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ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE-ACANTHURUS
ENCES was incorporated at New Haven in 1799. At Anatole France.
first only devoted to matters connected with the Costa de Beauregard.
state of Connecticut, it now embraces the entire Gaston Bruno Paulin Paris.
field of science and art. One of the first duties of the newly elected acad- The New YORK ACADEMY OF SCIENCES was incoremician is to deliver, before the Academy, a eulogy porated in 1817 under the name of The LYCEUM OF on the academician to whose seat he succeeds. The NATURAL HISTORY, assuming its present title in Academy is the highest authority on all pertaining to 1876. The annuals issued by this academy since the French language, grammar, rhetoric, or poetry, 1823 have been valuable contributions to the scienand a chair in its classic precincts is the supreme tific literature of the country. ambition of every literary Frenchman. See ACAD- Baltimore has the Maryland Academy of Science EMY, Vol. I, p. 74-5.
and Literatare, founded in 1837 ; Cleveland, the ACADEMIES OF SCIENCE. American learned | Academy of Natural Science, founded in 1852 ; Insocieties bearing names other than that of “Acad. dianapolis, the Academy of Science; Madison, the Wisemy” will be found at SOCIETIES, Vol. XXII, pp. consin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, founded 222-228.
in 1870; Minneapolis, the Minnesota Academy of The AMERICAN ACADEMY OF MEDICINE is com- Natural Science, founded in 1873; New Orleans, the posed of fellows and honorary meinbers, the former Academy of Science, founded in 1853; Rochester, the consisting of physicians possessing an A.B. degree Academy of Natural Science, founded in 1881 ; Tofrom a respectable college, or giving evidence of peka, the Kansas Academy of Science, founded in training equivalent thereto. Honorary members 1867. shall not exceed 5 to each 100 fellows, the qualifica- Academies of science were founded in the followtion being the contribution of important matter to ing named cities at the dates given : San Francisco, medical science, in addition to standing in the pro- 1853 ; St. Louis, 1856, incorporated 1857; Chicago, fession. The objects of the Academy are to asso- 1857, incorporated 1865; Davenport, 1867. ciate physicians who are alumni of academic or The term academy is also applied to those colscientific colleges; to encourage persons intending legiate seminaries in which young men are educated to become physicians to pursue a course of study for the army and navy. In the United States there leading to a bachelor degree ; to investigate and dis- are two of these institutions under governmental concuss the various problems of medical sociology. trol — the Military Academy, located at West Point, An official paper, the Bulletin, is published by the New York (see Army, Vol. II, p. 619), and the Naval
. Academy. The membership in 1896 consisted of 18 Academy, at Annapolis, Maryland (see Navy, Vol. honorary members and 628 fellows.
XVII, p. 301). The NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES is an organ- ACAJUTLA, a seaport town of the republic of ization the object of which is to make the knowledge Salvador, Central America. It lies on the Pacific of specialists available for the service of the govern- Ocean, about 40 miles west of San Salvador, the capment. The membership is composed of two classes, ital city. It was once a large and important town, those in mathematics and physics and those in and during the Spanish control the only port of the natural history. Incorporation, by act of Congress, state. It is still the second in importance in Salvatook place March 3, 1863. When called upon by any dor, and a considerable export trade in Peruvian bal
, department of the government the expense of the in- sam is carried on. But the town is extremely dilapivestigations, experiments, examinations and reports dated. Aside from the rude huts of the workmen, are paid for from special appropriation. The mem- there exist only the custom-house, the residence of bership in 1896 was 113, composed of 88 ordinary the officer of the port, and a large, ancient waremembers, i honorary member and 24 foreign asso- house. ciates.
ACANTHACEÆ, a large family of gamopetalous The AMERICAN ACADEMY OF POLITICAL AND SO- plants; many of which, as the Thunbergia, the CIAL SCIENCE was formed in 1889 for the purpose of Justicia and the Aphelandra, are held in high esteem promoting the political and social sciences. Its growth for the beauty of their flowers. They are known by was rapid, the membership in 1896 being 2,500, in their opposite leaves, irregular corollas, two or four cluding residents of every state, as well as 34 foreign stamens, and two-celled pods, in which the seeds are countries. Annual meetings are held in January, the borne on hooklike projections. yearly fee is $5, and life membership $100.
ACANTHASPIS, fossil fishes found in the limeThe AMERICAN ACADEMY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES, stone of Ohio. They are buckler-headed, and someof Boston, is second in point of date among the what resemble Cephalaspis. learned societies of the United States. It was in- ACANTHOPHIS, a small, venomous serpent corporated in 1780, with the object of furthering the characterized by a horny spine at end of the study of the antiquities and natural history of the tail. The death-adder of Australia is a well-known country.
species of this genus. The Academy of Natural Sciences, of Phila- | ACANTHURIDÆ, a family of fishes which are delphia, has one of the largest natural history mu- commonly known as lancet-fishes or surgeon-fishes.
seums in the world, especially rich in conchology, They are characterized by the presence of sharp and a natural history library of 35,000 volumes. It spines on the side of the tail. The name signifies was founded in 1812, and was incorporated in 1817. thorn-tailed.
The CONNECTICUT ACADEMY OF ARTS AND Sci- ACANTHURUS popularly known as the Surgeon,
Doctor or Barber, is a tropical sea-fish of the Acanth- of sale. Under a provision in the English statute of uridæ.
frauds (a provision which has been adopted in most A CAPPELLA, a term used, in music, to sig- of the states of this country) the acceptance must nify church or chapel style of music. Modern be accompanied by delivery of some part of the musicians use the expression more usually to signify goods to create a binding oral contract for the sale a vocal composition sung without accompaniment, of goods. Acceptance of the rent due, or a part as was customary with the musical compositions of thereof, destroys the effect of a notice to vacate the primitive church. When an accompaniment is premises for default in payınent of rent, and is often used, the use of the expression signifies that the in- a waiver of the right to forfeit a lease for other struments are intended to play in unison with the causes. For discussion of acceptance of commercial voices.
paper, see Vol. I, p. 82. ACARIDÆ OR MITES, a group of minute ani- ACCEPTANTS OR CONSTITUTIONISTS, the mals belonging to the family Acarida, which is name applied to the Jesuits of France who in 1713 the lowest order of arachnids. The itch - mites accepted the bull Unigenitus, issued by Pope Cle(Sarcoptes) and the mites living in cheese and flour ment XI. As opposed to them, the Jansenists, Api Tyroglyphus) are typical representatives of the pellants or Recusants rejected the bull and appealed group.
to a general council. ACARUS. On grounds of priority, the name
" ACCEPTILATION, literally the bearing of a Demodex has been substituted for Acarus. See receipt, means, in Roman and Scotch law, the imaDEMODEX, in these Supplements.
ginary discharge of a debt or other obligation growACCAD OR AKKAD AND ACCADAI. See ing out of a verbal contract, with a declaration that BABYLONIA, Vol. III, pp. 184, 185.
the terms of the contract have been fulfilled when ACCA LAURENTIA LARENTIA. See they have not. Hence, by transference to theology, ARVAL BROTHERS, Vol. II, p. 671.
the word is used of the forgiveness of sins by God ACCELERANDO, a musical term used to sig- for the sake of Jesus Christ. nify a gradually increasing velocity of movement. ACCESSORY, in painting, is any part of a pic
ACCELERATOR, a term used in the science ture which is not an essential motive or center of of ballistics to signify a cannon which has supple- | interest, but is introduced for the purpose of enmentary powder-chambers, the charges of which, hancing the effectiveness of the main object; thus, exploding in succession after the ignition of the for example, the furniture, the drapery, and the main or primary charge, are intended to accelerate ground on which the principal subject is represented, the speed of the projectile. The term is also used, are termed the accessories, and a fault of paying too in anatomy, to describe a muscle whose function is much attention to them is one of the criticisms to expedite the discharge of urine. The word is often applied to painters. also used, in photography, to describe those chemical ACCIDENS OR PER ACCIDENS, an expression substances which shorten the time necessary for the signifying not inherent in essence or substance. development of sensitized plates or paper.
The object to which a quality per accidens is attribACCENT. For the accents used on words and uted is not affected either by the presence or the absyllables, see ACCENT, Vol. I, pp. 80-82 and SPEECH sence of that quality, but if it is per se, it is not separable SOUNDS, Vol. XXII, pp. 381-390. In music the from the object. Thus, if we predicate the two term accent is employed to denote that the stress or qualities, racer and Arabian, the former is separable emphasis is to be placed by the performer. The without at all affecting the horse, being but an accifirst note inside the bar is always accented, while dental quality, or per accidens, while the latter is other accents can be placed where wanted by the use inseparable, being per se. of the sign>. A proper grouping of accents will ACCIDENT, IN LAW. An accident, in the strict produce rhythm. Arbitrary accentuation can be legal sense, is an injurious happening which occurs placed by the performer in executing the composi- unexpectedly in the performance of a lawful act and tion.
without negligence on the part of any one other In mathematics various marks of accentuation are than the person injured. Under such conditions no employed, feet and inches being denoted by the use action, either civil or criminal, can be supported for of a single and double accent; as, for instance, 30' 10"; damages on account of the accident. Generally, i. e., 30 feet, 10 inches. Minutes and seconds, in when the person who is injured has, through neglihorology, are denoted in a similar manner, as are gence or misconduct, contributed toward causing the also the minutes and seconds made use of in trig- accident, he cannot recover damages on account of onometry.
the injuries sustained unless willful negligence on the ACCENTOR. See Hedge-Sparrow, under SPAR- part of the defendant contributed to the injury. ROW, Vol. XXII, p. 369.
Courts of equity have jurisdiction to extend reACCEPTANCE, in law, is the receipt of, or ac- lief in many cases where hardship would arise quiescence in, something furnished or some act done through accident, as where bonds or notes are dein recognition or performance of a contract. Astroyed or lost, or have been so defectively exeperson is said to accept an offer, the service of a cuted that they could not be enforced in a court of notice, a bid, the terms of a contract, rent, or goods law. But equity will not relieve a party from the delivered, when he performs some act indicating ac-obligations assumed in his contract, which he has quiescence. By the common law the oral accept- undertaken to perform without reserving any condiance of an offer of sale constituted a valid contract | tions, even though performance has become impos
ACCIDENT OR CASUALTY INSURANCE
sible through inevitable accident. Thus where one and do the larger portion of the business, or just undertakes to erect a building, and the building is about double that of the assessment companies. destroyed by fire, without the fault of any one, before several of these transact a casualty business, coverit is completed or accepted, he must rebuild before ing the liability of employers for injury by accihe is entitled to compensation. And, generally, dent to their employees, elevator accidents, breakage where demised premises are injured or destroyed by of plate glass, accidents to steam-boilers, and loss to fire or accident, the tenant who has covenanted to employers, individual or corporate, by the dishonpay rent will not be relieved therefrom, and if he esty of their employees. Several companies are in has by his lease agreed to keep the premises in re- the field which transact exclusively a guaranty or pair, he must rebuild, after the accidental destruc- surety business. For a consideration, a government tion of the buildings, at his own expense, in addition or bank employee, or a man assuming a place of trust to paying the stipulated rent. This rule does not and financial responsibility requiring a bond of inapply when the demised premises are only a part of demnity of any kind, can secure the necessary bond the building, and it has been altered by statute in of a guaranty or surety company.
This class of See ACCIDENT, Vol. I, p. 83.
companies does a very large and increasing and ACCIDENT OR CASUALTY INSURANCE generally profitable business. PLATE GLASS INSURIN THE UNITED STATES. From the insurance ANCE has also assumed large proportions, although of persons against injuries froin casualties and the number of companies engaged exclusively in against death from purely accidental causes, which plate glass insurance is only five. Two or three other was undertaken as accident insurance originally in casualty companies, however, do a large plate glass this country, as it had been in Great Britain, the business concurrently with other casualty branches. business of casualty insurance has come to include The business in this country dates back to 1867, not only personal accident insurance, but several when the first plate glass insurance company—the other forms of indemnity for loss from happenings United States Plate Glass-was formed in Philadelwhich are problematical, both as to the extent of the phia. A year later a New Jersey company entered loss or the time of occurrence, if at all. Accident | the field, and three New York companies were orinsurance proper--i. e., the injury or death of per- ganized later, respectively in 1874, 1876 and 1891. sons from accident--first took form, in the United STEAM-BOILER INSURANCE has also assumed large States, at Hartford, Connecticut, in 1863, by the or- proportions and involves a system of rigid inspecganization of the Travelers Insurance Company, tion by the insuring company. The business was largely to cover the risk of persons traveling by rail first transacted in this country, in 1866, by the Hartand other public conveyances. A year later the ford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Comcompany commenced business, and has continued pany, and since that time the business has become a in the field ever since. In 1866 the Railway Passen- branch of several other companies doing a general gers' Insurance Company was also formed at Hart- casualty business, two companies only being exclu
’ ford, and did a large business until 1878, when it sively devoted to steam-boiler insurance. was consolidated with the Travelers. In 1874 the Of all forms of casualty insurance, that included Hartford Accident Insurance Company was formed, under the general term of EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY but soon ceased business. All other purely personal has made the most rapid advance, as, with one exaccident companies have been organized since the ception, it is in this country the most recent. Bur. above date, and all of the latter now in existence were glary insurance is the latest form, transacted by three organized since 1883. Until within a very few years or four companies, one of them only being organized the accident business has been conducted by joint distinctively as a burglary insurance company. The stock companies, but since 1881 a large number of companies writing employers' liability risks include companies or associations have appeared and disap- all but three of those transacting a personal accident peared, formed to do business on the mutual plan. business, it being closely akin to that form of insurOriginally, an entrance or membership fee was ance. The companies engaged in employers' liacharged and an amount fixed as annual dues, all bility insurance also include liability of landlords, of other funds required for the payment of claims being common carriers, public liability and workmen's colprovided by the assessment of members. A good lective insurance. Two of them also insure against inany of the smaller associations still pursue this breakage of machinery. plan, but the leading mutual associations now usu- A class of companies has also come into the field ally collect of the insured, upon the issue of the during the nine years (1896), some of them quite repolicy, a definite sum, presumably sufficient to carry cently, to insure titles to real estate and guarantee the risk during the year, reserving the right, how- bonds and mortgages, and one company essays to ever, under the constitution and by-laws, to assess insure against loss from bad debts. In fact, insurthe members, if necessary. Of these associations, ance against almost every substantial form of casthere were, at the close of 1895, 52, great and small, ualty- using that term in its broadest sense seems ranging in age from 10 and 12 years to a few at present to be provided for in this country. months. Of this number the bulk of the business The growth of accident insurance proper, in the on the mutual plan is transacted by less than twenty United States, has been wellnigh marvelous, while companies, many of the younger companies, how- the other forms of casualty insurance above named ever, showing signs of a rapid growth.
have fully kept pace with it. The following sumThe stock companies transacting accident insur- mary, by stated periods since 1879, will fully justify ance as applied to persons numbered 13 in 1895, our assertion.
ACCIDENT INSURANCE.-STOCK COMPANIES.
Risks in Force.
MUTUAL OR ASSESSMENT COMPANIES._ACCIDENT.
Risks in Force.
Paid for Claims.
TOTAL ACCIDENT - STOCK AND MUTUAL.
Risks in Force.
an entirely satisfactory basis for rate-making, policy
conditions and methods of management generally, No. of Premiums Re
but in the spring of the present year (1896) the prin1880 $147,621,456 $1,324,000
cipal companies succeeded in the formation of a
$563,024 1885 5
259,747,384 2,565,545 1,148,708 compact, by the terms of which uniform rates are to 1890 9 666,074,167
2,184,360 be charged, based on a combined experience with 1895 13 1,327,459,617
2,731,892 the several classes of risks, uniform policy contracts
used, commissions to agents regulated, and a systematic handling of the business generally adopted. It
is believed that safe and satisfactory results will thus Year.
be attained. In the evolution of the accident busi1880 No
ness, as applied to the death or injury of persons, associations reporting in 1880. 1885 25 $250,800,500 $750,536 $325,852 the companies have gradually extended the scope of 1890 28
698,442,461 2,366,605 981,659 the promised indemnity, materially liberalized their 1895 52 675,598,790 2,495,594 1,074,715 policy conditions and removed or modified ambig
uous clauses, presenting on the whole a very satis
factory contract, and rapidly increasing their business Year.
without increasing the loss ratio. In addition to the
payment of a stipulated sum for death by accident, ISSO
$147,621,456 $1,324,000 $563,024 specific indemnity is now guaranteed for the loss of 1885 30 510.547,884 3,316,081
1,474,560 one or of both eyes, one or both limbs, or one or 1899 37 1,364.516,628 7,400,767 3,166,019 both feet, while by the addition of about one fifth 1895 65 2,003,058,407 8,651,938 3,806,607
to the ordinary premium rate double indemnity is EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY.
promised for death or disabling injury while riding upon railways and other public lines of travel. Some companies also agree to pay a stipulated weekly
benefit for a partially disabling accident, the usual in1890
4 $212,626,780 $1,015,212 $437.779 demnity being for total disability. That the personal 1895 7 528, 280,585 4,002,139 2,090,514 accident business has grown since 1879 from less
than a hundred and fifty millions of dollars of risks in force to over two thousand millions, with premium receipts augmented from considerably less than one
and a half millions to over eight and a half millions 1885 $57.914,934 $425,249 $159.323
of dollars, strikingly shows the trend of the business 1890 5 163,854,241 958,478 227,631
in the United States.
A. H. HULING. 362,108,230 1,845,697 395,655 ACCIDENTAL COLORS are visionary com
plementary colors, seen when the eye is suddenly turned away from a bright-colored object upon which
it has been fixed. If we look steadily at a red spot Losses Paid.
on a white ground, and then turn the eye quickly to 1880
another part of the ground, a green spot appears. 4 $3.554,838
$109,797 $37,018 1885 5
ACCIDENTAL LIGHTS, in painting, the real 1890 5
827,791 329 927 or artificial combinations of light and shade. When 46,363,093 1,226,821
417,656 a ray of light throws into prominence the principal
part of a picture, it is necessary to connect this .
luminous portion with other parts of the picture by Losses Paid.
picking out, with delicate touches, the various objects
represented in it. These rays of light, illuminating 1880 3 $20,203,215 $226,203 $30,256
the prominent parts of the picture, produce spots of 1885 4 54,943.442 559,330
17,547 great brilliancy, which increase the beauty of the 1890 5
250,260,772 1,132,163 142,146 objects represented. In landscape-painting, the 5 363,103,167
154,502 rays of light coming through masses of foliage are
termed accidental. The entire business above tabulated (assessment ACCIPITRES OR RAPTORES, an order of birds, accident insurance excepted) for 1895 was transacted which includes the typical birds of prey. The disby 26 companies, having an aggregate cash capital tinguishing characteristics are the strongly hooked of $11,729,600. Three of these also transact the bills, which occur elsewhere only in parrots, and the business of life insurance in all its branches. Three strong four-toed feet, with three toes in front. of the 26 companies are foreign, two being British Eagles, owls, hawks and vultures are representatives and one Canadian, the latter transacting exclusively of the order. a guaranty business and the two others writing ac- ACCOMAC OR DRUMMONDTOWN, the capital cident, employers' liability and guaranty insurance. town of Accomac County, Virginia, within 3 miles of Some of the forms of casualty insurance, especially the Atlantic Ocean, and about 95 miles E. of Richemployers' liability in its various forms, have not had mond. It is the center of a fertile agricultural district a sufficiently extended experience, as to time, to afford and is 2 miles from Tasley station, on a branch oper
Vol. I, p. 90.
ated by the Pennsylvania railroad. Population 1896, correct; as in the case of one party receiving a 512.
statement from another and retaining it without ACCOMMODATION PAPER. Accommodation objection. Account, in the common law, otherwise paper is commercial paper, such as promissory notes known as account render, is an action — now nearly or bills of exchange, drawn, accepted or indorsed, obsolete - lying against one who refuses to render without consideration, for the purpose of lending an account which, by virtue of his position or office, credit for the benefit and accommodation of another. ought to have been rendered. Account stated is a Contrary to the general rule which applies to com- form of action by statute in many states. The only mercial paper, an accommodation drawer, acceptor, issue raised in this action is, whether or not an and the like, cannot avail himself of the defense of a account has been rendered and accepted by the want of consideration, when this class of coinmercial debtor. The acceptance may be by express admispaper is held by a purchaser for value, even though sion of its correctness by the debtor, or by implied such purchaser knew that no consideration passed acquiescence, through his failure to make objection between the parties to the paper. Any other rule within a reasonable time. When an acceptance is would defeat the purpose of this well-established thus established, the correctness of the various items method of lending credit. See ACCOMMODATION, composing the account cannot be called in question
except for fraud or mistake. Courts of equity have ACCOMPANIMENT, in music, is the aiding of general jurisdiction in the settlement of involved a solo by other parts, which may consist of a whole and disputed accounts, which are too complicated orchestra or a single instrument, or even subservient to be determined in a court of law, but equity vocal parts. It serves to elevate and beautify the follows the law in refusing to interfere with accounts solo part, and is subject to certain rules for compo- stated. See ACCOUNT, Vol. I, p. 91. sition as well as for performance.
ACCRETION, land gradually formed by water ACCOMPLICE. An accomplice is one who is deposits along the shore of a river or sea, belonging, associated with another in the commission of a except in cases of sudden formation, to property crime, whether as principal or accessary. The term owners adjacent. If the deposit form an island in accomplice is frequently applied to one of many, a stream, it will belong to the owner of the land on equally concerned in a felony, who is permitted to whose side of the stream it is formed, but if the testify against the others concerned in the crime, and island is situated on the center line, the owner on thereby receive a lighter punishment than would each side of the stream is entitled to that part otherwise be given. It is not on account of any of the island which is on the side of the line provisions of the law that an accomplice, who testifies adjacent to his property. fully and without reserve against those associated ACCUBATION, the ancient Oriental practice of with him in the crime, is given a lighter punishment, eating at meals in a reclining posture, though not and in some cases discharged without punishment, mentioned by Homer, was in general use in the but through a judicial custom or practice which has historic times of Greece and Rome. The guests developed for the furtherance of justice.
lay upon the breast or the left side, upon cushioned ACCORD AND SATISFACTION is the substi- couches somewhat higher than the table, three sides tution of a new agreement between the parties, in sat- of which were usually thus occupied, the middle isfaction of the old agreement, and the execution or place being considered the position of honor. performance of the new agreement. To constitute ACCUMULATORS OR SECONDARY CELLS. a defense to a suit on a contract on the ground of See ELECTRICITY, $ 109, in these Supplements. accord and satisfaction, the new agreement substi- ACCUMULATION, in law, is the adding to the tuted must have been fully performed. At common principal the income or interest of a fund, as prolaw, accord without satisfaction was not a good de- vided by will or deed. fense to a suit upon the original obligation. The ACELDAMA OR AKELDAMA. The name given payment, by a debtor, of a part of his debt in satis- by the Jews to the field, near the city of Jerusalem, faction of the entire debt does not constitute a valid purchased by the chief priests with the thirty pieces satisfaction, even when accepted as such, unless some of silver for which Judas betrayed Jesus Christ. part of the debt be disputed or contingent, or some The “field of blood,” as the word means in the other element enters into the transaction which may original Aramaic, is now shown to travelers on the constitute a valid consideration for the satisfaction. southern face of the valley of Hinnom and to the Accord and satisfaction must be by the debtor or southwest of the supposed pool of Siloam. It is his agent, and not by a stranger to the transaction. also called the “potter's field,” and, from its use as
ACCOUNT, a statement, written or printed, of a place of interment for friendless strangers, has whatever is subjected to a commercial reckoning, furnished a synonym now in use in almost every used especially of such a statement of debits and large American city. See Matt. xxvii. 6, 7; Acts credits, or of receipts and expenditures. A statement of particulars of an open, running and un- ACEPHALOCYSTS, a name sometimes applied settled business transaction, as between a mer- to the encysted stage of a certain tapeworm (Tania chant and his customer, is called an account cur- echinococcus). It was formerly considered an adult rent. An account which has been adjusted, and in parasitic animal. See TAPEWORMS, Vol. XXIII, which a balance has been struck, is known as an p. 49. account stated. The same term is also used of an ACESIUS, a bishop of Constantinople, of the third account which, by implication, is presumed to be century. He favored the teaching of Novatianus.