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ANTONY OF PADUA- APARTMENT-HOUSES

DE

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to the poor, and slept on hard boards in a rude as taking place in an indefinite past time. It hut that he built under a date-palm tree that stood corresponds to the simple past tense in English. in his garden. This tree has been the subject of The distinction of the first and second aorist is many romances, and it retained life until 1886.

purely formal. ANTONY OF PADUA, SAINT, born at Lisbon, AOSTA, Duke of, a title borne by the eldest Aug. 15, 1195; died at Padua, June 13, 1231. On son or brother of the reigning monarch of the the father's side he was related to Godfrey of House of Savoy (kings of Italy). Amadeus, Bouillon. He was at first an Augustinian monk, king of Spain from Dec. 4, 1870, to Feb. 11, 1875

. but in 1220 he entered the Franciscan order, and (died Jan. 18, 1890), was once the holder of this became one of its most active propagators. He title. The dukes of Aosta take the title from preached in the south of France and Upper Italy. AOSTA; 9.v., Vol. II, p. 147. He was canonized by Gregory IX in the year APACHES, a tribe of Indians of New Mexico I 232. According to legend, he preached to the and Arizona. The Apaches, veritable Ishmaelites fishes when men refused to hear him; hence he is of Arizona and New Mexico, are raiders from the patron of the lower animals. See PADUA, their birth. Under their chief Geronimo, who Vol. XVIII, p. 131.

became in 1876 the terror of the frontier, they ANTRAIGUES, EMMANUEL Louis HENRI De repeatedly ravaged the settlements on the Ameri

, LAUNAY, COMTE D', a French politician, born can side of the boundary, and, when pursued at Ville-Neuve de Berg, in the department of by troops, took refuge in the fastnesses of the Ardèche, in 1755. His talents were first dis-mountains of Sonora. A convention with the played in his Mémoires sur les États Généraux Mexican government enables the troops of either (1788). In 1789, when he was chosen deputy, power, in pursuit of marauding Indians, to follow, he defended the privileges of the hereditary regardless of any international boundary. Genaristocracy. After leaving the assembly in 1790, eral Crook captured Geronimo in Mexico in 1883, he was employed in diplomacy at St. Petersburg and interned him at Fort Apache until his escape and Vienna, where he defended the cause of in 1885. His liberty was brief, as he was again the Bourbons. In 1803 he was employed, under captured by General Miles, in May, 1886; was for Alexander of Russia, in an embassy to Dresden. some time confined at Mount Vernon barracks, He afterward went to England, where he acquired Alabama, and with the most troublesome of his great influence with Canning. On July 22, 1812, band was removed, Oct. 2, 1895, to Fort Sill, he was murdered, at his residence near London, Oklahoma. See INDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 827, note i. by an Italian servant.

APAFI, MIHALY, OR ABAFFI, Michael, a ANT-THRUSH OR ANT-CATCHER, names prince of Transylvania; born Sept. 25, 1632. He applied to birds of the family Pittida, which feed, accompanied Prince George II in an expedition to a large extent, upon ants. They are common against the Poles in 1657; was taken prisoner at in the islands of the Malay Archipelago. See the irruption of Tatar hordes under their khan, PITTA, Vol. XIX, p. 149.

Mohammed Girai, and in 1661 was chosen prince ANTWERP, a village of Jefferson County, in of Transylv

of Transylvania. He remained faithful to the northern New York, on the Indian River, and is on Ottoman power till the siege of Vienna in 1683. Rome, Watertown and Ogdensburg railroad, 21 The imperial troops penetrated into the country, miles N. E. of Watertown. It carries on an exten- and Apafi made a treaty with the emperor by sive trade in iron. Here is situated the Northern which Transylvania was placed under German New York Conference Seminary of the Methodist protection. At Fogaras, in 1688, the TransylEpiscopal Church. Population 1890, 912. vanian deputies took the oath of fealty to the

ANTWERP, a village of Paulding County, Hapsburgs as legitimate monarchs of Hungary. northwest Ohio; situated 70 miles S.W. of Toledo, Apafi died on the eve of a fierce retributive war on the Wabash railroad, between the Maumee River begun by his old allies, the Turks, April 15, 1690. and the Six-mile Reservoir. It has a pig-iron APARTMENT-HOUSES. The dividing of furnace and clay-working and flour mills. Popula- buildings into apartments has come to be the comtion 1890, 1,331.

mon method in all large cities for accommodating ANUPSHAHR, a town of India, in the British a number of families under one roof. In the district of Bulandshahr, Northwest Provinces, on United States the flat is the favorite form of the right bank of the Ganges, 73 miles S. E. of apartment, and architects have exercised much Delhi. Population, 14,000.

ingenuity in designing complete household accomANURA. See AMPHIBIA, Vol. I, p. 751. modations within very limited spaces. As apart.

ANYTE OF TEGEA, the female Homer of ment-houses have grown in height, the questions her day (209 B.C.). Twenty-two of her epigrams of light and ventilation have received more study, have come to the moderns, and afford consider and in the later styles the dark fat is seldom able evidence of her reputation as a poetess.

found.

Two types of design now preferred as in. AONLAGANY OR AOUNLAH, a town of suring light throughout are the “hour-glass " India, in the British district of Bareilly, 21 miles plan and the “slot” plan. These names refer to S.W. of Bareilly, on the route to Aligarh. It has the design of the ground plan. The “hour-glass” a large bazaar. Population, 11,000. .

type has central air and light shafts, and the slot" AORIST (Gr. aoristos, “unlimited"), a form of type has a long, slot-like alley extending beside the Greek verb by which an action is expressed the building about three fifths of its length. Anin.

APATITE- APICULTURE

203

novation in the conveniences of apartment-houses circle. The motion of the comet of 1680 at its has appeared in Chicago, where there are build- perihelion was calculated as 137,000 times more ings containing flats and extra spare bedrooms on than its motion in aphelion. the top floor which tenants can engage transiently APHIDES. See INSECTS, Vol. XIII, p. 153; for guests. There are also in these houses Ants, Vol. I, p. 96; WHEAT, Vol. XXIV, p. 535. suites of reception-rooms, handsomely furnished, APHONIA. See THROAT DISEASES, Vol. which occupants of the building are privileged to XXIII, p. 320. hire for an evening, when desirous of entertaining APHTHÆ, small whitish ulcers, commencing a large company.

C. H. COCHRANE. as vesicles on the surface of a mucous membrane, APATITE, a mineral composed largely of phos-usually that of the mouth and lips, but they phate of lime, and, in its crystalline form, described occasionally appear wherever mucous membrane at GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. 228, and at MINERALOGY, approaches the skin. Infants are liable to an Vol. XVI, p. 407. It also occurs massive, and is aphthous eruption termed thrush. found in large beds in South Carolina and Florida, APHTHARTODOCETÆ, a religious sect that which furnish the principal supply for the Ameri- existed between the sixth and ninths centuries. can manufacture of superphosphates from rock. See JUSTINIAN, Vol. XIII, p. 796. The beds, once important, of Sombrero, one of APIA, the capital of the Samoan or Navigathe Virgin Islands, in the West Indies, are now tor's Islands, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is exhausted. The products of such beds are known situated on the north coast of the Island of Upolu, as rock-phosphates and yield, when ground, and and is divided into three parts, or villages, by treated with sulphuric acid, a fertilizer called small streams. The harbor, if harbor it can be superphosphate in the trade. The proportion of called, is the space between a dangerous coral phosphate of lime in these coprolites and bone reef and the shore. Here, March 15, 1889, a deposits varies from 50 to 80 per cent. The beds hurricane drove the United States ships Trenton, are found in connection with marls. Massive. Vandalia, and Nipsic, and the Adler, Eber and apatite is imported to some extent from some Olga of the German navy, ashore. The loss of small West Indian islands, Norway and Canada. life was: American navy, 4 officers, 46 men; Ger

APERIENTS, substances which are employed man navy, 9 officers, 87 men. The British corto cause intestinal evacuations. Many articles vette Calliope alone steamed to sea in the teeth of food, such as oatmeal, brown-bread, and bran of the gale. At Vailima, near Apia, Robert biscuits, and fruits, such as figs, prunes and straw. Louis Stevenson, the celebrated novelist, died, berries, are used for this purpose; but the term Dec. 3, 1894. is usually applied to denote certain medicines APIAN OR APPIAN, PETER (1495-1552), a which act upon the intestines and cause them to German astronomer and mathematician, born in expel their contents.

Leysnick, who originated a mode of finding longiAPETALOUS, a term in botany, applied to tude by lunar observation, and published trigoflowers without petals. The name Apetala is fre nometrical tables with radius decimally divided. quently applied to an artificial group of dicoty- His chief and best work was geographical, and ledons in which the flowers are usually without contains early American maps. He was ennobled petals. The group, and therefore the group by the emperor, and died at Ingoldstadt. His name, has been abandoned in modern schemes of German patronymic was Bienewitz. classification, the different families having been APIARIES. See Bee, Vol. III, intercalated among the polypetalous forms to pp. 499-501; also Bee, in these Supwhich they are related. The absence of petals plements. is due either to reduction from petaliferous forms, APICAL CELL, in botany, apor it represents a primitive condition which pre-plies specifically to the embryonic cedes the differentiation of petals. Probably cell situated in the organic center most of the apetalous families belong to the lat- of a growing-point of multicelluter category. They, with the polypetalous familar plants, as in certain algæ, mosses, lies, have been combined in a group called and most pteridophytes. The apiArchichlamydea, as opposed to the Sympetala, or cal cell is larger than its neighbors, gamopetalous forms.

and pyramidal (two-sided or threeAPHANIPTERA, a name applied to an order sided) in form. All the new cells of insects composed of the family of fleas (Puli- of the growing-point are derived Prothallium of

Pteris a quicida). Some authors consider them wingless flies, from the apical cell by successive

lina showand accordingly class the family under Diptera. divisions, the apical cell maintain

ing; A, ApiAPHELION, that point in the elliptical orbiting its size by continued growth. cal cell; R, of a planet which is most remote from the sun. In some cases (as in Selaginella)

Rhizoid; S,

The spore The opposite point, or that nearest the sun, is there is a group of such apical

from which styled the perihelion. At the former point the cells; while in other multicellular

the prothal swiftness of the planet's motion is least and plants the apical cell or cells are lium has de begins to increase, and at the latter its motion replaced by a group of small meris- veloped. is the greatest and begins to decrease. This tem cells.

(Original.) irregularity of the motion is most remarkable APICULTURE. See Bee, Vol. III, pp. 501in comets, whose orbits deviate most from the 503. For American bee culture, see Honey, Vol.

R

S

204 APIOS TUBEROSA-APOLLINARIUS OF LAODICE A XII, pp. 138, 139; and under Bee, in these Sup- | corolla hypogynous, gamopetalous, often with plements.

scales in its throat, regularly five-lobed; stamens APIOS TUBEROSA, a plant belonging to five, inserted on the corolla; ovaries, two, each the family Leguminosa. This plant, which is one-celled, with numerous ovules; in fruit becoma native of the Atlantic and middle states, has foring a follicle, capsule, drupe or berry. The species a century been cultivated in botanical gardens are mostly tropical, and often of economic value, in Europe, and has been recently brought into some' furnishing india-rubber, others valuable particular notice through the French traveler, woods and fibers, still others, medicinal barks and Lamare-Picquot, who convinced himself of the edible fruits. Among cultivated species are perivalue of the tubers as an article of food. They con- winkle (Vinca), oleander (Nerium), cape jasmine

. tain more nitrogen than potatoes (4.5 per cent), (Rhynchospermum), and various species of Allaand also more starch. The flowers are dark red. manda. It is called “ground-nut ” or “wild bean.”

APODES OR APODAL FISHES, fishes withAPLANATIC LENS, a lens which causes all out analogues of the ventral or pelvic fins. the rays of light to converge to a point. See Mi- According to recent authors, the group is limited CROSCOPE, Vol. XVI, p. 260; TELESCOPE, XXIII, to the eels. p. 144.

A POGAMY. In alternation of generations in APLANOGAMETE, a term applied in general | plants the rule is, that the sporophyte is developed to non-ciliated gametes (sexual cells), as the from a spore produced sexually by the gametogametes of Spirogyra and the Diatoms; but in phyte. Apogamy is the term applied to cases in plants with differentiation of sexual cells the term which the sporophyte arises in some other way, is usually restricted to a non-ciliated male gamete. either by budding directly from the vegetative

APLÝSIA. See MOLLUSCA, Vol. XVI, pp. 656- body of the gametophyte, which is vegetative 660.

apogany, as in certain ferns and fungi, or by the APOCALYPTIC NUMBER, “the mystical direct development of the female cell without fernumber” 666, spoken of in the book of Revela- tilization, which is parthenogenesis, or parthenogenetic tion. As early as the second century, the church apogamy, as in certain fungi. had found that the name Antichrist was indicated APOGEE, a term etymologically meaning by the Greek characters expressive of this num- “away from the earth," and used in astronomy to ber, while others believed it to express a date. denote a point in the orbit of any body in the planeThe most probable interpretation is that which tary system which is farthest from the earth. Origiwas current in the days of Irenæus, and which nally the earth was considered to be the center of found the number in the word Lateinos. The the solar system, and hence to be the point from Roman nation, the mightiest pagan power on which measurement should be made, and at one earth, was the most terrible symbol of antichrist, time the sun was said to pass to its apogee; but and the number 666 appears in the Greek charac- when the sun was recognized as the center, the ters which spell the name. Some Protestant con- expression for the same relation was changed, and troversialists apply the prophesy to Papal Rome, the earth said to be in “aphelion,”—that is, at its but it is equally applicable to certain reformers of remotest point from the sun. The word has its that denomination.

most appropriate application to the moon, because APOCATASTASIS, in theology, the final res- it revolves as a satellite around the earth. When titution of all things, when, at the appearance of the nearest the earth the moon is said to be in “periMessiah, the kingdom of God shall be extended gee," and the full cycle of either is nearly nine over the whole earth. In a dogmatic sense the and a half years. These two words, when used name is applied to the future conversion of all rhetorically, signify the greatest approximation or men to the faith of Christ, and their consequent separation of things, one from another, whether admission to everlasting blessedness. See Escha- in space or character. TOLOGY, Vol. VIII, p. 538.

APOLLINARIS WATER, an alkaline minAPOCRENIC ACID, one of the products of eral water containing carbonate of soda, derived the natural decay of wood and other plant tex- from the Apollinaris spring, in the valley of the tures, found wherever lignin, or woody fiber, is Ahr, in the Rhine province. It is rich in carbonic decomposing in soils, etc. As apocrenic acid is acid and is popular for table-use. The consumpsoluble in water, it follows that rain-water, falling tion of this water is so considerable in America on and percolating through soils containing this as to give fair ground for the belief that much of substance, becomes impregnated with it, and hence what is sold is artificially prepared. in many natural waters apocrenic acid is a recog- APOLLINARIUS OF LAODICEA OR APOLnized constituent. Apocrenic acid performs an LONARIS THE YOUNGER, bishop of Laodicea, important function in the growth of plants, as in Syria (362), and one of the warmest opponents of there is every reason to believe that it forms one Arianism. It was chiefly as a controversial theo. of the stages through which matter travels from logian, and as the founder of a sect, that Apollidead plants again into the living tissue.

narius is celebrated. He maintained the doctrine A POCYNACEÆ, a family of dicotyledonous that the Logos, or divine nature in Christ, took the plants, consisting of trees and shrubs, generally place of the rational human soul or mind, and with milky juice, having entire leaves and no that the body of Christ was a spiritualized and stipules. The calyx is usually five-parted; the glorified form of humanity.

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205

APOLLO, a borough in Armstrong County, of fanatical Catholics in Spain, who were also western Pennsylvania, situated on the Kiskimine- absolutists so far as the king consented to be tas River, and on the line of the Pennsylvania their instrument. They formed themselves (soon railroad. It is in the midst of the Pennsylvania after the revolution of 1819) into an Apostolic coal-fields, and has mines, rolling-mills, and steel. party, whose leaders were fugitive priests and works. Population 1890, 2,156.

whose troops were smugglers and robbers. After APOLLONIUS OF TYRE. See ROMANCE, taking an active part in all the subsequent agitaVol. XX, p. 635.

tions, they finally merged (1830) into the Carlist APOLLYON. It is to its use in Bunyan's Pil-party. grim's Progress that the name now mainly owes APOSTOLIC SUCCESSION, a phrase used in its currency See ABADDON, in these Supple- religious matters to denote either one or both of ments.

two distinct things; i. e., (1) “the derivation of APOLOGETICS. See APOLOGETICS, Vol. II, holy orders by an unbroken chain of transmission pp. 189–193; DOGMATIC, Vol. VII, p. 339; The from the Apostles; and (2) the succession of a OLOGY, Vol. XXIII, p. 274.

priesthood so ordained to the powers and priviAPOLOGY OF AUGSBURG. See CREEDS, leges of the Apostles.” The first is a question of Vol. VI, p. 564.

fact, to be determined by history and chronology. APOPHYLLITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, The second is a matter of opinion or belief, the P. 421.

Roman Catholic Church and the various Protest. A POPKA, a town of Orange County, east-cen- ant churches differing widely from each other in tral Florida, near the northeastern shore of Lake their views. The Roman Catholic Church styles Apopka, in the middle of the peninsula. It is the itself "the Apostolic Church,'' because the pope center of a lumber and pasture region, contains is claimed to be the lineal successor of Peter in many orange groves, and is the seat of an aca

the Papal chair; the Church of England and the demy. The Florida Central and the Florida Mid- Scottish Episcopal Church also claim apostolic land railroads traverse the town. Population succession, in view of the ordination of their 1890, 490.

bishops at Rome before the Reformation, and so, APOSPORY refers to the fact that in plants also, does the Protestant Episcopal Church of the with alternation of generations the gametophyte United States. The advocates of this doctrine is sometimes produced directly by budding from in the Protestant Episcopal churches may be the sporophyte, as in certain ferns, instead of from divided into two classes: 1. Those who believe a spore produced asexually by the sporophyte. that episcopacy is the best form of church govern

A POSTERIORI. See A PRIORI, Vol. II, pp. ment and is of apostolic origin. These prefer to 214, 215.

call their doctrine that of the “Historic EpiscoAPOSTLES, TEACHING OF THE TWELVE, the pate." 2. Those who believe the preceding, and title of a treatise discovered in 1883 by Bryennius, also that men possess the grace proper to the the metropolitan of Nicomedia, and published by Christian ministry only after ordination by the him with a Greek commentary. The work is laying on of the hands of a bishop who can trace moral rather than dogmatic in tone, and is of his ordination as bishop through a line of bishops great interest for the history of the early Chris- to the Apostles. The arguments against the thetian Church; but it throws no fresh light on the ory of Apostolic Succession are many and varied, New Testament canon, and does nothing to set- for which the reader is referred to The Organizatle the Johannine origin of the Fourth Gospel. tion of the Early Christian Churches, in the BampThe date of the treatise is uncertain; some ton Lectures for 1880.

F. J. scholars fix it at 80–100 A.D.; Harnack contends APOSTOOL, SAMUEL, a Dutch theologian of for 120–165; and one hostile critic places it after the Mennonite persuasion; born in 1638. He the Constitutions, which are supposed to have became the minister of an Amsterdam congregabeen based upon it. English translations include tion and was involved in a dispute about doctrine those by Farrar, Spence and Schaff. In 1887 with Galenus. His action split the Waterlandian the Johns Hopkins University, of Baltimore, congregations into two sects, the Apostoolians produced a fac-simile of the original.

and the Galenists. He died about 1700. APOSTLES' ISLANDS, a group of 27 small APOSTROPHE (Gr., “a turning away or islands in Lake Superior, first settled by the breaking off''), a rhetorical figure by which a French in 1680. They belong to the state of speaker changes the course of his speech, and adWisconsin, lie 70 miles W. of Ontonagon, and dresses, with greater or less emotional emphasis, have an area of 200 square miles. A fine quality of persons present or absent, the dead, or inanimate brownstone is quarried and shipped from the objects, either to invoke them as witnesses or to islands.

pity, praise or blame them. When the figure is APOSTOLIC MAJESTY, a title of the kings well managed it has a thrilling effect, both in oraof Hungary, first conferred by Pope Sylvester II, tory and poetry, but when extravagantly introin 1,000 A.D., on the then Duke of Hungary. In duced it becomes ludicrous. In manuscript or 1758 Maria Theresa obtained a renewal of the print the term denotes a raised comma used to title from Pope Clement XIII. See HUNGARY, mark a possessive suffix s, or the elision of a Vol XII, p. 367.

vowel in a word. APOSTOLIC PARTY, a name given to a party APOTHECARIES' WEIGHT, a series of mea206

APPALACHEES- APPENDIX VERMIFORMIS

some

sures used by apothecaries. The unit is a grain, having the judgment reviewed or the cause whereof 20 make i scruple, 3 scruples make i retried. An appeal can be taken only from dram, 8 drams make i ounce, 12 ounces make i a final judgment or decree, and not from an pound. For its symbols, see ABBREVIATORY interlocutory or provisional judgment or order Signs, in these Supplements.

except when expressly provided by statute. Upon APPALACHEES, a tribe of Florida Indians, appeal, both the facts and the legal questions are from whom Appalachee Bay was named. They generally submitted to review. In the United were subjugated by the Spaniards, and reduced by States, the courts of last resort, or those from which the English from 7,000 to 400 in 1705, and were no further appeal can be taken, are the supreme soon after absorbed by the Choctaws, to whom courts of the various states in matters entirely they were allied. See Appalachian Races, under within the jurisdiction of the state courts, and INDIANS, Vol. XII, p. 828.

the supreme court of the United States in litigaAPPALACHIAN CLUB, an association of tion which arises in the Federal or United States savants whose object is the systematic explora- courts, and in a few excepted cases arising in the tion of the Appalachian ranges. It originated in state courts. The time in which an appeal can Boston in 1876. The club superintends the pla- be taken is generally fixed by statute, and if not cing of guide-boards, and essays to prevent the dis-taken within that time the right is lost. Upon figuration of the face of nature by advertisement- an appeal being taken, it generally acts as a painting Discoveries in botany, zoology and supersedeas, or stay of the proceedings, in the geology are also reported.

lower court, and no further steps can be taken in APPALACHIAN INDIANS, a name

that court until the final determination of the times applied to a linguistic family of North appeal. A record, showing all the proceedings in American Indians, embracing the greater part of the lower court, must be prepared and filed in the the tribes of the southern United States. See appellate court for its use in determining the INDIANS, AMERICAN, Vol. XII, p. 828.

questions involved. In criminal proceedings an APPALACHICOLA, a river and bay of Florida. appeal will lie at the instance of the accused if he The river is formed by the confluence of the Chat- is found guilty, but if acquitted, no appeal can tahoochee and Flint, and flows nearly south into be taken. See APPEAL, Vol. II, p. 208. a bay of the same name in the Gulf of Mexico. APPEARANCE, in legal proceedings, is the It is about 90 miles in length and is navigable presence in court of any party to the suit, whether for steamboats.

voluntary or involuntary, but the term is usually APPALACHICOLA, a city and port of entry, applied to the formal submission by the defendcapital of Franklin County, in west-central Florida, ant to the jurisdiction of the court. It may be is situated on the Gulf of Mexico, at the mouth special, when made for particular purposes, or of Appalachicola River, some 80 miles S.W. general, when absolute and unconditional. The from Tallahassee. It has a timber trade, exten- performance of some act from which an appearsive cotton shipments, a good anchorage, and ance may be inferred will often suffice, and in weekly steamboat communication with Colum- civil cases it may be made by an attorney; in bus, Georgia, and other places on the Flint, criminal cases, especially those of felony, the Chattahoochee and Appalachicola rivers, connect personal appearance of the accused is requisite. ing at Chattahoochee with the Plant and other Appearance may be by filing in the cause a writrailroad systems. Population 1880, 1,336; 1890, ten statement that the defendant appears and 2,727.

submits himself to the jurisdiction of the court, APPANAGE. See APANAGE, Vol. II, p. 147. which statement may be signed by the defendant

APPARATUS SCULPTORIS, “the Sculptor's personally or by attorney. Written appearance Workshop,” is the name of a constellation which is in frequent use in chancery proceedings, and is hardly visible in the northern hemisphere, and when filed in proper time generally entitles the which contains no bright stars. It is situated defendant to additional time in which to file his near the southern horizon, south of Cetis and answer. Aquarius, and just east of the large star, For- APPEL, THOMAS GILMORE (sometimes spelled malhault.

APPLE), a clergyman and educator (German ReAPPARENT, an astronomical term expressing formed), was born at Easton, Pennsylvania, Nov. certain important conditions. Apparent magni-14, 1829, and graduated from Marshall College tude is the angle subtended at the observer's eye in 1850. Ordained in 1853, he became the first by the diameter of a heavenly body. Apparent president of Mercersburg College upon its organaltitude is altitude observed from the earth’s ization in 1865; was afterward professor in the surface, as distinguished from altitude referred Lancaster Theological Seminary, and in 1877 to the earth's center. Apparent motion is the accepted the presidency of the Franklin and Marmotion of a moving body as it appears to an

shall College. A prolific writer, he has been a observer who himself is in motion. It is ex- leader of irenical opinion within his denomination. pressed in terms of apparent velocity and appar- APPENDICITIS. See SURGERY, AMERICAN, in ent direction.

these Supplements. APPEAL. In law, the word appeal means the

APPENDIX VERMIFORMIS, a small pouched removal of a cause from an inferior to a supe-vessel at the lower part of the cæcum, which hangs rior or appellate tribunal for the purpose of in the abdomen in a wormlike shape. Its func

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