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between them. Anchorite signified one who, having ANCRE, CONCINO DE CONCINI. See Concini, in no fixed dwelling-place, made mountains and deserts these Supplements. his place of retreat, where, alone with God and ANCRUM MOOR, in Roxburghshire, about five Nature, he could perform works of penance and miles N. of Jedburgh, Scotland, the scene of the subdue the flesh and the Devil. The most famous defeat of 5,000 English under Sir Ralph Evars and anchorites of the East were Paul of Thebes, called Sir Brian Latoun, in 1544, by a Scotch force under "first hermit,” St. Anthony and St. Hilarion. In the Earl of Angus and Scott of Buccleuch. A dethe West there were few followers of this sort of faced monument still marks the spot where a Scot

The term hermit was originally applied to tish prototype of Moll Pitcher, a maiden named one who occupied a cell attached to some religious Lilliard, is said to have performed prodigies of house. In course of time the title was extended valor. to include all solitary ascetics, in distinction from ANDAGOYA, PASCUAL DE, a Spanish soldier and "monk," which was assigned to ascetics living in traveler, born in the province of Alava, Spain, about communities.

1495. He went to Darien when very young, and in ANCHOVY-PEAR, the fruit of Grias cauli- 1522 became inspector-general of the Indians on the flora, a myrtaceous tree growing in boggy places in isthmus. The same year he heard of a province farther the mountainous districts of Jamaica and other West south, called Peru, and he set out for that place; but Indian islands. The fruit is pickled and eaten like before he reached the empire of the Incas, a serious the East Indian mango.

illness forced him to return to Panama.

It was ANCIENT' ORDER OF UNITED WORK- through the information received from him that MEN, a secret friendly or mutual benefit associa- Francisco Pizarro was sent to conquor Peru. Andation. It was organized in 1868, in Meadville, Penn- | goya was banished in 1529 by the governor to Santo sylvania, by John J. Upchurch. There are no re- Domingo, but returned a few years later as lieutenstrictions of occupation upon membership, and its ant to the new governor, and acted as agent to the aims are purely benevolent or reciprocal. There are conquerors of Peru until 1536, when he was sent three degrees in the association, and it has about back to Spain. In 1540 he became governor of the 5,000 lodges, under 34 grand or state lodges, with a country around the San Juan River, but owing to a membership of 355,000 scattered over the Union. dispute with a neighboring governor, went back to Beneficial disbursements to members have averaged Spain. He returned five years later to Manta, Peru, over two million dollars annually since its organiza- where he died, June 18, 1548. His account of his tion, and have grown to over seven million dollars travels is the standard historical work for its period. in a single year. Grand lodges represent the sub- ANDALUSITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, ordinate lodges, and in turn send delegates to the p. 408. supreme lodge, in which supreme officers are annu- ANDANTE, a tempo mark, in music, indicating, ally elected. Headquarters are where the master in modern usage, a movement somewhat slow, but workman for the time being resides. See BENEFIT | in a gentle and soothing style. It is often modified SOCIETIES, in these Supplements.

as to time and style by the addition of other words. ANCIENTS, COUNCIL OF, an assembly (1795-99) ANDERAB OR INDERAB, a town in Afghan of the legislative body of France, dissolved by the Turkestan, situate on the river Anderab, on the revolution of the 18th Brumaire. It consisted of northern slope of the Hindu-Kush Mountains, 85 250 members, none of whom might be less than 40 miles N.E. of Kabul. It is an entrepôt of comyears of age. See NAPOLEON, Vol. XVII, p. 202, merce between Persia and India. Population, 6,500. 203.

ANDERLECHT, a suburb of Brussels, in the ANCILE, a shield of brass supposed to have been province of Brabant, Belgium, distant 10 miles S.W. thrown down from heaven, on the secure possession from that city. It has considerable brewing and of which the augurs taught the safety of Rome dyeing industries. Population 1895, 32,240. depended. By order of King Numa Pompilius, the ANDERMATT OR USERN, a village in the canancile, with it other shields made to resemble it, ton of Uri, Switzerland, situated at the junction of in order that the genuine one inight not be easily the St. Gotthard road with that over the Furka Pass distinguishable by a thief, was placed in the temple and the Oberalp route. It has long been famous of Mars, and 12 priests were appointed to keep as a tourist center. Population, about 750. guard over them. The shields were carried in pro- ANDERSEN, Carl Christian, Danish poet and cession on each ist of March, through the city, by archäologist, born in Copenhagen, Oct. 26, 1828. the guards, who sang warlike songs and beat time He was sent, at the age of nine years, to a relative on the ancilia with rods.

of his mother in Iceland, to be educated. ReturnANCONA, ALESSANDRO D', a noted Italian criticing to Copenhagen in 1848, he devoted himself to and philologist of romance literature. Born in Pisa the study of law, but soon turned to literature, in in 1835, he at first took part in the movement for which he ranks high, both as poet and scholar. He Italian independence. In 1861 he was appointed to has also given evidence of considerable power as a the chair of Italian literature in the university of his prose-writer. Among other works, he has published native city. His publications and pupils were many Rosenborg (1867); De Danske Kongers Kronologiske

His Dante's Sources of Inspiration Samling (1870); Gusle, serbiske Folkesang, paa (1847), The Folk Song of Italy (1878) and Studies of Dansk (1875); and Islandske Folkesang (1862, 1864, Early Italian Literature (1884) are his most noted | 1867). The two last-mentioned are collections of works.

Serbian and Icelandic folk-tales and ballads. His



largest work is Genrebilleder (6 vols.; 1867-79); his principal works is a fine reproduction of the which has passed through many editions, and been “Birds” of Thomas Bewick. He died in Jersey City, translated into German and other tongues. Died at Jan. 17, 1870. Copenhagen, Sept. 1, 1883.

ANDERSON, CHAPMAN L., was born in Noxubee ANDERSEN, Hans CHRISTIAN, the most widely County, Mississippi, March 15, 1845. He attended the popular of Danish authors, and one of the great public schools until the beginning of the Civil War,

story-tellers of the world, when he entered the Confederate army and served born at Odense, in Fünen, through the successive grades from private to second April 2, 1805, died at lieutenant. After the war he entered the law deCopenhagen, Aug. 6, 1875.partment of the University of Mississippi, and was The son of a poor shoe- admitted to the bar in 1868. In 1879 he was elected maker, he worked for some to the Mississippi legislature, in 1886 to the Fiftieth time in a factory, but his Congress, and in 1888 to the Fifty-first Congress. wonderful singing and ex- ANDERSON, ELIZABETH GARRETT, born in Lontraordinary talent soon don, England, in 1837. She studied medicine with procured him friends. He much credit at the Middlesex Hospital in 1860, but went to Copenhagen, hop- was prevented from pursuing her studies there by a ing to obtain an engage petition from the students against the admission of

ment in the theater, but women. After experiencing considerable difficulty HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN. was rejected because of his in qualifying, Miss Garrett passed the Apothecaries' lack of education. He next tried to become a singer, Hall examination with credit in 1865, and the next but soon found that his heavy face and ungraceful year received a dispensary appointment. In 1870 form were not fitted for the stage. Through the she became visiting physician to the East London assistance of generous friends he was placed at an Hospital, and headed the poll in the election for the advanced school, and was thus enabled to remedy London School Board. During this year, also, the his defects of education. Some of his poems, par- University of Paris conferred on her the degree of ticularly the one entitled The Dying Child, had M.D. She has practiced regularly as a physician for already been well received, and he became better women and children since her marriage to Mr. Anknown by the publication of his Walk to Amak, a derson, which took place in 1871. literary satire. He published his first volume of ANDERSON, GALUSHA, born in Bergen, New poems in 1830, and in 1831 a second. A traveling York, March 7, 1832; educated for the Baptist minpension, granted him by the king in 1833, afforded istry, he has held pastorates in Brooklyn and Chihim opportunities for mental development, and cago, and from 1878 to 1885 was president of the some of its fruits were his Traveling Sketches, Agnes Chicago University. and the Merman, and The Improvisatore. It was

ANDERSON, GEORGE B., a Confederate general, through these that he first attained general popu- born in Wilmington, North Carolina, in 1831; died larity. In 1840 he made a somewhat lengthened Oct. 16, 1862. He graduated at West Point in 1852. tour in Italy and the East, and 1844 visited the He commanded the Confederate coast defenses of his court of Denmark by special invitation, receiving an native state. He died froin the effects of a wound annuity the following year. Among other works received in the battle of Antietam. of Andersen may be mentioned 0. T.(1836); Only ANDERSON, HENRY JAMES, an American sciena Fiddler (1837); a drama entitled The Mulatto tist and prominent Roman Catholic, was born in New (1840); The Story of My Life (1855); Tales from York in 1799, and was educated at Columbia ColJutland (1859); and Tales for Children (1861). His lege, with which he was long identified as professor fame has long been more than European. On his of astronomy and mathematics. He traveled extenseventieth birthday he was presented with a book sively on the continent of Europe, and in Africa containing one of his tales in fifteen languages. and Asia, and was prominently connected with sevSee DENMARK, Vol. VII, p. 93.

eral scientific expeditions. He died in India, while ANDERSON, an important manufacturing town returning from the transit of Venus expedition to and railroad center of Indiana, and the county seat Australia, in 1875. of Madison County. It is situated on the west fork ANDERSON, JAMES, a Scotch agriculturist and of White River, 35 miles N. of Indianapolis. Four political economist; born near Edinburgh, in 1739; important railroads center in Anderson, which has a noted as the inventor of an improved plow. His remarkable hydraulic canal with a fall of 44 feet. It Essays Relating to Agriculture, (1777), and a is in the heart of the natural-gas belt. Population periodical called Recreations in Agriculture, in which 1891, 10,741.

he forecasted the Malthusian and Ricardoan theory ANDERSON, a town of southeastern Texas, cap- of rent, are among his principal works. Died at ital of Grimes County. It is situated 65 miles N.W. Isleworth, Middlesex, England, Oct. 15, 1808. of Houston and 100 miles E.N.E. of Austin. Popu- ANDERSON, JAMES Patton, a Confederate genlation 1891, 572.

eral, was born in Tennessee about 1819; was lieutenANDERSON, ALEXANDER, the father of Ameri- ant-colonel of volunteers in the Mexican War; and can wood-engraving, was born in the city of New served with distinction in the Confederate army, York, April 21, 1775; educated at Columbia Colo attaining the rank of major-general. He died in lege; became a physician, but soon abandoned medi- 1873. cine, to follow his penchant for engraving. Among ANDERSON, John, a noted Scotch zoologist,

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born in Edinburgh, Oct. 4, 1833. After holding the years professor of Scandinavian languages in the chair of natural science in the Free Church College, University of Wisconsin. He has written numerous Edinburgh, he proceeded to India in 1864 as the works on the history and folk-lore of the Norsemen. curator of the Calcutta Museum. He accompanied He was United States minister to Denmark during various expeditions as scientific officer. He retired President Cleveland's first administration, 1885-89. from the Indian service in 1887. Dr. Anderson has ANDERSON, RICHARD Henry, a Confederate written many zoological works, including accounts lieutenant-general, was born in South Carolina in of his various expeditions.

1816, and entered the army from West Point in ANDERSON, JOHN A., born in Washington 1842. He served with distinction throughout the County, Pennsylvania, June 26, 1834. He gradu- Mexican War. In the Confederate service he was ated at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, in 1853, intrusted with important commands, and particiand was ordained as a Presbyterian minister four pated in the battles of Antietam, Gettysburg and years later. He was made trustee of the California Spottsylvania. He died at Beaufort, South Carostate insane asylum in 1860, and chaplain of the lina, June 26, 1879. Third Infantry, California volunteers, in 1862, ANDERSON, ROBERT, soldier; born near Louisaccompanying General Conner's expedition to Salt ville, Kentucky, June 14, 1805; died in Nice, France, Lake. He was agent of the United States sanitary | Oct. 27, 1871. He gradcommission from 1863 to 1867, and president of uated at the United States the Kansas State Agricultural College from 1873 to Military Academy in 1825, 1879. He was appointed a judge by the United and served in the Black States Centennial Commission in 1876, and was Hawk war of 1832. Later elected Republican Congressman from the Forty- he became instructor of sixth to the Fifty-first Congresses, both inclusive. artillery at West Point, Died in April, 1892.

served in the Seminole ANDERSON, JOSEPH, soldier, jurist and states- war, and in 1838 was asman, born Nov. 5, 1757, near Philadelphia. He sistant adjutant general was a student of law when the Revolution began, and, on the staff of General enlisting, was appointed an ensign in the New Jersey Winfield Scott. In the line. Made a captain at the battle of Monmouth, Mexican War he served as he afterward rendered valued service with Sulli- captain, and in the battle van against the Iroquois Indians, was present of Molino del Rey was at Valley Forge and at the siege of Yorktown, wounded. In 1857 he was at the close of the war retiring with the brevet promoted major of artillery, and on Nov. 15, 1860, rank of major. Beginning the practice of law was ordered to assume command of Fort Moultrie. in Delaware, President Washington appointed | He transferred his command of 83 men to Fort him territorial judge in 1791. His territory being Sumter for better defense, leaving the guns at Fort

, the region south of the Ohio River, he became promi- Moultrie spiked and their carriages burnt. On April nently identified with the development of Tennes 13, 1861, Fort Sumter was surrendered to the South see, taking part in preparing the constitution of Carolinians, after a destructive bombardment. Major

a that state, and being afterward chosen as United Anderson and the officers and men under his comStates Senator from 1797 to 1815. At the latter mand received the thanks of the nation for their date he was appointed first comptroller of the Treas- courage and patriotic conduct. In May, 1861, he ury, which position he held until 1836. His death was appointed brigadier-general, organized the volunoccurred in Washington, District of Columbia, April teer regiments of Kentucky. On Oct. 27, 1863, 17, 1837

he retired from active service, on account of all ANDERSON, MARTIN BREWER, an American health, and in 1868 went to Europe. He translated

, educator, was born in Brunswick, Maine, Feb. 12, several military text-books from the French, and 1815; studied theology, and was for some years adapted them to the American service. professor of various branches of study in Waterville ANDERSON, RUFUS, an American CongregaCollege. In 1850 he removed to New York and tional minister and corresponding secretary of the became editor and owner of the New York Recorder, American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Misa weekly Baptist journal. Three years later he sions for 34 years. He was born in Maine in 1796, became president of the University of Rochester, and died in 1880. He spent his life in the interest New York. He died at Lake Helen, Florida, Feb. of foreign missions, traveling, lecturing and writing 26, 1890.

extensively in that cause. ANDERSON, MARY. See NAVARRO, MARY AN- ANDERSON, William, an American soldier and TOINETTE (ANDERSON) DE, in these Supplements. statesman, born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, in

ANDERSON, OPHELIA Brown, an American 1763. He served through the Revolutionary war, and actress, was born in Massachusetts in 1813. She was present at the battle of Brandywine as colonel acted in juvenile parts at a very early age, and on the staff of Lafayette. He was with Washington throughout her life was one of the chief favorites of at Valley Forge, and took part in the battle of GerBoston theater-goers. She died in 1852.

mantown and was at the surrender at Yorktown. ANDERSON, Rasmus Björn, an American writer From 1809 to 1815 and from 1817 to 1819 he was in of Scandinavian descent, was born in Wisconsin in Congress, and was afterward a county court judge 1846. He was educated in Iowa, and was for some and collector of customs. His daughter Evelina

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married Com. D. Porter. He died in Pennsylvania, While archdeacon in Strengnäs, he was instrumental Dec. 14, 1829.

in converting King Gustavus Vasa to the principles ANDERSON, WILLIAM, a noted English civil of the Reformation. Andersson superintended the engineer, director-general of the ordnance factories; translation of the New Testament into Swedish born in St. Petersburg, Russia, Jan. 5, 1835, and (published in folio, 1526), and labored successfully educated in Russia. After passing a period of in- for the introduction of ihe Reformation into his struction as pupil of Sir William Fairbairn, he was native country at the diet of Westerås in 1527.

He for nine years from 1855 the active partner in a became chancellor of Sweden under Gustavus contracting firm, building bridges and railroad ap- Vasa, and actively opposed the plan of rendering pliances. Then he became the responsible head of the church independent of secular power. In 1540, the firm of Easton and Anderson. He contributed being accused of misprision of treason, he was conextensively to technical literature, and in 1889 was demned to death, but the sentence was commuted appointed director-general of the royal ordnance to fines. The remainder of his life was spent in factories.

seclusion at Strengnäs, where he died, April 29, 1552. ANDERSON, William WARDEN, GENERAL, an ANDERSSON, Nils JOHAN, Swedish botanist, was English soldier and political officer in India, was born born at Småland, Feb. 20, 1821, and died in Stockat Surat, in India, in 1824, and entered the Indian holm, March 27, 1880. He accompanied a Swedish army in 1840. He saw niuch service in the Punjab expedition around the world in 1851-53, and on campaign of 1848, and was severely wounded by his return published a description of the journey in the rebels at Gwalior during the mutiny. From A Voyage Round the World (3 vols.; 1853-54). 1854 to 1864 he held high office for the Guicowar In 1856 Andersson became professor of botany of Baroda, in addition to his duties as English po- and curator of the botanical collections in the litical agent.

Academy of Science in Stockholm. ANDERSON, a village in the northwestern part ANDERTON, THOMAS, an English choral comof South Carolina, county seat of Anderson County, positor. His principal cantatas are The Song of and the local center of the corn and cotton trade. Deborah and Barak (1871); a fine setting of LongIt is situated at the intersection of the Blue Ridge fellow's Wreck of the Hesperus (1882); The Norman railroad with the Port Royal and Western Carolina Baron (1884); and Yule Tide (1885). He has taken railroad, is the seat of the Carolina High School for deep interest in the advancement of choral music Boys and Girls, and is drained by the Rocky River, in his native land. an affluent of the Savannah River. Population ANDESITE, a group of volcanic rocks, gray, red1891, 3,018.

dish, or dark brown in color. The ground-mass of ANDERSON'S UNIVERSITY. See ANDERSON, these rocks is usually composed of feldspar-microJohn, Vol. II, p. 14.

liths, scattered through which are abundant crystals ANDERSONVILLE, a village in Sumter County, of plagioclase feldspar. Hornblende and augite, one Georgia, situated 62 miles S.W. of Macon. It or both, are generally present, together with magwas used by the Confederate states as a military netite, which is often very abundant. Andesite prison from 1864 to the end of the war. It was occurs chiefly in tertiary and more recent strata, and notorious for its overcrowding, insufficient food sup- is found in Hungary, Transylvania, Siebengebirge, ply, and lack of sanitation. Between Feb. 15, 1864, Santorin, Iceland, the Andes, the western territories and April, 1865, 49,485 prisoners were received, of of the United States, etc. Many varieties of this whoin 12,926 died. The superintendent, Henry rock contain considerable quartz. The name was Wirtz, was tried by a military commission in 1865 given by Von Buch to rocks brought by Von Humfor cruelty and mismanagement, found guilty, and boldt from the Andes range. hanged, Nov. 10, 1865. The site of the prison-pen ANDIRA, a genus of plants of the family Leguis now a national cemetery. Population of the vil- minosa. The orbicular pod is one-celled and onelage in 1895, about 350.

seeded. One species, called “cabbage tree," is ANDERSSON, KARL JOHAN, an African explorer, | found in low savannas in the West Indies. It grows born in Sweden, in the province of Wermland, in to a considerable height, and has pinnate leaves and 1827. In 1850 he made a journey from Walfish flowers like lilacs, its bark furnishing a valuable Bay through Damaraland to Ovamboland, accom- drug. Several other species of the genus contain panying Francis Galton, and in 1853-54 continued the same substance. the exploration alone. On his return to England ANDIJAN, a town in Ferghana, central Asiatic he published Lake Ngami; or, Four Years' Wander- Russia, situated near the Syr-Daria, and 75 miles ings in Southwest Africa. In 1858 he explored the N.E. of Khokand. It is one of the principal towns Okavango River, and in 1866 he set out, with few on the main caravan routes of central Asia. Popuattendants, on an expedition to the Kunene River. lation 1891, 30,000. When within sight of the stream he was taken ill, and ANDOVER THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY. was obliged to retrace his stcps, dying on the home-See ANDOVER, Vol. II, p. 19. ward journey, in the Ovakuambi region of southern ANDRAL, GABRIEL, a celebrated French physiAfrica, July 5, 1867.

cian and pathologist, born at Paris, Nov. 6, 1797. ANDERSSON, LARS, sometimes called Laurentius In 1827 he was appointed professor of hygiene in Andreä, a Swedish reformer, was born in 1480. He the University of Paris, succeeding to the chair of studied theology in Rome, but afterward at Wit- pathology in 1830. Andral has been aptly termed tenberg he heard and accepted Luther's teachings. I the father of analytical and inductive pathology

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He wrote several standard works on pathology. | ical Wanderings, and afterward a Commercial GeogHe died in Paris, Feb. 13, 1876.

raphy. He died at Wildungen, Aug. 10, 1875. ANDRASSY, JULIUS, Count, an Austro-Hun- ANDRÉE, RICHARD, German author, son of the garian statesmen; born in the county of Zemplin, preceding, was born in Brunswick, Feb. 26, 1835.

Hungary, March 8, 1823. He studied at Leipsig. During the years of 1859-
His father, Count Charles 63 he was engaged in business in Bohemia, and
Andrassy, was an influen- participated in the contest between the Germans and
tial member of the nation the Czechs. His writings are principally on sub-
al diets, and a publicist of jects connected with questions of race. Among his
note. Count Julius was a published works are Nationalitäts-Verhältnisse und
member of the Presburg Sprachgrenze in Böhmen (1871); Tschechische Ganze
diet, governor of the (1872), and Wendische Wanderstudien (1874). He
county of Zemplin, and has also published some noteworthy articles in geo-
an active mover in the graphical periodicals.
revolution of 1848. Just ANDREW, JAMES OSGOOD, an American divine;
before the collapse of the born in Wilkes County, Georgia, May 3, 1794, and

patriotic cause, Andrassy became an itinerant Methodist Episcopal preachero COUNT ANDRASSY. was sent as minister to of South Carolina conference, being consecrated Constantinople, and his absence from home doubt- bishop in May, 1832. From his social relations less saved his life. Andrassy went to France, and began the division of the Methodist Episcopal Church lived there and in England until amnestied in 1857. | into “North” and “South.” His second wife was a Returning to Hungary, he soon entered into public slaveholder, and in the general conference of 1844 affairs, and became Deak's most valued coadjutor. it was declared that “this would greatly embarrass In 1866, when Austria granted the Hungarians an the exercise of his office, if not in some places entirely independent parliament, Andrassy became prime prevent it," and it was resolved that "he should minister. His term of office was signalized by the desist from the exercise of this office so long as this institution of important reforms. In 1871 he suc- impediment remains." The Southern delegates proceeded Count Beust as foreign minister of the tested, and the difficulty was finally settled by dividAustro-Hungarian empire, and was one of the chief ing the churches and property into the Northern and factors in the formation of the triple alliance known Southern jurisdictions. Bishop Andrew adhered to as the Dreikaiserbund. He represented Austria in the South, and continued his episcopal work until the Berlin conference of 1878, and was instrumental 1866, retiring then from age. He died at Mobile, in adding Bosnia and Herzegovina to the Austro- Alabama, March 2, 1871. Hungarian empire. He resigned his ministerial ANDREW, JOHN ALBION, an American statesoffice in 1879. Died at Volosca, near Fiume, in man, and war governor of Massachusetts, born in Istria, Feb. 18, 1890.

Albion, Maine, May 31, ANDREA, JOHANN VALENTIN, a German Prot 1818. He graduated at estant theologian and satirical writer, born at Her- Bowdoin, studied law at renberg, near Tübingen, in Würtemburg, Aug. 17, Boston and was admit1586. He directed his writings generally against ted to practice. He bethe unsatisfactory condition of the social and reli- came prominent as gious affairs of his day, and he also argued strongly anti-slavery man, and was against the carelessness and the indifference shown elected to the legislature to science. He was pastor at Calw in 1620, and in 1858. In 1860 he was a court preacher at Stuttgart in 1639. One of his delegate to the Repubbest works is his Menippus sive Satyricorum Dialo- lican convention at Chigorum Centuria (1648). He died, June 24, 1654, at cago which nominated Stuttgart.

Abraham Lincoln for ANDREA PISANO. See Pisano, ANDREA, Vol. President, and in the XIX, p. 122.

same year was elected

JOHN ALBION ANDREW. ANDRÉE, Karl Theodor, German journalist governor of Massachuand geographer; born in Brunswick, Oct. 20, 1808. setts. To this office he was annually re-elected He received the greater part of his education at the until 1866, when he declined the nomination. University of Jena, but studied also in Berlin and January, 1861, as soon as he was inaugurated, he Göttingen. On his return to his native city he began to prepare for the possibility of war by reentered the field of journalism. He was afterward organizing the militia. Within a week after the editor in Cologne from 1843 to 1846, then for two President's proclamation of April 15, 1861, he had

, years at Bremen, and again for a time in his native dispatched five regiments of infantry, a battalion of city. He removed to Dresden in 1855, and in 1858 riflemen and a battery of artillery to Washington. was appointed consul to Chile. His geographical

His geographical In September, 1862, he attended the convention works relating to America comprise North Amer- of the governors of the loyal states at Altoona, ica (1850–51), Buenos Ayres and the Argentine Pennsylvania, and drew up the address they Republic (1856), and numerous articles in Das Wes- presented to the President. In January, 1863, he ternland and other journals. In 1859 he published obtained permission from the War Department an account of recent explorations, entitled Geograph- to enlist negro troops. He died in Boston, Oct.

30, 1867.




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