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at the anode are called anions. See ELECTRO- section of Islam. They have wrongly been conLYSIS, Vol. VIII, p. 106.

founded at times with the remnants of the AssasANOKA, a city of southeastern Minnesota, sins, but are really hostile to them. They appear county seat of Anoka County, 20 miles N.W. of in the coast towns, keep their doctrinal views St. Paul, on the Great Northern and Northern much to themselves, recognize a succession of Pacific railways. It is on the left bank of the Messiahs from Abraham to Christ, look for a Mississippi, at the mouth of Rum River, which coming triumphing Mahdi, accept some Christian affords excellent water-power for manufacturing observances, hold that the real Mahomet of the purposes. An iron bridge 900 feet in length here | Koran was of their race, worship the sun, and spans the “Father of Waters.” The town is the believe in a human transmigration of souls for center of an extensive trade, and has a high school apostates from their faith. They are supposed to and business college. Population 1895, 3,812.

Population 1895, 3,812. number about 75,000 souls. ANOLIS, a genus of lizards of the family ANSCHARIUS OR ANSKAR. See ANSGAR, in Iguanida. One peculiarity is their ability to these Supplements. greatly inflate the skin of the throat. They ANSCHÜTZ, Karl, a German musician and possess brilliant colors, which they have the power conductor of opera; born at Coblentz, Germany, of changing They are often wrongly called in February, 1813. Of a musical family, he marchameleons. Several species are common in the ried the daughter of his teacher, Friederich southern United States.

Schneider. Anschütz's success was marked and ANOMALISTIC YEAR, the interval that rapid. He was conductor of the Royal Musical elapses between two successive passages of the Institution at Coblentz, and of the theater there, earth through its perihelion, or point of nearest under title of royal musical director. Resigning approach to the sun. It consists of 365 days, 6 in 1848, he went to Nuremberg, to Amsterdam hours, 13 minutes, 45 seconds, and is 25 minutes and London, wielding the baton with success at less than a mean tropical year.

concerts and operas. He came to America in ANOMALY, the angle measured at the sun 1857, conducted Italian opera for three years, between a planet in any point of its orbit and the and in 1862 introduced German opera in New last perihelion. It is so called because the first York City. He took a lifelong interest in his art, irregularities of planetary motion were discovered formed many singing societies, and died in New in the discrepancy between the actual and com- | York, Dec. 29, 1879. puted distance. The anomaly was formerly ANSDELL, RICHARD, a noted animal and measured from the aphelion, the opposite point of landscape painter; born at Liverpool in 1815; died the ellipse; but from the fact that the aphelia of April 20, 1885. Abandoning business for art, most of the comets lie beyond the range of ob- he exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1840, and servation, the perihelion is now taken as the point at the British Institute in 1846. He thrice won of departure for all planetary bodies.

the Heywood medal at Manchester, and a gold ANOMIA, a genus of lamellibranch, or bivalve medal at the Paris exhibition of 1855. mollusks. There are a numerous, widely distrib- ANSERES, an order composed of the geese and uted species, both living and fossil.

ducks. The order is equivalent to the LamelliANONACEÆ, the custard-apple family, are rostres of Cuvier. polypetalous dicotyledons, closely allied to Magno- ANSGAR, the Apostle of the North, was born liacea. They are trees and shrubs, mostly tropi- in Picardy in 801, died at Bremen in 865. Under cal, and usually aromatic and fragrant. The fruit the patronage of Louis le Débonnaire, he went with is sometimes dry, and in this case is usually aro- his colleague Antbert to preach Christianity to matic and pungent. More frequently, however, the heathen Northmen of Schleswig. He suffered the fruit is succulent, and is then often delicious. many persecutions, but had nevertheless such Almost the single representative in the United success that in 831 the pope established an archStates is Asimina triloba, the common pa-paw. bishopric in Hamburg (transferred to Bremen in

ANONYMOUS, a term applied to a book when 847), and Ansgar was appointed the first archthe author does not give his name; when an as- bishop. He made several missionary tours. sumed name is given, the term pseudonymous is ANSON, capital of Jones County, in central used. Works of this class constitute one of the Texas, is situated 20 miles N.W. of Abilene stagreat difficulties of bibliography. Formerly, po- tion, on the Texas and Southern Pacific railroad. litical articles were nearly always anonymous, as

Population 1890, 495. also was most of the literary criticism.

ANSONIA, a town of New Haven County, erally admitted that anonymity secures the inde- southwestern Connecticut, on the banks of the pendence of the critic; but it is true that he fre- Naugatuck River. It has manufactories of iron, quently abuses his advantage.

brass and copper goods, clocks, electrical goods, ANOPLOTHERIUM. See Selenodonta, under webbing and knit goods, carriages and hardware. MAMMALIA, Vol. XV, p. 430.

Situated on the New York, New Haven and HartANSARS, ANSARIANS, NOSAIRIANS OR ford railroad, 12 miles W.N.W. of New Haven. NUSAIRIEH, a sect living in the Nusairieh Moun- Population 1890, 10,342. tains, between Lebanon and Antioch. They are ANSONIANS. Same as ANSARS, in these Supprobably descendants of the original population, plements. but adopted many tenets of the Shiah or Persian ANSORGE, CHARLES, a German patriot and

It is gen



American musician; born at Spiller, in Silesia, in as well as the defense claimed by the defendant. 1817; educated at Breslau; he became a teacher An answer in chancery must be signed by counsel,

, and an editor; banished by the Prussian authori- and must be sworn to if made by an individual, ties for his advanced liberal writings, he came to and also under the corporate seal if by a corporaAmerica, settling at Boston, Massachusetts; was tion. But in most states the complainant may, by for several years organist and choirmaster of the express direction made in the bill itself, waive the First Church, in Dorchester; the West attracting oath. If the oath be not waived, a sworn answer him, he removed to Chicago in 1863. He died in is taken as true unless it be overcome by the tesChicago, Oct. 28, 1866.

timony of at least two witnesses, or the equivalent. ANSORGE, CONRAD, a Russian pianist; born When the oath is waived, the answer has no effect

, in Bachwald, Russian Siberia, October 15, 1862; as evidence, whether sworn to or not. An answer studied there and at the Leipsig Conservatory. must be full and complete, and must meet every He performed in piano recitals at Berlin in 1886 material allegation made in the bill. and the succeeding year with marked success. direct, and without scandal or impertinence. A Encouraged thereby, he appeared the following defendant may demur to a bill instead of anyear in New York, and has since performed in swering it, thus calling in question the suffimost of the principal cities of the Union. His ciency of the bill taken, for the sake of argument, pianoforte compositions are numerous and valu- as true. An answer in chancery is not demurrable. able.

The term answer is also applied in many proceedANSPACH, ELIZABETH BERKELEY, MARGRA- ings, collateral or incidental to the main suit, as VINE OF, a versatile English woman, daughter of the answer of a garnishee or of a party charged Augustus, Earl of Berkeley; born in 1750. In 1767 with obstructing the possession of a receiver or she married the future Earl of Craven, and sep- charged with contempt of court. arated from him in 1780. Her husband died in ANTACIDS are, in Garrod's classification, September, 1791, and within a month she married drugs used for the purpose of neutralizing or the Margrave of Anspach. She had some abili- diminishing excessive acidity of stomach or kidney ties as a playwright and actress and the cacoethes secretions. They are also called alkaline remscribendi sufficient to produce autobiographic me- edies. Thus the use of magnesia to cure heartmoirs. She died in Naples, Jan. 13, 1828. burn, or of lithiawater to correct an excess of

ANSTED, DAVID THOMAS, geologist; born in uric acid in a rheumatic or gouty diathesis, are London, Feb. 5, 1814; died May 20, 1880. examples. Substances whose action is in the aliAfter gaining a fellowship at Jesus College, Cam- mentary canal are termed direct antacids, and bridge, he devoted himself to geology under Sedg- those that act upon the blood are called remote wick, and in 1840 was appointed to the chair of antacids. Many drugs act in both ways. geology in King's College, London. In 1845 he ANTAGONISM OF DRUGS, in the practice became attached to the Indian Military School at of medicine, is that quality which a drug has to Addiscombe, and the College for Civil Engineers counteract the effects of another in a physiological at Putney. From this time until his death he de- rather than in a chemical way. It is a form of voted his studies to the economic application of antidotal medicine. For example, when fumes of geology, and was much consulted in great mining ammonia are administered to overcome the effects and engineering operations. His works on his of prussic (hydrocyanic) acid poisoning, the oppochosen subject were numerous and popular. sition of the drugs is chemical, and results in the

ANSTER, John, an English author, the friend formation of an innocuous nitrate, but the use of of Coleridge; born near Cork, Ireland, in 1798. atropin to stimulate the action of the heart when He was appointed, after graduation, regius pro- it is depressed by this acid is dependent upon fessor of civil law in the University of Dublin. physiological processes. Generally, alkaline drugs Some contributions to Blackwood's Magazine, a are antidotal to acid poisons, and the converse is translation of Faust, and a volume of poetical true. On a like principle, chlorin is recomtranslations from the German were his principal mended to overcome the effects of sulphureted works. He died in Dublin, June 9, 1867. hydrogen gas. In the same way calcium carbonates

ANSTEY, F., pseudonym for Thomas Anstey are given to overcome the action of oxalic and Guthrie; q.v., in these Supplements.

carbolic acids. In a like way the uses of oily or ANSWER, in judicial proceedings, is the formal fatty remedies to neutralize irritant or corrosive written statement made by a defendant in a suit poisons by forming harmless emulsions is antiin chancery or admiralty in which he sets forth dotal and chemical. Chemical antidotes depend particularly his defense to the charges made for their effectiveness on prompt administration, against him in the bill or petition in chancery or so that the noxious drug may be reached in the libel in admiralty. In other legal proceedings alimentary canal, where chemical reactions may such statements of defense are termed pleas, ex- go on before physiological effects begin. The cept in states where codes have been adopted, in antagonism of drugs begins after physiological most of which states the term plea is practically response has set in. Familiar examples of antagoobsolete, and the term answer is applied to the nism are the counteractions of belladonna and defense made in all classes of legal proceedings. opium, strychnia and chloral, bromal and atroIn chancery cases, if discovery is sought by the pin, digitalis and aconite. No examples are bill, the answer contains the disclosure asked for, known of two drugs that are perfectly antago

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nistic, and the whole subject is empirical and or fog which lies opposite the sun. They occur obscure. It is thought that in the recent advances chiefly in Alpine regions and in the polar seas, of isopathy, or the branch of medicine that deals and are only seen when sunshine and cloud, or with the therapeutics of attenuations of infection fog, occur at the same time. When, from an elevirus, this study may reach scientific precision and vated position, as the mast of a ship or the ridge importance. It is suggested by the alleged expe- of a hill, the shadow of an observer is projected rience that inoculations of erysipelas bacilli are by the sun on a cloud or fog, he sees the head antagonistic to diphtheretic virus, and a field of encircled by a luminous ring, and when the sun new research is here opened.

shines brightly, and the fog is dense, as many as ANTANACLASIS, in rhetoric, that figure of four concentric rings of this nature are seen by speech in which a word is repeated, either in a dif- the observer round the shadow of his head, havferent sense or with another inflection, by way of ing their common center in the point where a line a kind of antithetical emphasis; also, the repeti- from the sun through the eye of the observer tion, as a reminder, of a word or phrase after a meets the fog. It is also called the Circle of long parenthetical sentence.

Ulloa, or the White Rainbow. ANTANANARIVO, the capital of Madagascar, ANTHELMINTIC, expelling, or medicine now a French possession. See MADAGASCAR, tending to expel, intestinal worms. The chief Vol. XV, p. 175.

intestinal worms found in the human body are the ANTARCTIC EXPLORATION. See POLAR | long threadworm (Trichocephalus dispar), in the EXPLORATIONS, in these Supplements.

upper part of the large intestines; the common ANTARES, a very conspicuous double star in tapeworm (Tænia solium), the broad tapeworm the constellation Scorpio, of great importance to (Bothriocephalus latus), and the large roundworm mariners in the computation of longitude, and so (Ascaris lumbricoides), in the small intestines; and named from its apparent resemblance to Ares, or the maw, or threadworm (Oxyuris or Ascaris Mars.

vermicularis), in the rectum. Of these the most ANT-BIRDS, a name popularly used to desig- frequent are the common tapeworm, the large nate any bird which feeds on ants, but more prop- roundworm, and the maw, or threadworm. Garerly restricted to South American birds of the rod makes anthelmintics, defined as substances family Formicariida, remotely related to the fly. which have the power of destroying the life of catchers.

entozoa in the alimentary canal, the fourth order ANTECEDENT, a term in logic, grammar and / of his class iv, sub-class 1, and subdivides it mathematics. In logic, it is a statement or prop-into direct anthelmintics, or vermicides; indiosition from which another is logically deduced. rect anthelmintics, or vermifuges; and wormIn grammar, it is the substantive (word or clause) preventives. Among direct anthelmintics may to which a relative refers. In mathematics, we be enumerated: oil of male-fern, oil of turpentine, speak of the antecedent of a ratio, - that is, the cusso, kamila, and bark of pomegranate root; first of two terms which compose the ratio; the of vermifuges: calomel, scammony, jalap, gamfirst and third in a series of four proportionals. boge, and castor-oil; and of worm-preventives:

ANTEDILUVIAN, anything that existed be- sulphate of iron, or other ferruginous salts, quasfore the supposed Noachian food. The word is sia, and nux vomica. often employed in modern usage, in a somewhat ANTHER, that specialdisparaging sense, for anything antiquated orized part of the stamen primitive.

which develops the sacs ANTELOPE, AMERICAN, PRONGBUCK OR (sporangia) containing PRONGHORN. See ANTELOPE, Vol. II, p. 102. the pollen-grains. Mor

ANTENNÆ, the long whip-like appendages, phologically, the stamen popularly known as feelers, on the heads of crus- is a microsporophyll, the taceans, insects, and other arthropods. There anther representing are two pairs in crustaceans, the anterior smaller cluster of microsporangia ones being known as antennules. Insects and (usually four in number), myriopods have only one pair. The antennæ are primarily organs of touch, but many are ANTHERIDIUM, the apparently visual and olfactory in function.

generic name of the male ANTENNARIUS, a genus of fishes found reproductive organ in among corals in warm seas. They have curious plants. It is usually apshapes and strange colorings. The colors resem- plied only in cryptogams, ble those of seaweeds, rocks, and other surround- as its homologue among ing objects.

phanerogams is someANTEROS, in Greek mythology, was the name what obscure. It is in given by some to a deity that opposed Eros, or no sense the morpholoCupid; more commonly he was an avenging deity gical equivalent of the who punished those who failed to return the love “anther," from which its tiA POLYMORPHA (ORIGINAL). of others. Pliny gives the name to a kind of name was derived. In amethyst.

thallophytes it is commonly a single motherANTHELIA, luminous rings visible on a cloud cell, developing spermatozoids, which escape by



or a sorus.




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the rupturing of the walls. In bryophytes and 1820. She was educated at a Friends' boardingpteridophytes it is a multicellular sac projecting school in Philadelphia, and then taught in New above the surface, or more or less imbedded in York state for 15 years. the tissues, which ruptures or opens at maturity Miss Anthony first comfor the discharge of spermatozoids. In thallo- menced her public career phytes its companion organ is usually styled in 1847, when she began the oögonium; in bryophytes and pteridophytes, lecturing on temperance. its companion organ is the archegonium. The In 1851 she called a temspermatozoid is enabled, by means of the lashing perance convention of movement of its cilia, to reach and fertilize the women in Albany, and female cell (oösphere). See also MORPHOLOGY, the following year the in these Supplements.

Woman's New York ANTHINÆ, a subfamily of oscine passerine State Temperance Socibirds, belonging to the family of wagtails (Mota-ety was organized.

In cillida). They are small birds, found widely dis- 1857 she became promtributed over the world. The pipits or titlarks are

inent as

an agitator familiar representatives.

for the abolition of slavery, and also, with ANTHODIUM, the head or compound flower others, in securing the passage of the act of of the thistle and other Composita, in which a the New York legislature of 1860 giving to marnumber of flowers unite in a head surrounded by ried women the possession of their earnings and a common involucre.

the guardianship of their children. She was ANTHONY, a town of southern central Kan.. instrumental in obtaining for women the right to sas; capital of Harper County; situated 18 miles speak, vote and serve on committees in educafrom the Oklahoma boundary line and 52 miles tional and other conventions, and her energies S.W. of Wichita. The town is a railroad center, have always been directed to secure equal civil being traversed by the Missouri Pacific, St. Louis rights for women. Since 1855 she has addressed and San Francisco, and Hutchinson and Southern annual appeals and petitions to the legislature, railroads. It is in the midst of an agricultural pleading for the cause of female suffrage, and in and stock-raising district. Population 1895, 1867 she went to Kansas with Elizabeth Cady 1,942.

Stanton and Lucy Stone, and obtained about ANTHONY, HENRY BOWEN, an American 9,000 votes in favor of woman suffrage. In 1872 statesman; born in Coventry, Rhode Island, April Miss Anthony cast ballots at the state and Con

I, 1815; died in Provi- gressional election, in order to test the applica-
dence, Sept. 2, 1884. He tion of the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments
graduated at Brown Uni- of the United States constitution. She was
versity in 1833, and took ind ted and fined one hundred dollars for illegal
up journalism, being voting, but she declared that she would never
very successful in this pay the penalty, and it has never been collected.
adventure. He was twice She wrote, in conjunction with Elizabeth Cady
elected governor of Stanton and Matilda Joslyn Gage, The History of
Rhode Island (1849 and Woman Suffrage, and in 1892 was appointed by
1850), and declined a Governor Flower to a position in the State In-
third election. In 1859 dustrial School at Rochester, New York.
he was elected, as a Re- ANTHONY, WILLIAM ARNOLD, an American
publican, to the United physicist, born in Coventry, Rhode Island, Nov.

where 17, 1835.

17, 1835. He graduated at Sheffield Scientific B. ANTHONY.

he remained by re-elec- School in 1860, and the same year began teaching, tion till his death, and was three times elected and occupied positions in various institutions of president of the Senate, -in 1863, 1871 and 1884. learning until 1872, when he accepted a professorHe served on numerous important committees, ship at Cornell University. He has constructed and was very popular in Washington.

two turbines, one of which gave an efficiency of ANTHONY, John Gould, an American natu- 81 per cent, a gram dynamo-electric machine ralist; born in Providence, Rhode Island, May 17, for 25 amperes and 250 volts, and a tangent galva1804; died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Oct. 6, nometer which measured accurately currents from 1877. He went into business in Cincinnati, and 1-10 to 250 amperes. Professor Anthony is a memwas engaged there in commercial occupations for ber of several scientific societies, and has contrib35 years. Meanwhile his interest in natural his. uted numerous articles to different magazines tory had developed, and in 1863 he took charge of and reviews. the conchological department of the Museum of ANTHONY OF PADUA. See ANTONY, in Comparative Zoology. Mr. Anthony wrote nu- these Supplements. merous papers on shell-fish, and was recognized ANTHONY'S NOSE, the name of two bold as an authority on American land and fresh-water promontories in the state of New York: the mollusca.

extremity of the Klips, or “Cliff," a mountain on ANTHONY, SUSAN BROWNELL, reformer; the north bank of the Mohawk, and a projection, born in South Adams, Massachusetts, Feb. 15, 1,230 feet in height, from Breakneck Hill, at the






ANTHOPHYTES- ANTHROPOLOGY entrance to the Highlands, on the east bank of the extenuations of his crime. As a result, penthe Hudson, 57 miles from New York City. alties were arbitrary, capricious, and without any

ANTHOPHYTES, a name formerly applied to systematic basis. Moreover, the jurisprudence of the highest group of plants, and again coming different states differed greatly, and, as Montaigne into use, literally signifying flowering plants." expressed it, “what was right on one side of the In more

common use is the word phanerogams; Pyrenees was wrong on the other." In either case and coming into large use is the word sperma- a criminal was an outlaw and the foe of convenphytes (better spermatophytes), signifying“ seed- tional society, who might be used in any way to plants."

serve the current notions of what was best for the ANTHOSIDERITE, a hydrated silicate of community. iron found in Brazil, having a fibrous radiated From the time of John Howard and Elizabeth structure.

Fry a new sentiment of pity began to spread, and ANTHOXANTHUM, a genus of grasses pro- an increasing number of persons studied quesducing dull yellow flowers, and including the tions of penology or supported efforts to ameliofragrant sweet vernal grass (A. odoratum) of the rate the inhumanities or stupidities of prison life. meadows of Europe, which has been naturalized The first form this interest took was the reformain America.

tion of convicts. It was the inevitable result of ANTHOZOA, one of the three classes of cælen- personal study of the individuality of felons. terates, including sea-anemones, dead men's fin- Various devices were fabricated to convert the gers, corals, etc. They are the same as the Ac- criminal into a conventional world. The solitary tinozoa without the Ctenophora. See ActinOZOA, system of prisons was adopted, through Quaker Vol. I, pp. 129–131.

influence, at the Cherry Hill prison at PhiladelANTHRACENE, a compound of carbon and phia; the Crofton or Irish system was invented hydrogen obtained in the distillation of coal-tar. and long applauded; the Elmira penitentiary sysAlthough long known to chemists, it is as the tem of New York, under Zenas Brockway, was source of artificial alizarin that it has become of tried in New York. Quite as influentia in suggescommercial value.

tion was the British idea of transporting its conANTHRACITE. See ANTHRACITE, Vol. II, victs, as a genital or unimprovable class, to Austrap. 106, and Coal, in these Supplements.

lasia, and thus ridding the United Kingdom of its ANTHRAPURPURIN, a substance having the morally abnormal constituents and leaving a guilesame composition as purpurin, which is formed in less citizenship behind.

less citizenship behind. These experiments have making artificial alizarin. It has an orange color had various results, and none of them as yet are and can be used as a dye.

quite satisfactory. ANTHRAX. See MURRAIN, Vol. XVII, p. 58;

. From the data accumulated, it inevitably folWOOLSORTER'S DISEASE, Vol. XXIV, p. 663. lowed that a class of investigators would spring

ANTHRENOUS, a genus of insects belonging up who should study the question as one of a to the beetles (Coleoptera). Many of them are typical and differentiated class. This gave rise museum - pests, destroying the natural - history to what is now termed “Criminal Anthropology.' specimens. A. scrophularia is the common carpet. The term seems chiefly to mean the science or art beetle, which is so destructive to carpets.

of analyzing felons as a typical or special class of ANTHROPOLATRY, the worship of man; the humanity, and, like all such specializations, has giving of divine honors to a human being; a term its merits and defects as a solution of a social always employed in reproach. The term is chiefly problem. Probably the most eminent, as he is known in ecclesiastical history in connection with the best-known founder, of this school is Cesar the employment of it by the Apollinarians against Lombroso, who studied the question from a physithe orthodox Christians of the fourth and fifth ological and genetic point of view. His studies centuries, with reference to the doctrine of the go upon the theory that criminality proceeds from perfect human nature of Christ.

congenital causes, from excessive passion, from ANTHROPOLOGY, CRIMINAL. Until recent habit and from insanity. Although the question years all criminals were treated on one of two of moral insanity has come again and again in an theories—one theological and the other civic. The expert way into the courts, there is a weighty first position was that sin carried with it a moral class who refuse to recognize it, except as a pasculpability, or a depravity that constituted guilt, sionate paroxysm of a weak nature transported as in the case of original sin and the just damna- | by jealousy or revenge. This sort of plea in tion of the inheritor. If crime was to be looked court is liable to great abuse when skillful attorupon as a simple degradation of morals, wrought neys play upon the passions of a jury, or public by inexcusable perversity, all that could be re sympathy runs with the indicted. It is a dangerquired of penalties was that in some rude way ous element in jurisprudence, as its limitations they should express the social sense of its atrocity. are indefinite. The second theory cared naught for the convicted, Upon the basis of specific criminal types grew as to their personality or capacity for reformation. up the criminal anthropometry of Alphonse BerThey were to be used as examples to deter others tillon, a chief officer in the police prefecture of from following in their footsteps. In neither of Paris. It is largely used in France, Belgium, these cases was the subject of condemnation par- Netherlands, England and some American cities, ticularly considered, and only to a slight extent and its official adoption dates from 1882. Its

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