group of volcanic rocks, gray, reddish, or dark brown in color. The ground-mass of these rocks is usually composed of feldspar-microliths, scattered through which are abundant crystals of plagioclase feldspar. Hornblende and augite, one or both, are generally present, together with magnetite, which is often very abundant. Andesite occurs chiefly in tertiary and more recent strata, and is found in Hungary, Transylvania, Siebengebirge, Santorin, Iceland, the Andes, the western territories of the United States, etc. Many varieties of this rock contain considerable quartz. The name was given by Von Buch to rocks brought by Von Humboldt from the Andes range.

ANDERSONVILLE, a village in Sumter County, Georgia, situated 62 miles S.W. of Macon. was used by the Confederate states as a military prison from 1864 to the end of the war. It was notorious for its overcrowding, insufficient food supply, and lack of sanitation. Between Feb. 15, 1864, and April, 1865, 49,485 prisoners were received, of whom 12,926 died. The superintendent, Henry Wirtz, was tried by a military commission in 1865 for cruelty and mismanagement, found guilty, and hanged, Nov. 10, 1865. The site of the prison-pen is now a national cemetery. Population of the vil- minosæ. Population of the village in 1895, about 350.

ANDERSSON, KARL JOHAN, an African explorer, born in Sweden, in the province of Wermland, in 1827. In 1850 he made a journey from Walfish Bay through Damaraland to Ovamboland, accompanying Francis Galton, and in 1853-54 continued the exploration alone. On his return to England he published Lake Ngami; or, Four Years' Wanderings in Southwest Africa. In 1858 he explored the Okavango River, and in 1866 he set out, with few attendants, on an expedition to the Kunene River. When within sight of the stream he was taken ill, and was obliged to retrace his steps, dying on the homeward journey, in the Ovakuambi region of southern Africa, July 5, 1867.

ANDIRA, a genus of plants of the family Leguminosa. The orbicular pod is one-celled and oneseeded. One species, called "cabbage tree," is found in low savannas in the West Indies. It grows to a considerable height, and has pinnate leaves and flowers like lilacs, its bark furnishing a valuable drug. Several other species of the genus contain the same substance.

ANDIJAN, a town in Ferghana, central Asiatic Russia, situated near the Syr-Daria, and 75 miles N.E. of Khokand. It is one of the principal towns on the main caravan routes of central Asia. Population 1891, 30,000.



ANDRAL, GABRIEL, a celebrated French physician and pathologist, born at Paris, Nov. 6, 1797. ANDERSSON, LARS, Sometimes called Laurentius In 1827 he was appointed professor of hygiene in Andrea, a Swedish reformer, was born in 1480. He the University of Paris, succeeding to the chair of studied theology in Rome, but afterward at Wit-pathology in 1830. Andral has been aptly termed tenberg he heard and accepted Luther's teachings. the father of analytical and inductive pathology.



He wrote several standard works on pathology. | ical Wanderings, and afterward a Commercial GeogHe died in Paris, Feb. 13, 1876. raphy. He died at Wildungen, Aug. 1o, 1875. ANDRÉE, RICHARD, German author, son of the preceding, was born in Brunswick, Feb. 26, 1835He studied at Leipsig. During the years of 185963 he was engaged in business in Bohemia, and participated in the contest between the Germans and the Czechs. the Czechs. His writings are principally on subjects connected with questions of race. Among his published works are Nationalitäts-Verhältnisse und Sprachgrenze in Böhmen (1871); Tschechische Ganze (1872), and Wendische Wanderstudien (1874). has also published some noteworthy articles in geographical periodicals.


ANDRASSY, JULIUS, COUNT, an Austro-Hungarian statesmen; born in the county of Zemplin, Hungary, March 8, 1823. His father, Count Charles Andrassy, was an influential member of the national diets, and a publicist of note. Count Julius was a member of the Presburg diet, governor of the county of Zemplin, and an active mover in the revolution of 1848. Just before the collapse of the patriotic cause, Andrassy was sent as minister to Constantinople, and his absence from home doubtless saved his life. Andrassy went to France, and lived there and in England until amnestied in 1857. Returning to Hungary, he soon entered into public affairs, and became Deak's most valued coadjutor. In 1866, when Austria granted the Hungarians an independent parliament, Andrassy became prime minister. His term of office was signalized by the institution of important reforms. In 1871 he succeeded Count Beust as foreign minister of the Austro-Hungarian empire, and was one of the chief factors in the formation of the triple alliance known as the Dreikaiserbund. He represented Austria in the Berlin conference of 1878, and was instrumental in adding Bosnia and Herzegovina to the AustroHungarian empire. He resigned his ministerial office in 1879. Died at Volosca, near Fiume, in Istria, Feb. 18, 1890.

ANDREA, JOHANN VALENTIN, a German Protestant theologian and satirical writer, born at Herrenberg, near Tübingen, in Würtemburg, Aug. 17, 1586. He directed his writings generally against the unsatisfactory condition of the social and religious affairs of his day, and he also argued strongly against the carelessness and the indifference shown to science. He was pastor at Calw in 1620, and court preacher at Stuttgart in 1639. One of his best works is his Menippus sive Satyricorum Dialogorum Centuria (1648). He died, June 24, 1654, at Stuttgart.


ANDRÉE, KARL THEODOR, German journalist and geographer; born in Brunswick, Oct. 20, 1808. He received the greater part of his education at the University of Jena, but studied also in Berlin and Göttingen. On his return to his native city he entered the field of journalism. He was afterward editor in Cologne from 1843 to 1846, then for two years at Bremen, and again for a time in his native city. He removed to Dresden in 1855, and in 1858 was appointed consul to Chile. His geographical works relating to America comprise North America (1850-51), Buenos Ayres and the Argentine Republic (1856), and numerous articles in Das Westernland and other journals. In 1859 he published an account of recent explorations, entitled Geograph



ANDREW, JAMES OSGOOD, an American divine; born in Wilkes County, Georgia, May 3, 1794, and became an itinerant Methodist Episcopal preacher of South Carolina conference, being consecrated bishop in May, 1832. From his social relations began the division of the Methodist Episcopal Church into "North" and "South." His second wife was a slaveholder, and in the general conference of 1844 it was declared that "this would greatly embarrass the exercise of his office, if not in some places entirely prevent it," and it was resolved that "he should desist from the exercise of this office so long as this impediment remains." The Southern delegates protested, and the difficulty was finally settled by dividing the churches and property into the Northern and Southern jurisdictions. Bishop Andrew adhered to the South, and continued his episcopal work until 1866, retiring then from age. He died at Mobile, Alabama, March 2, 1871. ANDREW, JOHN ALBION, an American statesman, and war governor of Massachusetts, born in Albion, Maine, May 31, 1818. He graduated at Bowdoin, studied law at Boston and was admitted to practice. He became prominent as an anti-slavery man, and was elected to the legislature in 1858. In 1860 he was a delegate to the Republican convention at Chicago which nominated Abraham Lincoln for President, and in the same year was elected governor of Massachusetts. To this office he was annually re-elected until 1866, when he declined the nomination. In January, 1861, as soon as he was inaugurated, he began to prepare for the possibility of war by reorganizing the militia. Within a week after the President's proclamation of April 15, 1861, he had dispatched five regiments of infantry, a battalion of riflemen and a battery of artillery to Washington. In September, 1862, he attended the convention of the governors of the loyal states at Altoona, Pennsylvania, and drew up the address they presented to the President. In January, 1863, he obtained permission from the War Department to enlist negro troops. He died in Boston, Oct.


30, 1867.


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