« PreviousContinue »
AQUEOUS HUMOR-ARABI PASHA
ton Aqueduct is in reality a water-tunnel beneath groups of cells which serve as reservoirs for the surface, 33/4 miles long and 13 feet 7 inches water. It is often a modified region of the hypoin diameter.
derma, as in the leaves of certain species of The conduit for the supply of the city of Wash-Polypodium, Aspidium, Tradescantia, palms, orchids, ington is also known as an aqueduct, though the etc., in which the cells are thin-walled, without recent additions have been by pipe-line, and quite chlorophyll grains, full of watery sap and without an extended water-tunnel, to be worked under intercellular spaces. In many cases of succulent pressure, has been under way for some years. The and coriaceous leaves (Aloe, Mesembryanthemum, metropolitan district of which Boston is the cen- etc.), the aqueous tissue is represented by the ter is now entering upon the construction of colorless mesophyll. additional water-works, involving very extensive AQUIFOLIACEÆ, a family of dicotyledonous masonry conduits, but these are not of the old plants, of which the common holly (Ilex aquifoaqueduct type. St. Louis has several miles of lium) is best known. The order, however, conconduit, connecting the low service-station at tains three genera and numerous species, the Chain of Rocks with the distributing-station at greater part of which are natives of America, and Bissell's Point.
many of them belong to the tropical and subIn hydraulic mining operations, ditches are led tropical parts of it. They are shrubs or trees for long distances from reservoirs far up the river with simple leathery (sometimes spiny) leaves, courses or in the mountains, so as to obtain a small white clustered Howers, and a four-celled working-head of several hundred feet. These drupe with four stones. Certain South American have led to some remarkably bold aqueducts of species contain so much caffein that they are wood carried on timber trestles, often at great used as a beverage, as the “Paraguay tea” (Ilex heights. These structures are known, however, paraguayensis). The family name is frequently as flumes.
given as Ilicineæ. Some very interesting works in the way of AQUILA, a constellation situated above Capricanal aqueducts were built in an early day. Those cornus and Aquarius, supposed to take its name of the Erie canal at the crossings of the Gene- from the eagle of Jupiter. It is on the meridian see River, the Seneca River and the Upper and at 8 p.m. in the middle of September. Lower Mohawk aqueducts were notable struc- AQUILA. See EAGLL, Vol. VII, p. 589. tures; likewise that at the Fox River crossing of AQUILARIACEÆ, a family of dicotyledonous the Illinois and Michigan canal. Some of these plants, all of which are trees with smooth branches structures were arched masonry, while others and tough bark, natives of the tropical part of consisted of a timber trunk carried on masonry Asia. The leaves are entire, the perianth leathpiers.
ery, turbinate or tubular, its limb divided into Canal-builders were disposed to avoid aque- four or five segments, the stamens usually ten, the ducts, except minor structures over the smaller filaments inserted into the orifice of the perianth, streams that came in at the sides of the valley, the ovary two-celled with two ovules, the stigma and usually crossed the larger watercourses by large, the fruit a two-valved capsule or a drupe. means of a pool produced by erecting a dam. The order is chiefly interesting, as producing the This also served to feed the canal, and was shut fragrant wood called aloes-wood. off from the canal by a guard-lock in the flood AQUILEJA. See AQUILEIA, Vol. II, p. 230. season.
ARABIAN ARCHITECTURE. See ARCHIThe modern practice of engineering, with the TECTURE, Vol. II, pp. 445–448. resources and appliances now available, has made ARABIAN GULF. See RED SEA, Vol. XX, p. the old style of aqueduct nearly obsolete, and 316. names more pertinent have come to be applied to ARABIAN LANGUAGE. See Semitic LANthe different classes of water-conduits. Works GUAGES, Vol. XXI, pp. 650-653. are not so monumental, but they are much cheap- ARABIAN LITERATURE. See ARABIA, Vol. er, and far safer against accident and malicious II, pp. 262–264. mischief. The gravity systems, if adequately ARABIAN NIGHTS' ENTERTAINMENTS. carried out, should be as permanent as those of See THOUSAND AND ONE Nights, Vol. XXIII, pp. old times. The pumping-systems are, of course, 316-318. dependent for their maintenance and operation ARABIAN NUMERALS, the characters o, 1, on an annual appropriation bill and efficient man- 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. See NUMERALS, Vol. XVII,
6 agement. See AQUEDUCT, Vol. II, pp. 219, 230.
pp. 626, 627.
LYMAN E. Cooley. ARACEÆ OR AROIDEÆ, the technical name AQUEOUS HUMOR. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, of the ARUM FAMILY; q.v., in these Supplements. p. 889.
ARABI PASHA, AHMED EL HOUSSAIN, EgypAQUEOUS ROCKS, in geology, those portions tion soldier and revolutionist, chief of the National of the solids composing the layers of the earth's Party in 1881-82, was born of fellah parentage, crust, whether existing in compact masses or as in- | in Lower Egypt, in 1837; passed many years in coherent bulk, which have been deposited in a the army without rising to higher rank than lieustratified or sedimentary condition by the action tenant-colonel; emerged from comparative obscurof water or ice.
ity when, in 1881, he headed the popular miliAQUEOUS TISSUE, a term applied to certain tary revolt, by which it was sought to free Egypt
from the tutelage of other nations, and to appor- color and aspect, the dark Papuans of New Guinea. tion among her own soldiers and citizens the many The Arafuras of the Ani Islands, says Réclus,
lucrative offices of gov- claim descent from an ancestral tree, and eat the
Alexandria in May, 1882, a bridge stands a lighthouse with a flashing light, he was virtually dictator of Egypt. Driven 75 feet above sea-level, in lat. 43° 20' 38" N., with his army from Alexandria by the British in long. 140° 22' 11" W. July, and defeated by them at Tel-el-Kebir in ARAGO, FRANÇOIS VICTOR EMMANUEL, French September, he was taken prisoner at Cairo, Sep-advocate and Republican politician, eldest son of tember 14th, tried for treason in November (but the great astronomer, born at Paris, June 6, 1812; was afterward allowed to plead guilty to the vague was called to the bar in 1837, and was successful in charge of rebellion), and was sentenced to death many noted causes, usually in the interest of the early in December. By previous arrangement the Radical party. He took an active part in the revsentence was commuted to perpetual exile, and he olution of 1848, but after the coup d'état of Dec. was removed to Ceylon.
2, 1852, he left politics and returned to the pracARACAN, a province and city of Burmah. See tice of his profession. After the disaster at ARAKAN, Vol. II, pp. 305, 306.
Sedan he became an important member of the ARACARI, a genus of birds allied to the Government of National Defense; was elected toucan, found in tropical regions of South America. member of the National Assemblies of 1871, 1876, The plumage is generally green, and often min. 1882 and 1891, and served the republic as amgled with red and yellow. The feathers on the bassador at Bern. Among his literary works are head of the crested-aracari are beautifully curled. a volume of poems (1832), and La Nuit de Noël,
ARACHNOID MATER OR MEMBRANE. See and other vaudevilles (1832—37). He died in ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. 865.
Paris, Nov. 27, 1896 ARAD, a county of southern Hungary, west of ARAGO, ETIENNE VINCENT, French RepubliTransylvania, having an area of 2,490 square miles; can politican and litterateur, brother of the great mountainous in the eastern portion. The inhab-astronomer, born at Perpignan, Eastern Pyrenees, itants are chiefly Rumanian. Population 1881, Feb. 9, 1802; paraded the streets of Paris with 303,964.-OLD ARAD, the capital, on the right the Reds during the “three glorious days" of bank of the Marosch, 150 miles S. E. from Buda- July, 1830; founded the journals La Réforme and pest, a fortified town and an important railway Le Figaro, and was Director-General des Postes center, is the principal cattle market of the king- under Cavaignac in 1848, and the originator of dom, and has large manufactures of tobacco, with cheap postage in France. Being condemned an export trade in grain and wine. Population to transportation on account of having partici1869, 32,700; 1890, 42, 100, including many Jews. pated in the revolution of 1848, he fled the country, -New ARAD, a town on the left bank of the but returned in 1859. He was mayor of Paris Marosch, 4 miles S. E. from Old Arad, and at a during the German war, and became archivist to distance from the river, has a population of 5,600, the École des Beaux Arts in 1878; later, conservalargely German.
tor of the Museum of Luxembourg. He died in ARADUS, the modern Rouad, was a flourishing Paris, March 6, 1892. His best literary works are city of ancient Phænicia, in the times of the Seleu- a five-act comedy, produced in 1847, Les Aristocides, and is, possibly, referred to in Gen. x, 18. craties, in which Republican principles are set It was destroyed in the seventh century by the forth with flashing wit, and Les Bleus et les Blancs, Arabs, under Mohaviah.
an interesting romance of the war in Vendée. ARAFURAS, a name applied to certain wild He was also author or collaborator of a vast and cruel tribes living in the interior of Celebes, number of light dramatic pieces. Molucca, and other islands of that vicinity, who ARAGO, JACQUES ÉTIENNE Victor, French are believed by some to be the aborigines of those traveler and litterateur, born at Estagel, March localities. Others claim that the name has no 10, 1790; died in Brazil, Jan. 1, 1855; was attached racial significance, but simply indicates the social as artist and draughtsman to Freycinet's expedicondition of certain isolated and hostile popula- tion to circumnavigate the globe in 1817–21, in tions which have kept aloof from the Moham- the course of which he was shipwrecked upon the medan Malays. Some of them have even lighter Falkland Islands, and of which he afterward pubskins than the Javanese, while others resemble, in lished an interesting and humorous account;
ARAGONITE-ARAUJO D'AZEVEDO between 1823 and 1837 he led a literary life at on the main shore of San Patricio County opposite Bordeaux, Toulouse and Rouen, being director the inlet, and having a population of about 1,100. of the theater at the latter place, which occupa- The town is on a railroad connecting Rockport, 12 tion he relinquished on account of permanent miles to the N.E., on the bay shore, with San blindness. Between 1825 and 1838 he published Antonio. a dozen witty dramatic pieces, and edited the ARANY, JÁNOS, next to Petöfi the most disephemeral journals Le Kaleidoscope, La Bombe and tinguished of modern Hungarian poets, born at Qui Vive. In 1849 he organized a speculative Nagy-Szalonta, March 7, 1817; died in Budapest, expedition to California which was without satis- Oct. 22, 1882. When the Kisfaludy Society of factory result. His most noted works are Prom- Pesth offered a prize, in 1843, for the best humorenade Autour du Monde, Pendant les Années 1817-20, ous poem, Arany sent in anonymously his humorous sur les Corvettes du Roi, l'Uranie, et la Physicienne, Az elveszett Alkotmany (The Lost Constitution of the Commandées par M. Freycinet, with an atlas of 26 Past). He was successful, and soon became a plates (Paris, 1822), and Souvenirs d'un Aveugle: popular favorite. In 1848 appeared his Murany Voyage Autour du Monde (1820.)
Ostroma (Conquest of Murany), and in 1874 his ARAGONITE. See MINERALOGY, Vol. XVI, Buda Halála received special honor from the p. 398.
Hungarian Academy. ARALIA, a genus of dicotyledonous plants of ARAPAHOE OR ARRAPAHOE, a tribe of the family Araliacere. The leaves are usually the Algonquin family of North American Indians, large and compound, and the small flowers in numbering about 5,000, and now located by the umbel-like clusters. A. quinquefolia is the North United States government partly in Wyoming and American ginseng, not so valuable as the Chinese partly in Oklahoma, but formerly living on the ginseng, which is a member of the same family; plains between the Platte and Arkansas rivers. A. nudicaulis is used in North America as a sub. They were a bold and predatory race, cultivating stitute for sarsaparilla; while A. spinosa is culti- alliance with the Sioux and Cheyennes, but warvated under the name of “Angelica tree,” or ring constantly with the Utes. They were often a “Hercules's club.'
terror to settlers on the frontier. ARALIACEÆ, a family of dicotyledonous ARAPAIMA, a genus of fishes found in the plants found in almost all parts of the world, in rivers of South America, and said to be the larmany respects resembling umbellifers, from which gest fresh-water fish. It reaches a length of 10 to they differ in their ovary, having more than two 12 feet, and a weight of 300 pounds. As a foodcells, and by their more shrubby habit. The fish it is of great economic value. family is most largely represented in warm ARAPILES, a village of Spain, located upon countries. Aside from the species of the typical heights four miles S. E. of Salamanca, the scene of genus, Aralia, (which see,) well-known species are the battle of Salamanca, July 22, 1812, in which Hedera Helix (the common ivy), Panax Schinseng the French, under Marmont, were defeated by (the Chinese ginseng), and Fatsia papyrifera (the Wellington Population, 400. source of the true Chinese rice-paper).
ARASH, a Persian measure of length, equivaARAMÆA (from the Hebrew word'Aram, signi- lent to 38. 27 inches. fying the highland, in opposition to the lowland, ARAUCANIA. The Chilian province of Arauof Canaan) includes the whole of the countryco, or country of the Araucos Indians, lying situated to the northeast of Palestine. Its boun- | between the Andes and the Pacific Ocean, and dries, though not rigorously defined, were as fol-bounded on the north by Concepcion, south lows: North, by Mount Taurus; east, by the by Valdivia, was formed in 1875, and has an Tigris; south, by Arabia; and west, by Arabia, area of 81,000 square miles and a population Phænicia and Lebanon. It embraced the of 100,000. The Araucanians are interesting, countries known to the Greeks by the various as furnishing the only example of Indian selfnames of Syria, Babylonia and Mesopotamia. government in the presence of European races.
ARAMIDÆ, a family of birds completely inter- | They are a fierce and warlike people, and have a mediate between the cranes and rails. There kind of military-aristocratic constitution, without is only one genus (Aramus) which is tropical- any formal laws. From the days of Pizarro American in distribution. They are often known downward, Araucania has uniformly vindicated as limpkins or courlans.
its freedom, its wars of independence having ARANEIDEA, or spider family. See ARACH- lasted, with intervals of precarious truce, from NIDA, Vol. II, pp. 290, 299.
1537 to 1773.
In 1861 a French adventurer, ARANSAS, a bay and river in Texas. The Tonneins by name, was elected king of Arauriver rises in Bee County, in the southwest of the cania as Orélie Antoine I. He was soon at war state, separates Refugio and San Patricio with Chile, but was captured and allowed to go to counties; empties into a large western arm of the France, and after a vain attempt to recover his bay called Copano Bay. Aransas Bay lies behind kingdom, 1869–70, died in France, 1878. St. Joseph's Island, and is a northeasterly exten- ARAUJO D'AZEVEDO, ANTONIO, afterwards sion of Corpus Christi Bay. It is 18 miles long CONDE DE BARCA, Portuguese diplomatist; born and about 8 miles wide. An inlet from the Gulf at Ponte de Lima, May 14, 1754; died at Rio of Mexico at the southern end of the island is Janeiro, June 21, 1817. He was an accomplished called Aransas Pass, a name also given to a town man of letters and science, devoted to efforts for ARAUJO PORTO - ALEGRE-ARBUTUS
the internal improvement of his country. He over his own signature in the article on LABOR founded an Economical Society of Friends of the ORGANIZATIONS; q.v., in these Supplements. See Public of Vol. II, p. Royal Academy of Sciences at Lisbon; joined in a ARBOIS DE JUBAINVILLE, Marie Henri d', project to render the river Lima navigable, and French archivist, member of the Institute, and in another to aid the silk industry by the exten- recipient of the cross of the Legion of Honor; sive planting of mulberry trees, besides introdu- born at Nancy, Dec. 5, 1827; studied, 1848–51, at cing some textile manufactures into Portugal; the École des Chartes, and from 1852 to 1880 was appointed ambassador to the Hague in 1787; in archivist of the department of the Aube, and 1797 he negotiated a treaty with France, which member of the Society of Agriculture, Commerce was afterward annulled, through pique at delay and Belles Lettres, and since 1882 the first inon the part of the Lisbon government in its rati- cumbent of the chair of Celtic language and fication; in 1802 he was named Portuguese minis- literature in the College of France. He was the ter at St. Petersburg, and in 1803 became secre- author of many learned works, among which are tary of state in the cabinet at Lisbon. In 1808, Introduction to the Study of Celtic Literature (1882) after the capture of Lisbon by the French, he and Essay for a Catalogue of Irish Epic Literature, accompanied the king to Brazil, where he estab- etc. (1883).
botanic gardens, a school of chemistry, a ARBOLEDA, JULIO, poet, orator, soldier and printing-press and other civilizing institutions. statesman of New Granada, born at Timbiqui, He became minister of marine and the colonies July 9, 1817; was educated in England, France in 1814, prime minister in 1817, and was created and Italy, and upon returning to New Granada in Count of Barca in 1815. Among his literary 1838 took a course in law and politics at the Uniworks are Portuguese translations of Horace's versity of Cauca. In 1839 he began his public Odes, Gray's Elegy, and Dryden's Saint Cecilia's life as editor of El Patriota, and later of El Day.
Independente; from that time on he took an active ARAUJO PORTO-ALEGRE, MANOEL DE, part in the troubles of his country, always on the Brazilian artist and poet; born in Rio Pardo, conservative side of law and order, and holding Nov. 29, 1806; studied painting and architecture, many high military and political offices. While first at Rio Janeiro, then at Paris, and afterward imprisoned by his enemies in 1851 he wrote two visited Italy. In 1835 he became professor at sublime poems of patriotic inspiration, Estoy en the art school, and afterward drawing teacher in Carcel and Al Congreso Granadino, breathing a ferthe military school at Rio. Was Brazilian con- vor which gained him the title “Giant of the sul-general at Stettin, 1859–66, but resided chiefly Andes.” In 1853 he visited New York, and from at Berlin; wrote Colombo, an unfinished epic poem; 1855 he commanded the army of the constitutional Brazilianas, a series of patriotic lyric poems. He party of New Granada and defeated the revoludied Dec. 30, 1879, in Lisbon.
tionists in a number of engagements. ARAURE, a town of Venezuela, South Ameri- assassinated Nov. 12, 1862, in the pass of Berrueca, situated in lat. 9° 17' N., long. 69° 28' W., 60 cos and his death made possible the success of miles E.N.E. of Trujillo, in a region noted for the revolutionists and the establishment of the its fertility in the production of cotton, coffee, United States of Colombia. cattle, etc. Population, 10,000.
ARBOR DAY. What is known as “Arbor ARBITRATION is the act of determining, by Day" in the United States is a day especially set persons appointed to decide a matter in contro- apart for the planting of trees and shrubs by versy, on a reference made to them for that pur school children and others. In many cases whole pose, either by agreement of the parties in dispute districts have been completely transformed by
, or by the order of a court of law. Though a these efforts, and the interest is yearly increasing. somewhat inconsistent term, Compulsory Arbitra- | In Canada the first Friday in May has been contion is used to define the obligation, created by stituted “Arbor Day” for the whole Dominion, law, to adopt this mode of settlement for certain but in the United States, owing to the wide range disputes, especially those arising between work- of climate and the consequent difference in the men and employers in strikes, lockouts and con- seasons, various days are named in the different troversies on wages. The character of recent states and territories. labor troubles in the United States, and notably ARBOR-VITÆ. See ANATOMY, Vol. I, p. 872. the disturbances at Homestead, Pennsylvania, ARBROATH FLAGS. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, and the railroad strike of 1894, have excited a pp. 343, 344. strong feeling in favor of such law, advocated ARBUTUS, a genus of dicotyledonous plants warmly by Dr. Lyman Abbott and others, though of the family Ericacea. They are evergreen shrubs, its operation would undoubtedly be strewn with and occur in North America and southern Europe. difficulties. Some valuable recommendations and A. Unedo is the “strawberry tree,” with red and a very ample discussion of the whole subject will yellow berries; A. Menziesii is the “madroño" of be found in the Report of the Railroad Strike Com- | the Pacific Slope, while “manzanita” and “bearmission, which, under the able presidency of the berry,” formerly included in this genus, are now Hon. Carroll D. Wright, investigated the causes placed in a closely allied genus, Arctostaphylos. and effects of this greatest of labor troubles. His The “trailing arbutus,” or “Mayflower,” is valuable conclusions on this subject will be found Epigæa repens, another genus of the same family.
ARC (Lat. arcus, a bow), any part of a curved | lished a defense of his course, entitled Memoria de line. The straight line joining the ends of an arc la conducta publica y administrativa de Manoel José is its chord, which is always less than the arc Arcé durante el periodo de su presidenceia. itself. Arcs of circles are similar when they ARCH, JOSEPH, labor reformer, born at Barsubtend equal angles at the centers of their re- ford, Warwickshire, England, Nov. 10, 1826; was spective circles; and if similar arcs belong to originally a farm-laborer. He educated himself equal circles, the arcs themselves are equal. by laborious night study, and became a primitive
ARCA, or ARK-SHELL, a genus of bivalve | Methodist preacher. In 1872 he “began the shells and lamellibranch mollusks, the type of the emancipation of the rural laborers of England, family called Arcidæ. In the true Arca the hinge is by founding the National Agricultural Laborers' straight, and occupies what at first seems the Union, of which he became president, and in whole length of the shell, but is in reality its whose interest he visited Canada. In 1885, and whole breadth, the breadth being greater than again in 1892, he was elected to represent the the length.
northwest division of Norfolk in the English ParARCACHON, a bathing-place which has grown liament. His career is related by E. G. Heath, in into importance since 1854, situated on the south The English Peasantry (1874).
, side of the Bassin d'Arcachon, 34 miles S.W. ARCHÆAN PERIOD. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, of Bordeaux. It has fine broad sands, and the pp. 327, 328. place is sheltered by sand-hills, covered with ARCHÆOLOGY, “the science which deduces extensive pine woods, in which game abounds. the history of man from the relics of the past." Arcachon is much frequented in winter by persons See article in Vol. II, pp. 333-368, treating of with weak lungs. Scientific oyster-culture is prac- prehistoric and classical archæology. The forticed here on a large scale. Population, 7,087. mer of these divisions reaches down to the era of
ARCADIUS, first emperor of the East (395authentic history, while the latter investigates the 403, A. D.); born in Spain, A.D. 373; died A.D. 403. results of artistic activity among the Greeks and His dominion extended from the Adriatic Sea to Romans. It remains to give some account of the river Tigris, and from Scythia to Ethiopia. the archæological researches in progress at the Afterward Eudoxia, the wife of the emperor, present time. assumed the supremacy. One really great man In the United States much attention is being adorned this period, Chrysostom, who was perse- given by universities, learned societies and indicuted by Eudoxia.
viduals to the remains of the prehistoric races of ARCANI DISCIPLINA, a doctrinal term, first America, -notably to the structures of the moundused late in the sixteenth century, and meaning builders, the strange pueblos in Arizona and New “instruction in the mystery.” It denotes a practice Mexico, the customs and relics of the Zuñi of the early Church in the third, fourth, and fifth Indians, and the ruined temples of Old Mexico centuries, by which the privilege of being present at, and Yucatan. Liberal contributions of money or of receiving instruction concerning, the sacra- and personal effort have, at the same time, been ments of baptism and the eucharist (and also the given to the several funds and societies engaged rites of confirmation, etc.) was withheld from all in the archæological explorations of Greece, persons, whether catechumens or unbelievers, who Egypt, Palestine and Mesopotamia, not only in had not been admitted to full membership. The the United States, but also in Great Britain, practice is said to have been founded on the France, Germany and other nations. words of our Saviour,
“Give not that which is Researches in the department of classical arholy unto the dogs": Matt. vii, 6; and in the chæology prosecuted in Greece by the American spirit of the texts, 1 Cor. iii, 12, and Heb. v, 12-14. School of Classical Studies at Athens have re
ARCANUM. In the middle ages, the Latin sulted in the discovery, at Argos, near Mycenæ, word arcanum (“secret'') was used of any of the of the substructure of the Heræum, or Temple of most valued preparations of alchemy, but the Juno, from which, in connection with fragments title was especially applied, as above, to the high- of other portions of the building, a satisfactory est problems of the science—the discovery of such idea of its construction and architectural features supposed great secrets of nature as the grand may be obtained; and at Argos a marble buildelixir.
ing has been found which is believed to have been ARCANUM, a village of Darke County, west- the gymnasium. The British School at Athens central Ohio; situated at the crossing of the has recently made excavations at Abæ, in Phocis, “Big Four” and Dayton and Union railroads, but without important results. The work of the and in the midst of a fertile tobacco region. Pop- French School at Delphi has disclosed a building ulation 1890, 1, 134.
called the "treasury of the Athenians," which, it is ARCÉ, MANOEL José, a Central American sol- believed, was erected to commemorate the battle dier and statesman, first conspicuous in the rebel- of Marathon, and which bears on its inner wall an lion of 1811; became, in August, 1825, after the interesting inscription of a hymn, with the music organization of the United States of Central noted over the words. The German school, by America, the first constitutional president of that the labors of Dr. Dörpfel, has made discoveries republic. His administration was short and tur- at Athens which modify current ideas of the geogbulent, and he abandoned the office without for- raphy of that city. At Corinth labor has been mal resignation, Feb. 14, 1828. n 1830 he pub- rewarded by the discovery of a house of the Hel