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faithful service." He died in Washington, District ABIES. See Fir, Vol. IX, p. 222. of Columbia, Sept. 27, 1863.
ABIGAIL, the wife of Nabal, the rich churl of ABERYSTWYTH. The University College of Carmel, and after his death the wife of David, king Wales has been established at Aberystwyth as one of of Israel. When David marched against Nabal she the colleges composing the University of Wales. met him with a present, and calling herself “his Previously, and for many years, maintained by vol.handmaid” (1 Sam. xxv. 3), she, while averting Nauntary donations, it has since 1886 been in receipt bal's punishment, was the cause of her name being of an annual government grant of twenty thousand used as a modern synonym for a serving or waiting dollars. In addition to the ordinary courses in art
Another notable instance of the name in a and science, the college possesses a department of similar character is in Beaumont and Fletcher's play agriculture and a normal department. Co-educa- of The Scornful Lady. The mother of Amasa and tion exists, 145 of the 350 students in 1895 being sister of David also bore this name. Abigail Hill women. See ABERYSTWYTH, Vol. I, p. 48.
(or Abigail Earwig, as her enemies called her) was ABEYANCE, in law, is the condition of property, the waiting-woman who supplanted Sarah Jennings, real or personal, when no person exists in whom the the first Duchess of Marlborough, in the favor of title is vested. The law requires that a freehold shall Anne, queen of England, and in so doing gave a never be in abeyance if it can be prevented, and will further lease of life to the use of this synonym. adopt almost any pretext to vest the title in some ABILENE, a tetrarchy and district of Syria, in existing person to prevent its remaining in abeyance. the political geography of the ancients. It was sitIt is asserted by some that there is no such thing as uate to the eastward of Antilibanus. an estate in abeyance. Titles of honor and of dig- ABILENE, the county seat of Dickinson County, nity are in abeyance when it is uncertain who shall Kansas, on Smoky Hill River, about 85 miles W. enjoy them. The title to personal property may of Topeka. It was formerly an important shipping also be in abeyance, as in replevin suits, where the center for cattle. It is a railroad center for the ownership of property is in dispute, and the prop- Santa Fé, Rock Island, and Union Pacific railroads. erty itself is in the custody of the law pending its de- Population 1895, 3,400. livery to the successful claimant. In such case the ABILENE, capital of Taylor County, Texas, about title is said to be in abeyance until the determina- 200 miles to the N.W. of Austin. Population 1890, tion of the suit.
3,194. ABGILLUS, John, son of a Frisian king, was
ABINGDON, a town of Knox County, in the converted to Christianity and accompanied the em- northwest portion of Illinois, at the intersection of peror Charlemagne on some of his expeditions. His the Galesburg division of the Chicago, Burlington ascetic life gained for him the appellation of prester and Quincy and Iowa Central railroads. Abingdon or priest, thus occasionally causing him to be con- is 85 miles N.E. of Quincy and 10 miles S. of Galesfounded with the Mongolian Prester John of the burg. It is the seat of Abingdon Normal and Hedeleventh century.
ding colleges, and is in the midst of a fertile agriABHORRERS AND PETITIONERS, the cultural district. Population 1896, 2,000. names given to two political factions in the reign of ABINGDON, an historical town of Virginia, Charles II, king of England (1679-80). In some
In some county seat of the first county named in honor of principles they were the germs of the present Whigs Washington, is agreeably situated near Walker's and Tories. The origin of the factions was when Mountain, in the extreme southwest part of the state. Lord Shaftesbury procured, by intrigue, a host of pe. There are stations of the Norfolk and Western and titions from the rural districts, asking the king and Virginia Western railways here. It is the seat of a Parliament to set aside, not only the succession of Roman Catholic academy and convent, the library James, the brother of the king, but also his daugh of the Maury Literary Society, Stonewall Jackson ter, Mary, who was a Protestant, and married to Institute, Abingdon Male Academy, and Martha William, Prince of Orange, and to fix the succession Washington College for Girls. Deposits of gypsum, on the Duke of Monmouth, one of the king's ille salt and iron ore are found here. During the Civil gitimate children. A strong party objected to this War Abingdon furnished quantities of salt to the injustice, and obtained numerous counter-petitions, Confederacy. Population 1895, about 1,700. declaring the signers' “abhorrence” of Shaftesbury's ABINGER, SIR JAMES SCARLETT, BARON, a disscheme.
tinguished English jurist, was born in Jamaica in ABIATHAR. See Israel, Vol. XIII, p. 404. 1769. He was attorney-general in 1827 and 1829,
ABIB, the Jewish month Nisan. See CALENDAR, and in 1834 he was appointed chief baron of the Vol. IV, p. 678.
court of exchequer. He died at Bury St. Edmunds, ABICH, WILHELM HERMANN, a German geolo- | April 7, 1844. gist and traveler, was born in Berlin, Dec. 11, 1806. ABINGTON, a town in Plymouth County, MassaHe studied natural science at Berlin, became pro- chusetts, distant about 20 miles S.E. of Boston, fessor at Dorpat in 1842, fellow of the St. Peters- on the Plymouth branch of the Old Colony railburg Academy in 1853, and after 1877 lived at road. The principal industries are the manufacture Vienna. He explored the Caucasus region, the Ar- of machinery and boots and shoes. Population menian highlands and northern Persia, and his pub-1895, 4,207. lished works are invaluable geological and miner- ABLAUT, a German technical term in scientific alogical memoirs on these countries. He died at grammar, best rendered into English by the expresGraz, July 2, 1886.
sion, vowel gradation, such as takes place in the verb
sing, sang, sung. A kindred expression, umlaut, or l justice of his own ideal republic. The fiery and mutation, is used to denote the changes of the impassioned utterances of the Abolitionist school vowel in the formation of the plural of a word; soon began to bear fruit. Stung to the quick, the as in cow, kine; louse, lice, and similar words. Southern slaveholder, and the Southwestern sympa
ABNAKIS, an Indian family. See ABENAKis, in thizer with slavery, or anything to antagonize the these Supplements.
North, soon began the series of outrages on AboABNEY, WILLIAM DE WIVELESLIE, an English litionists, destined to turn the flood of sympathy in soldier and scientist, born at Derby in 1843. Enter- favor of the negro's freedom. The murder of Loveing the royal engineer corps, he rose to the rank joy, the protomartyr of the cause, at Alton, in 1839, of captain, and was for some time instructor in the savage penalties inflicted on escaping slaves, or chemistry to the Royal Engineers at Chatham. those who aided their efforts, culminated, as a natCaptain Abney was one of the scientific observers ural sequence, in the election of the champion of of the transit of Venus in 1874. He wrote Pho- the Republican party, Abraham Lincoln. Then the TOGRAPHY, Vol. XVIII, pp. 821-40, in this Ency- question of the future of slavery had to be referred CLOPÆDIA.
to the arbitrament of the God of battles, in case of ÅBO, Treaty of Peace of, a treaty signed at any opposition to the freely expressed intention of Åbo, Aug. 17, 1743, between Russia and Sweden. secession. With the first shot against Sumter the By its terms Russia obtained the southern portion fanatic of the Free-Soil movement, John Brown, beof Finland as far as the river Kymen, and secured came the martyr of freedom's cause, and his name the election of an ally as prince royal of Sweden. the battle-cry that rang from Manassas to AppoÅBO-BJÖRNEBORG, a län or province of Rus
mattox. Lincoln issued his famous proclamation of sian Finland, containing some 9,335 square miles, Sept. 22, 1862, as a warning to the Southern states
in rebellion, and on Jan. 1, 1863, in its operation and situate on the Gulf of Bothnia. The chief town
it removed the bonds from every slave. As a matof the province is Åbo. Population of the province ter of interest, one may draw the comparison, that, 1895, 399,534. See Russia, Vol. XXI, p. 69. while the British could effect the peaceful eman
ABOLITIONIST. While popularly and prima- cipation of 770,280 slaves in the West Indies at a
ABOU-GIRGEH, a village on the west bank of
the Nile, about 100 miles S. of Cairo, inhabited
by fellahs, who are engaged in agriculture. Popuman, were apologists of slaveholding. While this
lation in 1896, about 3,000. anomaly of a semi-political party, which nominated no candidate for office, and yet was sufficiently power
ABOUSAMBUL, same as Abu-SIMBEL. See Vol. ful to influence elections, is unquestionably attribut- | I, p. 61; also ArchiTECTURE, Vol. II, p. 388. able to the agitation started by William Lloyd Gar- ABOUT, EDMOND FRANÇOIS VALENTIN, a French rison in 1829, seconded as it was so ably by the sil- novelist, journalist and playwright; born at Dieuze, very eloquence of Wendell Phillips, and supported Feb. 14, 1828; educated in Paris. He spent two by a rapidly growing New England party, the term years at Athens, returning to Paris in 1853 to comsoon became an opprobrious epithet, in the mouth of mence a journalistic career. His first literary vena Southerner, wherewith to stigmatize the entire ture was a satire on the customs and domestic manNorthern population who differed from him in re- ners of the modern Greeks, which owed much of its gard to politics, and, above all, in relation to the domestic popularity to the annoyance it caused the burning question of the future of the slavery ques- subjects of his witticisms. His first novel, Tolla tion. Even in the ranks of the Abolitionists them- Feraldi, was published in the pages of the Revue des selves were differences and divisions. One section Deux Mondes. Les Mariages de Paris was first pubtimorously, and a trifle tentatively, contented them- lished in the columns of the Moniteur du Soir. Other selves with a mild and general denunciation of sla- books followed rapidly. In 1868, About was decovery as an abstract question. The extreme wing and rated with the cross of the Legion of Honor, posthe more powerful portion of the Abolitionist party, sibly as a reward for his inspired Question Romaine under the impassioned eloquence of Wendell Phil (1860). He acted as war correspondent for Le Soir lips, hesitated not to denounce even the constitution
in the Franco-Prussian war. About's many novels itself as the bulwark of slavery. In point of fact and short stories are characterized by a droll fanthere never was a time when the entirety of America tastic humor, and evince considerable ingenuity in had acquiesced in slavery. The Quakers had long serio-comical plots and situations. In 1884 he was been its unalterable opponents, and the virulence of elected a member of the French Academy, but died the struggle increased when the anti-slavery agitator before taking his seat, Jan. 17, 1885. could point to the English colonies as an evidence ABOVILLE, FRANÇOIS MARIE, COMTE D', a
а of the benefits accruing from the emancipation of French soldier, who rendered service to America in the African slave, and in so doing could, and did, the war of the Revolution. Born at Brest, in 1730, cast a reflection on the tardiness and anomalous in- his early history is obscure. He came to the aid of
ABRAHAM - ABSORPTION
the colonists with Rochambeau, and was director of ABSCOND. To abscond is to depart clandesthe artillery at the siege of Yorktown. Returning tinely from one's usual place of residence, or to lie to France at the close of the Revolution, he became, concealed, with the intent to avoid legal process. governor of Brest in 1807. He was an adherent of An absconding debtor is one who departs from the the Bourbons, and was created a peer of France. He state or from his usual abode, or who secretes or died Nov. 1, 1819.
conceals himself, with the intent to hinder and deABRAHAM, Plains OR HEIGHTS OF, an elevated lay or defraud his creditors. The statutes of the plateau immediately to the southwest of the city of various states usually define who shall be treated as Quebec, Canada, above the river St. Lawrence. It absconding debtors, but generally it is not necessary was the scene, Sept. 13, 1759, of a decisive battle that the debtor should depart from the state, but it between the forces of the English and colonial is essential only that there be a concealment beyond troops, under General James Wolfe (q. V., Vol. the reach of the process of the court, with the intent XXIV, p. 630), and the French and Indians under to delay or defraud creditors. the Marquis de Montcalm. Wolfe, thrice wounded, ABSECON OR ABSECOM, the name of a bay, an died in the moment of victory, his opponent, mor- inlet and a village on the coast of New Jersey, tally injured on the field, expiring in the city of northeast of Atlantic City. Here is a lighthouse for Quebec. The result of the battle was the fall of the the protection of the numerous vessels making the city, and, ultimately, the loss to the French of the port of New York from the southward. The inwhole of Canada.
habitants of the village are mostly fishermen. ABRAHAMITES, a small sect of Bohemian Population 1895, 522. deists whose most noticeable peculiarity was that ABSENTEE, a term applied, by way of reproach, they rejected all the doctrines of the church, profess- to landlords deriving their income in rent from esing to follow the religion of the patriarch Abraham tates in one country, but residing and expending before his circumcision. They obtained a short- the income in another. It was first, and is still in lived prominence near Pardubitz, whence they were the main, used in relation to the Irish landlords, for expelled in 1783. The term is also used of a branch whom the capitals of Europe have long held attracof the Paulicians, of whom Abraham of Antioch was tions superior to those of their own country. The the leader.
objection to absenteeism is far from a fanciful ABRAHAM-MEN. At first this term only referred grievance. Its tendency and result is to place to a lunatic mendicant from Bethlehem Hospital, in agents and bailiffs in the place of the landlord, with London. Here the wards were named in honor of interests inimical to those of the tenant. The needs various saints and patriarchs. The inmates of the of a tenant receive but slight attention at the hands Abraham ward were allowed liberty on certain days, of a bailiff, whose main object is the remittance of and used the opportunity to beg for themselves and as much rent as possible to the absentee landlord. fellows. Their badges and the name of the ward | The question of absenteeism has become one of soon obtained for them a familiar name, which, as moment in the United States, where tracts of lands, success begat imitation, was applied to every sturdy in some cases larger than whole European principalivagrant who suffered from or simulated insanity. ties, have been purchased by alien capitalists. Sev
ABRAHAMSON, WERNER, Danish poet and eral of the states have found it advisable to regulate critic. See DENMARK, Vol. VII, p. 91.
alien ownership by legislation. See also IRELAND, ABRANTES, Duc D'. See Junot, Vol. XIII, Vol. XIII, p. 229. P. 779. GMEI
ABSOLUTISM, a form of government in which ABRIDGMENT. See COPYRIGHT, Vol. VI, p. the executive power is not controlled or limited by 361.
any constitutional restrictions. On the downfall of ABROLHOS (Port. Open your eyes), a group of the feudal system in Europe the golden era of absmall islets off the coast of Western Australia, about solutism ensued. Based on the subordination of 100 miles N. of Perth, and between 28° and 29° S. the church and nobility, and supported by large lat. They are separated from the inainland by the revenues and a numerous standing army, the ruler Ceelvink Channel.
argued on the assumption of divine right much in ABROLHOS ROCKS, a cluster of reefs and the strain of Louis XIV's L'état, c'est moi (I am the low, rock-bound islets in the South Atlantic Ocean, state), for Louis was the representative absolute off the coast of Brazil, and immediately east of inonarch. Caravellas. They are situated about 710 miles north ABSOROKAS. See Crow INDIANS, in these of Rio de Janeiro, in lat. 17° 58' S., long. 38° 42' W. Supplements.
ABRUZZI E MOLISE, Italian province. See ABSORPTION, in plants, depends upon the acAbruzzo, Vol. I, p. 56; also Molise, Vol. XVI, p.tivity of their protoplasm and is a fundamental 631.
It chiefly concerns the absorpABRUS, a genus of the family Leguminosa, a tion of water and other substances from without, native of India, but now found in all tropical coun- but cells also absorb from each other. The food of tries. The root is often used as a substitute for plants is always absorbed in fluid form, either as a licorice. The round, parti-colored (scarlet and liquid or a gas. The liquid food is water containblack) seeds are used as beads for necklaces, rosa- ing various substances in solution, and the absorbries, etc., and as a remedy for certain•diseases. ing organ is usually the root. The gaseous food is
ABSCISSA. See Conic SECTIONS, Vol. VI, p. mostly carbon dioxid and is absorbed from the air 275.
by all green parts of the plant, but chiefly by the
leaves acting as organs of gas absorption. Sub- or “mallows." About seventy species of mostly merged water-plants, parasites, air-plants, insec- shrubby plants, found in all warm regions. Some tivorous plants, all have the work of absorption of them are showy and frequent in cultivation. A.
. somewhat modified by their sources of food. avicenna, a native of India, is a common weed in
ABSORPTION. See ELECTRICITY, in these Sup- the United States, and is popularly known as “velvetplements.
leaf.” ABSTINENCE, ECCLESIASTICAL. See FAST- ABUTMENT. See ARCH, Vol. II, p. 330; BRIDGES, ING, Vol. IX, p. 44.
Vol. IV, p. 324. ABSTINENCE, TOTAL, AND ABSTINENCE ABYDOS, Hellespontine, a town in Mysia, Asia SOCIETIES. See TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES, Vol. Minor, famous as the location of the Bridge of XerXXIII, pp. 158–60.
xes, and noted in the legend of HERO AND LEANABSTINENTS, a sect of the Manichæans who DER, as to which see Vol. XI, p. 754. were prominent in Spain and France in the third ABYLA AND CALPE, the two opposing and century. See MANICHÆISM, Vol. XV, p. 481-7. rocky headlands of the Straits of Gibraltar, termed
ABSTRACT OF TITLE, a brief summary, gen- in ancient geography “The Pillars of Hercules,” beerally in chronological order, of the various deeds, yond which all was mystery and unknown. Abyla wills, legal proceedings and other matters of public corresponds with the modern Jebel Musa or Apes' record constituting the history of the title to or in- Hill, in Africa, while Calpe is, of course, the Rock of terest in real estate. An abstract should show the Gibraltar. material portion of all transfers of title, as well as all ABYSMAL ACCUMULATIONS. See FORAMIencumbrances and liens, from the time of the issu- NIFERA, Vol. IX, pp. 382–85. ance of the patent from the government or other ABYSSINIA. For early history and general deoriginal source of title, so that one familiar with the scription of the country, see ABYSSINIA, Vol. I, pp. laws concerning real estate may be able from its ex- 61-67. The chronological record there given ends amination to determine accurately the condition of with the accession of Prince Kassai under the title of the title.
Negus Johannes II, in 1872. One of the Negus's In the United States, where conveyancing is much first acts was to embark on a war with Egypt. In less involved and complicated than in England, and two battles the Abyssinians carried all before them. where offices for the recording of deeds are univer- At Kherad Iska the Egyptian troops were massacred, sal, and the recording laws such that it is exceed- while their valor at Gonda Gouddi (Oct. 16, 1875) ingly unsafe to neglect the placing of all convey- did not avail to save them from a severe defeat. Then ances upon record, abstracts are much more simple internecine troubles broke out, and Menelek, king and inexpensive than in England. See CONVEYAN- of Shoa, was involved in warfare with Abyssinia's CING, in these Supplements.
ruler. Johannes was killed in battle March 9, 1889, ABT, FRANZ, a noted German musician and song- and was succeeded by his old-time opponent, Menewriter; born at Eilenburg, in Prussian Saxony, Dec. lek, who, as all his ancestors did, claims direct lineal 22, 1819. He was intended and educated for the descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. church. While studying at the University of Leip. Then Italy came into the theater of operations, and
, sic, he became, through his father's death, the sole under the following circumstances: When England, support of his mother. To do this he obtained work in directing the policy of Egypt, decided against the as a teacher, slowly pursuing meanwhile his studies retention of the Upper Nile provinces, which had in music. Soon after the publication of his first been Egyptian only in name, she was prepared to musical compositions, in 1838, Abt was appointed abandon any claim to the Red Sea coast so long as conductor of the Leipsic Philharmonic Society; sub- she retained the useful coaling-station of Suakim. sequently holding similar positions in other German For centuries the lower part of the Red Sea littoral towns. His most famous song, When the Swallows has been claimed by Abyssinia, and a port was Homeward Fly, was first published in Stuttgart. guaranteed to her by the treaty negotiated by Admiral Thenceforth his fame was assured. Abt visited the Hewett, in May, 1884. Egypt had also claimed this United States in 1872, conducting many concerts in coast strip, now usually called Erythrea, and it was the principal cities of the Union. His published here that the Italians essayed to enter on a campaign works are numerous, his songs being characterized of acquisition in Africa. In 1885 Italian troops ocby a remarkable gift of melody. Hardly a German cupied the port of Massowah, and soon began to exor American singing society exists where his songs tend their operations inland, until the sturdy highhave not been sung and admired. He died in Wies- landers of Abyssinia swept their troops back to the baden, April 3, 1885.
By the treaty of Uccialli, signed May 2, ABUKIR. See ABOUKIR, Vol. I, p. 52.
1889, Italy claimed a protectorate over the whole of ABULCASIS OR ABULKASIS. See MEDICINE, Abyssinia, and began to extend her sphere of influVol. XV, p. 805; SURGERY, Vol. XXII, p. 675.
The Abyssinians denied the right of Italy to ABU-KLEA, a group of wells in the Nubian control their foreign relations, and made all preparadesert, in the bend of the Nile, between Korti and tions to defend their soil from the cupidity of the Shendy, north of Khartoum. The place was the invader. Underestimating the strength of the native scene of a battle on Jan. 17, 1885, in which the Brit- troops, Italy landed 25,000 men under Generals Balish troops under Sir Herbert Stewart defeated the dissera and Baratieri. The advance had penetrated Mahdi's forces.
as far as Adowa, where General Baratieri, at the head ABUTILON, a genus of the family Malvacea, of 15,000 men, awaited the arrival of his superior
with reinforcements. On Sunday, March 1, 1896, 5,000; Antalo, former capital of Tigré, 1,000; the Abyssinians attacked the Italian troops, and Ankober, former capital of Shoa, 7,000; Licheh, after severe fighting succeeded in putting the entire present capital of Shoa, 3,000; Debra-Tabor, Magforce to fight. The invader's loss was over 3,000 dala, and Makallé, occasional royal residences; men, including a number of officers. Nothing seemed Besso and Sokoto, 1,500, important trading-centers; to interpose between the Abyssinians and a triumph- Amba-Mariam, 4,000; Mahdera-Mariam, 4,000. ant march to the sea except the panic-stricken and ACACIANS, a sect of the Arians (q. V., Vol. II, scanty garrisons of a few fortified posts. In Italy pp. 537, 538), named after Acacius, bishop of Cæsarioting and a change of the ministry were the natural rea, who flourished from 340–365 A.D. The princiconsequences of the horror excited by the news of pal item of belief in which they differed from the defeat. Reinforcements were hurried to the aid of Arians and Semi-Arians was that they held that the beleaguered garrisons. In view of the uneasiness Christ was like the Father, but not of the same in the Soudan, it was feared that Menelek and the substance. The heresy of the Acacians was conMahdi would move in conjunction against Egypt, demned in two councils of the early Church—at and Moslem and Christian thus combine in a holy Sardica in 346, and at the Council of Seleucia in war against the English occupation. To counteract 359. this and keep the Mahdi's savage hordes occupied, ACADEMY, THE FRENCH, an association of it was decided that the troops of the Khedive, sup- French men of letters, having its origin in Paris, in ported by British soldiery as soon as the cool season 1629, in the informal meeting weekly of a few men set in, should occupy Dongola and slowly advance of letters for the purpose of improving the French toward Khartum. The English advance was sup- language and regulating literary taste. It was formplemented by Indian soldiery drawn from the East ally established by Cardinal Richelieu on Jan. 2, 1635. Indian forces, and inured to the heat of an African It now consists of 40 members, familiarly known as desert campaign. The Italian complication was the Forty Immortals. Its officers include a director ended in the autumn of 1896 by a new treaty under and a chancellor selected by lot, and a permanent which Italy withdrew her claim to a protectorate secretary elected by vote. The Academy meets twice over Abyssinian states. The subjoined table gives weekly, at the Palais Mazarin, 23 Quai Conti, Paris. an estimate of the extent and population of the The present immortals are as follows (three seats, bepolitical divisions of Abyssinia.
ing those made vacant by the death of Alexander
Dumas, fils, Jean Baptiste Leon Say and Jules Fran
Popu- çois Simon, being at present unoccupied):
Ernest Wilfred Gabriel Baptiste Legouvé. Shoa
26,000 1,500,000 Jacques Victor Albe, Duc de Broglie. Territory of the Bogos, Mensas, Beni
28,000 Amer, etc.
Emile Ollivier. Territory of the Afars and Adals
Henri Eugène Orléans, Duc d'Aumale. (Danakil)--
200,000 Alfred Jean François Mézières. Territory of the Issa and other de
Marie Louis Antoine Gaston Boissier. pendent Somali tribes.
Victorien Sardou. Galla and Kaffa lands--
Edmund Armand, Duc d'Audiffret-Pasquier. Total...
244,000 7,360,000 Aimé Joseph Edmund Rousse.
René François Armand Sully-Prudhomme.
Charles Victor Cherbuliez. Besides the chiefs and their retainers summoned Adolphe Louis Albert Perraud. in time of war, the king maintains a permanent Édouard Jules Henri Pailleron. army of Wottoader, or “mercenaries,” most of whom Francis Edouard Joachim Coppée. are now armed with rifles instead of the national
Joseph Louis François Bertrand. weapons, shield and lance.
Ludovic Halévy. There is comparatively little land under tillage, Aimé Marie Edouard Hervé. pasturage being the chief pursuit of the people, who Vallery Clément Octave Gréard. raise large herds of cattle, as well as sheep and Othénin P. de Cléron, Comte d'Haussonville. goats. Wild indigo, coffee, cotton, the sugar-cane, Jules Arnaud Arsène Claretie. date-palm, and vine thrive well in many districts, Henri Meilhac. but are nowhere extensively cultivated. The forests Eugène Marie Melchior, Vicomte de Vogué. abound in valuable trees. The chief exports are Charles Louis de Saulces de Freycinet. skins, ivory, butter, gums, mules, forwarded mainly Louis Marie Julien Viaud (Pierre Loti). through Massowah, the exchanges of which port Ernest Lavisse. rose from $200,000 in 1861 to $1,400,000 in 1881. Paul Challemel-Lacour. (died Oct. 26, 1896). Besides Maria Theresa pieces, bales of cloth and Vicomte Henri de Bornier. salt are still used as currency. Towns are numer- Paul Louis Thureau-Dangin. ous, but are all of small size, scarcely any with a Marie Ferdinand Brunetière. population of over 5,000. The most important, Albert Sorel. politically and commercially, are: Gondar, capital José Maria de Heredia. of Amhara, 5,000; Adua, capital of Tigré, 3,000; Paul Bourget. Aksum, ancient capital of the Ethiopian empire, Henry Houssaye.