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Attorneys-General of the United States (1867). ANDREWS, EBENEZER BALDWIN, an eminent American geologist, was born in Connecticut in 1821, and died in 1880. His literary works are mostly geological.
ANDREW, JOHN FORRESTER, United States | Mobile (1867); and Digest of the Opinions of the Congressman, born in Hingham, Massachusetts, Nov. 24, 1850. He graduated at Harvard College in 1872, and was admitted to the bar in 1875. He served three successive terms in the Massachusetts house of representatives, and two terms in the state senate. He was elected to the Fifty-first and Fifty-second Congresses as a Democrat.
ANDREW, CROSS OF SAINT. A white saltire on a blue ground, to represent the X-shaped cross on which the patron saint of Scotland is said to have suffered martyrdom, has been from an early date adopted as the national banner of Scotland. It is combined with the crosses of St. George and St. Patrick in the union jack. The Scottish Order of the Thistle is sometimes known as the Order of St. Andrew. See ANDREW, SAINT, Vol. II, p. 20.
ANDREW, ORDER OF SAINT, an order composed of Russian knights of the highest rank, founded in 1698 by Peter the Great. The order includes members of the imperial family. The badge is mounted with a cross enameled in blue, upon which is carved a crowned figure of St. Andrew, and in the four corners of the badge are the letters S.A.P.R. (Sanctus Andreas Patronus Russia). An eagle displayed decorates the other side, beneath which is a short Russian legend. The Scotch Order of the Thistle, so called from the thistle, which is the Scottish heraldic badge, is often called the Order of St. Andrew.
ANDREWS, CHARLES, an American jurist; born at Whitestown, Oneida County, New York, in 1827. He was admitted to the bar in 1849; was mayor of Syracuse in 1861-62 and in 1868; was elected associate justice of the New York court of appeals in 1870, being chosen chief justice in 1881. Judge Andrews has been prominent in the political councils of the Empire State.
ANDREWS, CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS, American lawyer; born in Hillsboro, New Hampshire, Oct. 27, 1829. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1850, and followed his profession in Newtown for two years. He went to Washington, served in the Treasury Department two years, and later settled at St. Cloud, Minnesota, where he was elected to the state senate. At the beginning of the war he enlisted as a private, but was commissioned captain in the Third Minnesota InfanHe was made prisoner in a fight near Murfreesboro, Tennessee, July, 1862; was exchanged four months later and appointed lieutenant-colonel of his regiment. During the war he served in numerous important battles, and finally attained the rank of major-general. In 1869 he was appointed United States minister to Sweden and Norway, and served until 1877. He was supervisor of the He was supervisor of the United States census in the third district of Minnesota in 1880, and for three years from 1882 was consul-general to Brazil. General Andrews has published Minnesota and Dakota (1856); Practical Treatise on the Revenue Laws of the United States (1858); Hints to Company Officers on their Military Duties (1863); History of the Campaign of
ANDREWS, EDMUND, a distinguished American surgeon and writer, was born in Vermont in 1824. He has been prominent as a surgical educator in Michigan and Illinois, and was one of the founders of the Chicago Medical College.
ANDREWS, EDWARD GAYER, an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was born in New York state Aug. 7, 1825; became president of Cazenovia Seminary in 1855, and was con secrated bishop in 1872.
ANDREWS, ELISHA, an American religious controverBaptist minister and Middletown, Connecsialist, was born in ticut, Sept. 29, 1768. He was the author of many polemic and controversial books in defense of the Bap
E. G. ANDREWS.
tists' tenets. He died Feb. 3, 1840. ANDREWS, ELISHA BENJAMIN, an American educator, born at Hinsdale, New Hampshire, Jan. 10, 1844. He I went to the defense of the Union in 1861, rose to the rank of second lieutenant and lost an eye at Petersburg. He graduated at Brown University in 1870, and entered Newton Theological Seminary, where he prepared for the ministry. He was ordained a Baptist minister, and for four years engaged in pastoral work. He then became connected with Denison University, and later was called to Brown University as professor of history and political economy. In 1888 he accepted the chair of political economy and finance at Cornell University, but had been there only one year when he was elected president of Brown University. President Andrews was one of the commissioners representing the United States at the Brussels bimetallic conference in 1892. He is the author of several standard text-books.
E. B. ANDREWS.
ANDREWS, ETHAN ALLEN, an American educational writer, was born in New Britain, Connecticut, April 7, 1787. After graduation at Yale, he was admitted to the bar and practiced for several years. The study of ancient languages attracted him, so that in 1822 he was appointed
professor in the University of North Carolina. | necticut, Nov. 17, 1801. He removed to Ohio Holding various other chairs of languages until in 1825, where he became prominent as a lawyer 1839, he returned to Connecticut and commenced and held many important offices. For some time to publish many valuable Latin text-books, the he and the famous Thomas Corwin shared the principal one of which was his Latin-English Lex- honors of leading the Ohio bar. He died in icon. He died in his native town, March 4, 1858. Cleveland, Ohio, Feb. 11, 1880. ANDREWS, GEORGE L., an American general, was born in Massachusetts in 1828, and graduated first in his class at West Point in 1851. He served throughout the Civil War, and was twice promoted for distinguished services with the army of the Potomac. In 1871 he was called to the chair of French, and in 1882 to that of modern languages, at West Point Military Academy.
ANDREWS, JOSEPH, an American engraver; born at Hingham, Massachusetts, Aug. 17, 1806. His early inclination toward an artistic career led him, at the age of 15 years, to study woodengraving with Abel Owen, of Boston. His teacher in the branch of copper-plate engraving was Hoogland. After studying in London and Paris, he began to issue his famous engravings. Of these, his Head of Washington, after Stuart's painting, and Plymouth Rock, 1620, after P. F. Rothermel, are classed among the finest American engravings. He died at Hingham, May 9, 1873.
ANDREWS, LOREN, an American educator, president of Kenyon College, was born in Ohio in 1819. He is regarded as the father of Ohio's common-school system. On the attack on Sumter, President Andrews raised company of volunteers, soon being elected colonel of the Fourth Ohio. He died from a fever, brought on by exposure, at Gambier, Ohio, Sept. 18, 1861.
ANDREWS, LORRIN, an American missionary, was born in Connecticut in 1795. He devoted his life to missionary work in Hawaii, was a judge | and privy councilor in the island, and prepared many books for the religious education of its inhabitants, including Hawaiian editions of parts of the Bible. He died at Honolulu, Sept. 29, 1868. ANDREWS, NEWTON LLOYD, an American educator, born at Fabius, New York, Aug. 14, 1841. He was educated at Colgate and Hamilton colleges; was for five years from 1864 the principal of Colgate Preparatory School. In 1868 he was In 1868 he was chosen to fill the chair of Greek language and literature in his alma mater, being dean of the faculty from 1880 to 1892.
ANDREWS, SAMUEL JAMES, an American clergyman, born in Danbury, Connecticut, July 21, 1817. He graduated at Williams College in 1839, and later was admitted to the bar. In 1846 he gave up the practice of law and was ordained in the Congregational ministry, but was compelled to give up preaching, on account of throat trouble, and became an instructor in mental and moral philosophy in Trinity College. He at last adopted the Irvingite doctrines, and became, in 1868, pastor of the Catholic Apostolic Church, in Hartford, Connecticut. His only publication is The Life of Our Lord on Earth (1863); republished in England and translated on the Continent.
ANDREWS, SHERLOCK JAMES, an eminent American jurist, was born in Wallingford, Con
ANDREWS, THOMAS, an English chemist; born in Belfast, Ireland, 1813. He filled the chair of chemistry in Queen's College, Belfast, from 1849 till 1879. His researches were more of a physical than of a chemical nature, being on the heat in combustion of various classes of substances, on the nature of ozone, and on the continuity of the liquid and gaseous states of matter. He was president of the British Association at Glasgow in 1876. He died in Belfast, Nov. 26, 1885. ANDREWS, THOMAS, an English engineer and manufacturer, of Sheffield, England, was born in that town in 1847. He succeeded his father as proprietor of the Wortley Iron Works in 1871, and has since rendered eminent service to physical and engineering science by researches and experiments on the properties and phenomena of iron, steel, etc., and particularly in their relations to thermal and electrical forces. His published reports and works are numerous and valuable, besides which he has been a valued contributor to The Engineer and other technical journals.
ANDRIEUX, Louis, a French statesman and journalist; born at Trévoux, in the department of Ain, July 20, 1840; in 1870 he was sentenced to a brief imprisonment for disrespectful utterances against Napoleon III. He was chosen public prosecutor at Lyons on the birth of the republic. Entering on a political career as a representative of Lyons, his strictures on Paul de Cassagnac provoked a pistol duel on March 12, 1878. He was prefect of police at Lyons in 1879. In 1882 M. de Freycinet sent him as temporary ambassador to Madrid. Since that date he has been repeatedly returned as member of the chamber of deputies for divers departments of France.
ANDROMEDA, a genus of plants of the family Ericacea. The species are hardy, evergreen shrubs, natives of North America, Europe and Asia, the well-known A. polifolia being common to both hemispheres. The flowers are showy, and some species are cultivated for ornament. They possess narcotic properties, and some are reputed to be poisonous to sheep, as A. Mariana ("staggerbush''), A. polifolia and A. ovalifolia. The genus has a five-valved capsule, splitting up through the back of each cell; the anthers have two awns, and the corolla has a contracted orifice.
ANDROPHYTE, a term applied to a gametophyte which bears the male sexual organs only. In all heterosporous plants the gametophytes are sexually differentiated, this condition often being designated by the term diacious.
ANDROS, SIR EDMUND, colonial governor, born in London, England, Dec. 6, 1637; died there, Feb. 24, 1714. In 1672 he was appointed major under Prince Rupert, and in 1674 he succeeded his father as bailiff of the island of Guernsey; a few months later he was made governor of New York.
Andros was familiar with the French and Dutch languages, and devoted to his patron, the Duke of York. To further the duke's interest he endeavored to extend the limits of the duke's province to the Connecticut River on one side and to the Delaware on the other; he also endeavored to detach the five tribes of Mohawk Indians from the French influence. In 1678 he visited England, where he was knighted by Charles II. When James II became king, an attempt was made to consolidate the New England colonies into one royal province, and Andros was appointed governor-general. In December, 1686, he arrived at Boston, and began his administration with a set of new laws and regulations. Connecticut refused to surrender its charter to the new governor, and in October, 1687, he marched to Hartford with a body of 60 soldiers to enforce his command. He was unsuccessful in obtaining the delivery of the charter, which was carried away from the meeting of the assembly and hidden in the famous "Charter Oak" tree of that city. Some months later, New York and New Jersey were added to his jurisdiction, when he appointed Francis Nicholson lieutenant-governor of New York. Soon afterward the operations against the French in Maine brought on a war with the Penobscot Indians, for which the people were additionally taxed. On April 18, 1689, the magistrates removed by Andros published a proclamation denouncing his tyranny, and appointed Simon Bradstreet governor. Andros and some of his subordinates were arrested and imprisoned, and agents were sent to King William to request the restoration of the former charter. Andros several times attempted to escape from confinement, and in July was sent to England, where a formal complaint was made against him; but he was discharged without trial. In 1692 he was made governor of Virginia. Here he became popular with the planters, to whom he recommended the introduction of manufactures and the cultivation of cotton. Andros had brought with him the charter of William and Mary College, and took measures for the preservation of documents relating to the early history of Virginia. Later, he got into difficulties with Dr. Blair, the founder of the college, through whose influence Andros was recalled to England in 1698. From 1703 to 1706 he was governor of the island of Guernsey.
ANDROS, THOMAS, an American patriot, born at Norwich, Connecticut, in 1759, was for 40 years a preacher at Berkley, Massachusetts. At the age of 16 years he joined the Continental army and took part in the battles of Long Island and White Plains. In 1781 he enlisted on a privateer in New London, was captured and confined in the Jersey prison-ship in New York, but escaped a few months later and became a student of theology.
He was ordained pastor of the church at Berkley in 1788, where he remained for 46 years. He published many sermons, and also a narrative of his imprisonment and escape. He died in Berkley, Massachusetts, Dec. 30, 1845. ANEGADA, the most northerly of the Virgin
| Isles, in the Leeward or Lesser Antilles group, in the West Indies. Situated east of Porto Rico, it contains about 13 square miles, with a scanty population of 200, mostly peasant proprietors. Sugar and cotton, in small patches, are the only products. The island is of coral formation and is beset by reefs. Formerly notorious for shipwrecks, a Board of Trade lighthouse on the neighboring island of Sombrero has done much to warn ships. Anegada is a British possession, attached administratively to the Leeward Island group.
ANEMOMETER. Robinson's anemometer has been the most favored form of wind-gauge in use for many years. As ordinarily constructed, it consists of four hollow hemispheres or cups, mounted in the ends of crossed rods, in a horizontal plane, in such manner as to be rotated by the force of the wind. The recording mechanism is contained in a box below, being operated through a perpendicular shaft. In 1893 Professor S. P. Langley, of the Smithsonian Institution, desired a lighter form, in order to study the irregularities of wind-pressure. The ordinary form produces something of the action of a fly-wheel, and thus fails to record minute variations in the speed of the wind. moment of inertia was found to be approximately 40,000 gr. cm2. Professor Langley built one in which the weight of the arms and cups was reduced from 241 to 74 grams, and the moment of inertia to 8,604 gr. cm2. This blew away in a gale, but was esteemed hardly light enough, so one was finally constructed of half the diameter of the standard pattern, and with paper cones substituted for the hemispherical cups. Then the moment of inertia was found to be reduced to only 300 gr. cm2. It was next necessary to produce the record more frequently, the standard instruments making a record only once in 25 rotations. By making use of the astronomical chronograph, Professor Langley was able to obtain records every half-revolution.
The records produced by this specially light form of anemometer demonstrated, what Professor Langley had suspected to be the case, that the wind was subject to the most rapid changes of velocity, the variations being so quick as to have escaped previous observation. He found that changes of velocity from 20 to 30 miles an hour and back again, or to higher and lower points, were of the commonest occurrence within a few seconds of time. One of the record-charts of this instrument, taken Feb. 4, 1893, showed 11 changes of speed, amounting each to 10 or more miles an hour, within a space of 10 minutes, and at one point on the record, during 15 seconds, there appear these changes: from 12 to 30 miles an hour, from 30 to 19, from 19 to 34. These results were obtained with the anemometer set to register once for each rotation of the cups. C. H. C.
'ANEMONE, a genus of Ranunculaceæ, containing numerous and generally beautiful species. Most of them flower early in the spring, and are natives of temperate and cold climates, chiefly of the northern hemisphere. North America has
numerous native species. One, Anemone nemorosa, the wood-anemone, or wind-flower, is a common native of all parts of Britain, and its white flowers, externally tinged with purple, are an ornament of many a woodland scene and mountain pasture in April and May; and it is also common in parts of North America. Another species, Anemone Pulsatilla, the pasque-flower, has flowers which are purple, and externally silky. The garden-anemone is a favorite florist's flower; the varieties, both single and double, are very numerous, but are chiefly traceable to two species (Anemone Coronaria and Anemone hortensis), though other forms are constantly being introduced, of which Anemone Japonica may be especially mentioned, and whole works have been published on them and their cultivation, which has long been most extensively carried on in Holland. The genus Hepatica is frequently included in Anemone. Anemone triloba (Anemone Hepatica), with threelobed leaves, is common in America. Varieties of different colors, and both single and double, are among the finest ornaments of our flower-borders in early spring. See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 253.
ANEMONE, SEA, a popular name for the fleshcorals (Actiniida). Unlike their allies, the true corals, they do not deposit a calcareous skeleton. They are found abundantly at low tide, attached to rocks, piles, etc. For an account of their structure, see also ACTINOZOA, Vol. I, pp. 129–131, and CORALS, Vol. VI, pp. 369-372.
ANEMOPHILOUS, a term applied to those flowers which depend upon the wind as an agent for the transfer of pollen to stigma. Such flowers, as a rule, are inconspicuous, with little or no color or odor, but usually produce an excessive amount. of pollen, as in pines, grasses, etc. The term is used to distinguish them from entomophilous flowers, in which insects are used as the agents of transfer.
ANEMOSCOPE, an instrument for rendering visible the direction of the wind. It is usually composed of an index placed at the base of a horizontal axis, supported by an upright staff, on top of which is an ordinary wind-vane, upon which the wind acts. Some anemoscopes record the slightest change in the wind, even in the absence of the observer, by marks on a dial-plate on which the 32 points of the compass are engraved.
ANEROID (Gr. a priv., and neros, wet), the name given to a barometer which determines the density of the air without the aid of a liquid. See BAROMETER, Vol. III, p. 383.
ANEURIN, a Welsh poet (603), who, according to the received account, was the son of Caw ab Geraint, chief of the Otadini. Some have, however, identified him with Gildas, the British historian, while Stephens makes him Gildas's son. After being educated at St. Cadoc's College, at Llancarvan, he joined the bardic order; was present at the battle of Cattraeth as bard and priest, and in his poem Y Gododin, he mentions the hardships he endured as a prisoner. His Y Gododin, an epic poem, contains, in its present form, more
ANGEL, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, an American lawyer and diplomatist; born in Burlington, Otsego County, New York, Nov. 28, 1815. He studied law, was admitted to the bar, and in 1838 was appointed surrogate, serving for four years. In 1842 he was appointed master in chancery and supreme court commissioner, and in 1844 he again became surrogate. He was a member of the Democratic national convention in 1852, and the succeeding year he became United States consul to Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. President Pierce sent him on a special mission to China in 1855. 1855. In 1856 he was appointed minister to Norway and Sweden, and on his return in 1862 gave up politics and devoted himself to agriculture. He was president of the New York State Agricultural Society in 1873-74.
ANGELA, MERICI, OF BRESCIA, a Franciscan nun, and founder of the order of the Ursulines; born in Lombardy, Italy, in 1470; died in 1540. The association of the Twelve Maidens, of which she was made superior, organized in 1535, under the patronage of Saint Ursula, was at first a benevolent society, but very soon became a religious order, and was confirmed by the pope in 1544.
ANGEL-FISH (Rhina Squatina), a very indefinite popular name which is applied to fishes of no less than three genera. However, it is more often applied to a fish allied to sharks, and belonging to the genus Squatina. This is a broad, flat fish about four feet wide by seven or eight long. It is found on the coasts of France, Britain and the southern United States. Also called the monk-fish. See ICHTHYOLOGY, Vol. XII, p. 686; SHARK, Vol. XXI, p. 776.
ANGELICA, a large genus of Umbellifera, occurring in north temperate latitudes in both hemispheres. ispheres. Like most of the family, it contains aromatic substances, for which it has been somewhat cultivated.
ANGELICA TREE AND HERCULES'S CLUB, trivial names applied to Aralia spinosa, a small shrub-like tree of the eastern United States, common in cultivation, and noted for its large compound leaves and very prickly stems. and branches. Its white flowers are in large terminal umbel-like clusters. Preparations from its berries are somewhat used medicinally.
ANGELICO, FRA. See FIESOLE, Vol. IX, pp.
ANGELL, HENRY C., an American oculist, born in Providence, Rhode Island, Jan. 27, 1829. He graduated at Hahnemann Medical College of Philadelphia in 1853, and for the succeeding four years studied in London, Paris, Vienna, and Berlin. Since the foundation of the Boston University School of Medicine he has been professor of ophthalmology in that institution. He is a member of various scientific societies, and has published Diseases of the Eye; How to Take Care of Our Eyes; and numerous papers on art subjects.
ANGELL, JAMES BURRILL, LL.D., an American educator; born in Scituate, Rhode Island, Jan. 7, 1829. He graduated at Brown University in 1849, spent four years in Europe, traveling and studying, and on his return became professor of modern languages in his alma mater. From 1860 to 1866 he was editor of the Providence Daily Journal, when he became president of the University of Vermont. In 1871 he was called to the presidency of the University of Michigan, which office he has continued to fill. In 1880 he received leave of absence, in order to become envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to China, with a commission to procure a revision of the treaties between the United States and China. He returned in 1881, after eighteen months spent in this important work, to resume his educational duties. He is a Regent of the Smithsonian Institution. Appointed minister to Turkey in 1897. ANGELL, JOSEPH KINNICUT, an American legal writer; born in Providence, Rhode Island, April 30, 1794; died in Boston, May 1, 1857. He graduated at Brown in 1813, and three years later was admitted to the bar. Among his publications are A Treatise on Corporations; Treatise on the Right of Property in Tide-Waters; Inquiry Relative to an Incorporeal Hereditament; A Practical Summary of the Law of Assignment; On Adverse Enjoyment; Treatise on the Common Law in Relation to Watercourses; Treatise on the Law Concerning the Liabilities and Rights of Common Carriers; A Treatise on the Law of Fire and Life Insurance; Treatise on the Limitation of Actions at Law and Suits in Equity and Admiralty; and A Treatise on the Laws of Highways. ANGELN, a small district in the province of Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, between Flensburg Fiord and the Schlei, noted for its fertility, and supposed to be the home from which came the Angles who invaded England in the fifth century. The principal place is Kappeln.
ANGELUS DOMINI, a form of prayer addressed by Roman Catholics to the Virgin Mary, in memory of the birth of Christ, beginning with the Ave Maria and continued with three passages of Scripture repeated at intervals with this salutation. The bell, called the Angelus bell, is tolled regularly three times a day, at morning, noon and sunset, to invite the people to repeat this prayer. The subject has found the theme for Millet's famous picture.
ÅNGERMANLAND, the name of an ancient political division of the kingdom of Sweden, corresponding at the present day with the southern portion of the län of Vesternorrland and the entirety of Vesterbotten. It is drained by the Angermannelf, a majestic stream rising on the eastern slopes of the Kiölen Mountains, and which, after a course of 200 miles through lakes and over many falls, empties itself in the Gulf of Bothnia,
near Hernösand. The district is considered one of the most beautiful of scenic Sweden. See also ANGERMANN, Vol. II, p. 29.
ANGHIERRA, PIETRO MARTIR D', an Italian scholar and courtier; born at Anghierra, in the district of Milan, Italy, Feb. 2, 1455. At the age of 32 he entered the service of Isabella, queen of Spain. He founded a school for the children of the Spanish nobility in Madrid during 1492; was tutor to the royal princes and ambassador to the doge of Venice and to Egypt. doge of Venice and to Egypt. He was chosen a member of the council of the Indies in 1524, and held other important court offices. His De Orbe Novo, dealing with the events of the first thirty years of American discovery, and his letters, are still of historical value. Died in Valladolid, in 1526.
ANGIOSPERMOUS (Gr. angeion, a vessel; sperma, seed), in botany, a term applied to phanerogamous plants which have their seeds inclosed in a pericarp; or, more strictly, those plants in which the ovule is inclosed by the carpel. This is the case with one great division of flowering or seed plants, called, in consequence, Angiosperms. Those which have uncovered seeds, as the Conifera are called gymnospermous, forming the division known as Gymnosperms.
ANGLE, JAMES LANSING, an American jurist; born at Henrietta, Monroe County, New York, Dec. 19, 1818; called to the bar in 1845. He was appointed a justice of the supreme court of the Empire State in 1877, was re-elected for a full term in 1883, and at the close of 1888 retired on reaching the age limit. He died at Greece, New York, May 4, 1891. ANGLER OR SEA-DEVIL. Vol. VII, p. 138.
ANGLESEY, HENRY WILLIAM PAGET, MARQUIS OF, an English general and cavalry officer; born May 17, 1768. Under the title of Earl of Uxbridge, he commanded the cavalry brigade at Waterloo and lost a leg in the charge. He was created Marquis of Anglesey on his return home. Appointed lord-lieutenant of Ireland in 1828, he was removed by the Duke of Wellington for favoring Catholic emancipation. He was viceroy again from 1831 to 1833, and was promoted to a fieldmarshal's baton in 1846. He died April 29, 1854.
ANGLESITE, a sulphate of lead, named from Anglesey, the place of its discovery. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, p. 400.
ANGLIA, EAST, a kingdom founded by the Angles about the middle of the sixth century, in the eastern part of central England, in what now forms the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk. See ENGLAND, Vol. VIII, p. 270.
ANGLO-CATHOLIC, a term used of the Church of England generally, but especially by the High Church section, which claims that the national church is Catholic (as opposed to Roman Catholic), and discards the name of Protestant.
ANGOLA, capital of Steuben County, in the extreme northeastern portion of the state of Indiana, is situated on the line of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railway, 40 miles N. of