« PreviousContinue »
ANDREW – ANDREWS
E. G. ANDREWS.
ANDREW, John FORRESTER, United States | Mobile (1867); and Digest of the Opinions of the Congressman, born in Hingham, Massachusetts, Attorneys-General of the United States (1867). Nov. 24, 1850. He graduated at Harvard Col- ANDREWS, EBENEZER BALDWIN, an eminent lege in 1872, and was admitted to the bar in American geologist, was born in Connecticut in 1875. He served three successive terms in the 1821, and died in 1880. His literary works are Massachusetts house of representatives, and two mostly geological. terms in the state senate. He was elected to the ANDREWS, EDMUND, a distinguished AmeriFifty-first and Fifty-second Congresses as can surgeon and writer, was born in Vermont in Democrat.
1824. He has been prominent as a surgical eduANDREW, CROSS OF SAINT. A white saltire on a
cator in Michigan and Illinois, and was one of the blue ground, to represent the X-shaped cross on
founders of the Chicago Medical College. which the patron saint of Scotland is said to have ANDREWS, EDWARD GAYER, an American suffered martyrdom, has been from an early date bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was adopted as the national banner of Scotland. It is born in New York combined with the crosses of St. George and St. state Aug. 7, 1825; Patrick in the union jack. The Scottish Order of became president of the Thistle is sometimes known as the Order of St. Cazenovia Seminary Andrew. See ANDREW, SAINT, Vol. II, p. 20. in 1855, and was con ANDREW, ORDER OF SAINT, an order com
secrated bishop in
1872. posed of Russian knights of the highest rank,
, founded in 1698 by Peter the Great. The order includes members of the imperial family. The
American badge is mounted with a cross enameled in blue,
Baptist minister and
religious controverupon which is carved a crowned figure of St. Andrew, and in the four corners of the badge are Middletown, Connec
sialist, was born in the letters S.A.P.R. (Sanctus Andreas Patronus
ticut, Sept. 29, 1768. Russie). An eagle displayed decorates the other
He was the author of side, beneath which is a short Russian legend. The Scotch Order of the Thistle, so called
many polemic and from the thistle, which is the Scottish heraldic
controversial books in
defense of the Bapbadge, is often called the Order of St. Andrew.
tists' tenets. He died Feb. 3, 1840. ANDREWS, CHARLES, an American jurist; ANDREWS, ELISHA BENJAMIN, an American born at Whitestown, Oneida County, New York, educator, born at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, in 1827. He was admitted to the bar in 1849; Jan. 10, 1844. He was mayor of Syracuse in 1861–62 and in 1868; was went to the defense of elected associate justice of the New York court of the Union in 1861, rose appeals in 1870, being chosen chief justice in 1881. to the rank of second Judge Andrews has been prominent in the political lieutenant and lost an councils of the Empire State.
eye at Petersburg. He ANDREWS, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, Ameri- graduated at Brown can lawyer; born in Hillsboro, New Hamp- University in 1870, shire, Oct. 27, 1829. He studied law, was admit- and entered Newton ted to the bar in 1850, and followed his profession Theological Seminary, in Newtown for two years.
He went to Washing- where he prepared for ton, served in the Treasury Department two years, the ministry. He was and later settled at St. Cloud, Minnesota, where he ordained Baptist was elected to the state senate. At the beginning minister, and for four years engaged in pastoral of the war he enlisted as a private, but was com- work. He then became connected with Denison missioned captain in the Third Minnesota Infan- University, and later was called to Brown Unitry. He was made prisoner in a fight near Mur-versity as professor of history and political econ. freesboro, Tennessee, July, 1862; was exchanged omy. In 1888 he accepted the chair of political four months later and appointed lieutenant-colonel economy and finance at Cornell University, but of his regiment. During the war he served in nu- had been there only one year when he was elected merous important battles, and finally attained the president of Brown University. President Anrank of major-general. In 1869 he was appointed drews was one of the commissioners representUnited States minister to Sweden and Norway, ing the United States at the Brussels bimetallic and served until 1877. He was supervisor of the He was supervisor of the conference in 1892. He
conference in 1892. He is the author of several United States census in the third district of standard text-books. Minnesota in 1880, and for three years from ANDREWS, ETHAN ALLEN, an American edu1882 was consul-general to Brazil. General An- cational writer, was born in New Britain, Condrews has published Minnesota and Dakota (1856); necticut, April 7, 1787. After graduation at Practical Treatise on the Revenue Laws of the United Yale, he was admitted to the bar and practiced for States (1858); Hints to Company Officers on their several years. The study of ancient languages Military Ďuties (1863); History of the Campaign of attracted him, so that in 1822 he was appointed
professor in the University of North Carolina. necticut, Nov. 17, 1801.
necticut, Nov. 17, 1801. He removed to Ohio Holding various other chairs of languages until in 1825, where he became prominent as a lawyer 1839, he returned to Connecticut and commenced and held many important offices. For some time to publish many valuable Latin text-books, the he and the famous Thomas Corwin shared the principal one of which was his Latin-English Lex- honors of leading the Ohio bar. He died in icon. He died in his native town, March 4, 1858. Cleveland, Ohio, Feb. II, 1880.
ANDREWS, GEORGE L., an American general, ANDREWS, THOMAS, an English chemist; was born in Massachusetts in 1828, and gradu- born in Belfast, Ireland, 1813. He filled the ated first in his class at West Point in 1851. He chair of chemistry in Queen's College, Belfast, served throughout the Civil War, and was twice from 1849 till 1879. His researches were more promoted for distinguished services with the army of a physical than of a chemical nature, being on of the Potomac. In 1871 he was called to the the heat in combustion of various classes of subchair of French, and in 1882 to that of modern stances, on the nature of ozone, and on the conlanguages, at West Point Military Academy. tinuity of the liquid and gaseous states of matter.
ANDREWS, Joseph, an American engraver; He was president of the British Association at born at Hingham, Massachusetts, Aug. 17, 1806. Glasgow in 1876. He died in Belfast, Nov. 26, 1885. His early inclination toward an artistic career led ANDREWS, THOMAS, an English engineer and him, at the age of 15 years, to study wood
ood manufacturer, of Sheffield, England, was born in engraving with Abel Owen, of Boston. His teacher that town in 1847. He succeeded his father as in the branch of copper-plate engraving was Hoog- proprietor of the Wortley Iron Works in 1871, and land. After studying in London and Paris, he has since rendered eminent service to physical began to issue his famous engravings. Of these, and engineering science by researches and experihis Head of Washington, after Stuart's painting, ments on the properties and phenomena of iron, and Plymouth Rock, 1620, after P. F. Rothermel, steel, etc., and particularly in their relations to
, are classed among the finest American engravings. thermal and electrical forces. His published reHe died at Hingham, May 9, 1873.
ports and works are numerous and valuable, beANDREWS, LOREN, an American educator, sides which he has been a valued contributor to president of Kenyon College, was born in Ohio The Engineer and other technical journals. in 1819. He is regarded as the father of Ohio's ANDRIEUX, Louis, a French statesman and common-school system. On the attack on Sum
On the attack on Sum- journalist; born at Trévoux, in the department ter, President Andrews raised a company of vol- of Ain, July 20, 1840; in 1870 he was sentenced unteers, soon being elected colonel of the Fourth to a brief imprisonment for disrespectful utterOhio. He died from a fever, brought on by ances against Napoleon III. He was chosen exposure, at Gambier, Ohio, Sept. 18, 1861. public prosecutor at Lyons on the birth of the ANDREWS, LORRIN, an American missionary, republic. Entering on
, republic. Entering on a political career as was born in Connecticut in 1795. He devoted representative of Lyons, his strictures on Paul de his life to missionary work in Hawaii, was a judge Cassagnac provoked a pistol duel on March 12,
, and privy councilor in the island, and prepared 1878. He was prefect of police at Lyons in 1879. many books for the religious education of its In 1882 M. de Freycinet sent him as temporary inhabitants, including Hawaiian editions of parts ambassador to Madrid. Since that date he has of the Bible. He died at Honolulu, Sept. 29, 1868. been repeatedly returned as member of the cham
ANDREWS, Newton LLOYD, an American edu- ber of deputies for divers departments of France. cator, born at Fabius, New York, Aug. 14, 1841. ANDROMEDA, a genus of plants of the family He was educated at Colgate and Hamilton col- Ericacea. The species are hardy, evergreen shrubs, leges; was for five years from 1864 the principal natives of North America, Europe and Asia, the of Colgate Preparatory School. In 1868 he was well-known A. polifolia being common to both chosen to fill the chair of Greek language and lit- hemispheres. The flowers are showy, and some
, erature in his alma mater, being dean of the species are cultivated for ornament. They posfaculty from 1880 to 1892.
sess narcotic properties, and some are reputed to ANDREWS, SAMUEL JAMES, an American cler- be poisonous to sheep, as A. Mariana (“staggergyman, born in Danbury, Connecticut, July 21, bush''), A. polifolia and A. ovalifolia. The genus 1817. He graduated at Williams College in 1839, has a five-valved capsule, splitting up through the and later was admitted to the bar. In 1846 he back of each cell; the anthers have two awns, gave up the practice of law and was ordained in and the corolla has a contracted orifice. the Congregational ministry, but was compelled ANDROPHYTE, a term applied to a gametoto give up preaching, on account of throat trouble, phyte which bears the male sexual organs only. and became an instructor in mental and moral in all heterosporous plants the gametophytes are philosophy in Trinity College. He at last adopted sexually differentiated, this condition often being the Irvingite doctrines, and became, in 1868, designated by the term diæcious. pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church, in Hart- ANDROS, SIR EDMUND, colonial governor, born ford, Connecticut. His only publication is the in London, England, Dec. 6, 1637; died there, Feb. Life of Our Lord on Earth (1863); republished in 24, 1714. In 1672 he was appointed major under England and translated on the Continent.
Prince Rupert, and in 1674 he succeeded his ANDREWS, SHERLOCK JAMES, an eminent | father as bailiff of the island of Guernsey; a few American jurist, was born in Wallingford, Con- months later he was made governor of New York.
Andros was familiar with the French and Dutch | Isles, in the Leeward or Lesser Antilles group, in languages, and devoted to his patron, the Duke the West Indies. Situated east of Porto Rico, it of York. To further the duke's interest he endeav- contains about 13 square miles, with a scanty ored to extend the limits of the duke's province to population of 200, mostly peasant proprietors. the Connecticut River on one side and to the Dela- Sugar and cotton, in small patches, are the only ware on the other; he also endeavored to detach products. The island is of coral formation and is the five tribes of Mohawk Indians from the French | beset by reefs.
beset by reefs. Formerly notorious for shipinfluence. In 1678 he visited England, where he wrecks, a Board of Trade lighthouse on the neighwas knighted by Charles II. When James II be-boring island of Sombrero has done much to came king, an attempt was made to consolidate warn ships. Anegada is a British possession, atthe New England colonies into one royal province, tached administratively to the Leeward Island and Andros was appointed governor-general. In December, 1686, he arrived at Boston, and began ANEMOMETER. Robinson's anemometer has his administration with a set of new laws and been the most favored form of wind-gauge in use regulations. Connecticut refused to surrender its for many years. As ordinarily constructed, it concharter to the new governor, and in October, sists of four hollow hemispheres or cups, mounted 1687, he marched to Hartford with a body of 60 in the ends of crossed rods, in a horizontal plane, soldiers to enforce his command. He was unsuc- in such manner as to be rotated by the force of the cessful in obtaining the delivery of the charter, wind. The recording mechanism is contained in which was carried away from the meeting of the a box below, being operated through a perpenassembly and hidden in the famous “Charter dicular shaft. In 1893 Professor S. P. Langley, of Oak” tree of that city. Some months later, New the Smithsonian Institution, desired a lighter form, York and New Jersey were added to his jurisdic. in order to study the irregularities of wind-pressure. tion, when he appointed Francis Nicholson lieu- | The ordinary form produces something of the tenant-governor of New York. Soon afterward action of a fly-wheel, and thus fails to record the operations against the French in Maine minute variations in the speed of the wind. Its brought on a war with the Penobscot Indians, moment of inertia was found to be approximately for which the people were additionally taxed. 40,000 gr. cm?. Professor Langley built one in On April 18, 1689, the magistrates removed by which the weight of the arms and cups was reAndros published a proclamation denouncing his duced from 241 to 74 grams, and the moment tyranny, and appointed Simon Bradstreet gov- of inertia to 8,604 gr. cm”. This blew away in a ernor. Andros and some of his subordinates gale, but was esteemed hardly light enough, so were arrested and imprisoned, and agents were one was finally constructed of half the diameter of sent to King William to request the restoration the standard pattern, and with paper cones subof the former charter. Andros several times at stituted for the hemispherical cups. Then the tempted to escape from confinement, and in July moment of inertia was found to be reduced to was sent to England, where a formal complaint only 300 gr. cm2. It was next necessary to produce was made against him; but he was discharged | the record more frequently, the standard instruwithout trial. In 1692 he was made governor of ments making a record only once in 25 rotations. Virginia. Here he became popular with the plant- | By making use of the astronomical chronograph, ers, to whom he recommended the introduction Professor Langley was able to obtain records of manufactures and the cultivation of cotton. every half-revolution. Andros had brought with him the charter of The records produced by this specially light William and Mary College, and took measures form of anemometer demonstrated, what Profesfor the preservation of documents relating to the sor Langley had suspected to be the case, that the early history of Virginia. Later, he got into dif- wind was subject to the most rapid changes of ficulties with Dr. Blair, the founder of the college, velocity, the variations being so quick as to have through whose influence Andros was recalled to escaped previous observation. He found that England in 1698. From 1703 to 1706 he was changes of velocity from 20 to 30 miles an hour governor of the island of Guernsey.
and back again, or to higher and lower points, ANDROS, THOMAS, an American patriot, born were of the commonest occurrence within a few at Norwich, Connecticut, in 1759, was for 40 years seconds of time. One of the record-charts of this a preacher at Berkley, Massachusetts. At the instrument, taken Feb. 4, 1893, showed u changes
4 age of 16 years he joined the Continental army of speed, amounting each to io or more miles an and took part in the battles of Long Island and hour, within a space of 10 minutes, and at one White Plains. In 1781 he enlisted on a privateer point on the record, during 15 seconds, there apin New London, was captured and confined in the pear these changes: from 12 to 30 miles an hour, Jersey prison-ship in New York, but escaped a from 30 to 19, from 19 to 34. These results were few months later and became a student of theol- obtained with the anemometer set to register once ogy He was ordained pastor of the church at for each rotation of the cups.
C. H. C. Berkley in 1788, where he remained for 46 years. ANEMONE, a genus of Ranunculacur, containHe published many sermons, and also a ing numerous and generally beautiful species. rative of his imprisonment and escape. He died Most of them flower early in the spring, and are
| in Berkley, Massachusetts, Dec. 30, 1845.
natives of temperate and cold climates, chiefly of ANEGADA, the most northerly of the Virgin the northern hemisphere. North America has
ANEMONE -- ANGELL
numerous native species. One, Anemone nemorosa, than
lines. See CELTIC LITERATURE, Vol. V, the wood-anemone, or wind-flower, is a common p. 317. native of all parts of Britain, and its white flow- ANGEIOLEUCITIS. See ADENITES, in these
UCIT ers, externally tinged with purple, are an orna- Supplements. ment of many a woodland scene and mountain ANGEL, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, an American pasture in April and May; and it is also common lawyer and diplomatist; born in Burlington, Otsego in parts of North America. Another species, County, New York, Nov. 28, 1815. He studied Anemone Pulsatilla, the pasque-flower, has flowers law, was admitted to the bar, and in 1838 was which are purple, and externally silky. The gar- appointed surrogate, serving for four years. In den-anemone is a favorite florist's flower; the 1842 he was appointed master in chancery and varieties, both single and double, are very numer- supreme court commissioner, and in 1844 he ous, but are chiefly traceable to two species (Anem- | again became surrogate. He was a member of one Coronaria and Anemone hortensis), though other the Democratic national convention in 1852, and forms are constantly being introduced, of which the succeeding year he became United States Anemone Japonica may be especially mentioned, consul to Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. President and whole works have been published on them | Pierce sent him on a special mission to China in and their cultivation, which has long been most | 1855. In 1856 he was appointed minister to Norextensively carried on in Holland. The genus way and Sweden, and on his return in 1862 gave Hepatica is frequently included in Anemone. up politics and devoted himself to agriculture. Anemone triloba (Anemone Hepatica), with three- He was president of the New York State Agrilobed leaves, is common in America. Varieties of cultural Society in 1873–74. different colors, and both single and double, are ANGELA, MERICI, OF BRESCIA, a Franciscan among the finest ornaments of our flower-borders nun, and founder of the order of the Ursulines; in early spring. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. born in Lombardy, Italy, in 1470; died in 1540. 253.
The association of the Twelve Maidens, of which ANEMONE, SEA, a popular name for the flesh- she was made superior, organized in 1535, under corals (Actiniida). Unlike their allies, the true the patronage of Saint Ursula, was at first a becorals, they do not deposit a calcareous skeleton. nevolent society, but very soon became a religious They are found abundantly at low tide, attached order, and was confirmed by the pope in 1544. to rocks, piles, etc. For an account of their struc- ANGEL-FISH (Rhina Squatina), a very indefiture, see also ACTINOZOA, Vol. I, pp. 129–131, nite popular name which is applied to fishes of no and Corals, Vol. VI, pp. 369-372.
less than three genera. However, it is more ANEMOPHILOUS, a term applied to those often applied to a fish allied to sharks, and beflowers which depend upon the wind as an agent longing to the genus Squatina. This is a broad, for the transfer of pollen to stigma. Such flowers, flat fish about four feet wide by seven or eight as a rule, are inconspicuous, with little or no color long. It is found on the coasts of France, Brit. or odor, but usually produce an excessive amountain and the southern United States. Also called of pollen, as in pines, grasses, etc. The term is the monk-fish. See ICHTHYOLOGY, Vol. XII, p. used to distinguish them from entomophilous 686; SHARK, Vol. XXI, p. 776. flowers, in which insects are used as the agents ANGELICA, a large genus of Umbellifera, of transfer.
occurring in north temperate latitudes in both hemANEMOSCOPE, an instrument for rendering ispheres. Like most of the family, it contains visible the direction of the wind. It is usually aromatic substances, for which it has been somecomposed of an index placed at the base of a hori. what cultivated. zontal axis, supported by an upright staff, on top ANGELICA TREE
HERCULES'S of which is an ordinary wind-vane, upon which CLUB, trivial names applied to Aralia spinosa, the wind acts. Some anemoscopes record the a small shrub-like tree of the eastern United slightest change in the wind, even in the absence States, common in cultivation, and noted for its of the observer, by marks on a dial-plate on which | large compound leaves and very prickly stems the 32 points of the compass are engraved. and branches. Its white flowers are in large ter
ANEROID (Gr. a priv., and nēros, wet), the minal umbel-like clusters. Preparations from its name given to a barometer which determines the berries are somewhat used medicinally. density of the air without the aid of a liquid. See ANGELICO, FRA. See FIESOLE, Vol. IX, pp. BAROMETER, Vol. III, p. 383.
149, 150. ANEURIN, a Welsh poet (603), who, accord- ANGELL, HENRY C., an American oculist, ing to the received account, was the son of Caw born in Providence, Rhode Island, Jan. 27, 1829. ab Geraint, chief of the Otadini. Some have, He graduated at Hahnemann Medical College of however, identified him with Gildas, the British Philadelphia in 1853, and for the succeeding four historian, while Stephens makes him Gildas's years studied in London, Paris, Vienna, and Berson. After being educated at St. Cadoc's College, lin. Since the foundation of the Boston Univerat Llancarvan, he joined the bardic order; was sity School of Medicine he has been professor of present at the battle of Cattraeth as bard and ophthalmology in that institution. He is a mempriest, and in his poem Y Gododin, he mentions the ber of various scientific societies, and has pubhardships he endured as a prisoner. His Y Gododin, lished Diseases of the Eye; How to Take Care of an epic poem, contains, in its present form, more Our Eyes; and numerous papers on art subjects.
ANGELL, JAMES BURRILL, LL.D., an Ameri- near Hernösand. The district is considered one can educator; born in Scituate, Rhode Island, of the most beautiful of scenic Sweden. See also
Jan. 7, 1829. He graduated ANGERMANN, Vol. II, p. 29.
of Vermont. In 1871 he Novo, dealing with the events of the first thirty J. B. ANGELL.
was called to the presidency years of American discovery, and his letters, are of the University of Michigan, which office he still of historical value. Died in Valladolid, in has continued to fill. In 1880 he received leave 1526.
SPEE of absence, in order to become envoy extraordi- ANGIOSPERMOUS (Gr. angeion, a vessel; nary and minister plenipotentiary to China, with sperma, seed), in botany, à term applied to phana commission to procure a revision of the treaties erogamous plants which have their seeds inclosed between the United States and China. He re- in a pericarp; or, more strictly, those plants in turned in 1881, after eighteen months spent in which the ovule is inclosed by the carpel. This this important work, to resume his educational is the case with one great division of flowering duties." He is a Regent of the Smithsonian In- or seed plants, called, in consequence, Angiostitution. Appointed minister to Turkey in 1897. sperms. Those which have uncovered seeds, as
ANGELL, JOSEPH KINNICUT, an American the Conifere are called gymnospermous, forming legal writer; born in Providence, Rhode Island, the division known as Gymnosperms. April 30, 1794; died in Boston, May 1, 1857. He ANGLE, JAMES LANSING, an American jurist; graduated at Brown in 1813, and three years later born at Henrietta, Monroe County, New York, was admitted to the bar. Among his publications Dec. 19, 1818; called to the bar in 1845. He was are A Treatise on Corporations; Treatise on the Right appointed a justice of the supreme court of the of Property in Tide-Waters; Inquiry Relative to an Empire State in 1877, was re-elected for a full Incorporeal Hereditament; A Practical Summary of term in 1883, and at the close of 1888 retired on the Law of Assignment; On Adverse Enjoyment; reaching the age limit. He died at Greece, New Treatise on the Common Law in Relation to Water- York, May 4, 1891. courses; Treatise on the Law Concerning the Liabili- ANGLER OR SEA-DEVIL. See DEVIL-FISH, ties and Rights of Common Carriers; A Treatise on Vol. VII, p. 138. the Law of Fire and Life Insurance; Treatise on the ANGLESEY, HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, MARLimitation of Actions at Law and Suits in Equity and QUIS OF, an English general and cavalry officer; Admiralty; and A Treatise on the Laws of Highways. born May 17, 1768. Under the title of Earl of
ANGELN, a small district in the province of Uxbridge, he commanded the cavalry brigade at Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, between Flensburg Waterloo and lost a leg in the charge. Fiord and the Schlei, noted for its fertility, and created Marquis of Anglesey on his return home. supposed to be the home from which came the Appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1828, he Angles who invaded England in the fifth century. was removed by the Duke of Wellington for favor. The principal place is Kappeln.
ing Catholic emancipation. He was viceroy again ANGELUS DOMINI, a form of prayer ad- from 1831 to 1833, and was promoted to a field. dressed by Roman Catholics to the Virgin Mary, marshal's baton in 1846. He died April 29, 1854. in memory of the birth of Christ, beginning with ANGLESITE, a sulphate of lead, named from the Ave Maria and continued with three passages Anglesey, the place of its discovery. See Minof Scripture repeated at intervals with this salu- ERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 400. tation. The bell, called the Angelus bell, is tolled ANGLIA, East, a kingdom founded by the regularly three times a day, at morning, noon and Angles about the middle of the sixth century, in sunset, to invite the people to repeat this prayer. the eastern part of central England, in what now The subject has found the theme for Millet's forms the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. See famous picture.
ENGLAND, Vol. VIII, p. 270. ÅNGERMANLAND, the name of an ancient ANGLO-CATHOLIC, a term used of the political division of the kingdom of Sweden, cor- Church of England generally, but especially by responding at the present day with the southern the High Church section, which claims that the portion of the län of Vesternorrland and the en- national church is Catholic (as opposed to Roman tirety of Vesterbotten. It is drained by the Anger- Catholic), and discards the name of Protestant. mannelf, a majestic stream rising on the eastern ANGOLA, capital of Steuben County, in the slopes of the Kiölen Mountains, and which, after extreme northeastern portion of the state of a course of 200 miles through lakes and over Indiana, is situated on the line of the Lake Shore many falls, empties itself in the Gulf of Bothnia, and Michigan Southern railway, 40 miles N. of