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ACETABULUM - ACETYLENE

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Constantine is said to have exclaimed to him: “Take covered in one of his electric furnaces a product thee a ladder, Acesius, and go up to heaven alone.” composed of carbon and lime, or a carbide of calcium,

ACETABULUM, a vase used by ancients to hold which had surprising reactions when placed in water, vinegar or condiments, generally made of fine red both rapidly decomposing and giving forth acetylene clay. Specimens are now in the museum of Naples. gas while throwing down lime, which can again be In its plural form, acetabula, the word was used to used to form the calcium carbide. Early in the foldenote the ancient Grecian vessels of earth or metallowing year T. O'Connor Sloane invented a device which, clashed together as cymbals, or struck with for burning the gas produced, by allowing this new sticks, gave forth musical sounds. The sucker on compound to come in contact with water, but a the arms of the cuttle-fish, the leg-socket of an in- simpler invention by a Frenchman, M. Trouvé, sect, and the cavity of the hip-joint in mammalia are consists of a jar or cylinder, a wire basket and a tight each named acetabulum.

cover through which a pipe passes, terminating in a ACETAL (OCʻH), the name of a colorless, ethe- small ordinary gas-burner controlled by a stop-cock.

a real liquid, insoluble in water, and having a pecu- A piece of calcium carbide, which has the appearliarly agreeable odor, similar to that of a hazelnut.

ance of a grayish stone, is placed in the basket and It may be obtained by heating alcohol to 160° with let down into the jar, which is filled two thirds with aldehyde or by treating monochlorether with sodium water, and the cover screwed on. At once acetylene ethylate. Acetal was discovered by Liebig. See gas is given off, and as it escapes from the burner it CHEMISTRY, Vol. V, p. 567.

will, when ignited, give a brilliant light. ACETATES are salts formed by the union of The economical production of the calcium carbide acetic acid with various oxides. They are charac- is due to an American, T. L. Willson, of North terized by solubility in water, and, generally, ready Carolina, while trying to form an alloy of calcium. crystallization. They are extensively used in phar- In one of his failures he produced with coke and macy and in the manufacture of dyes and paints. lime a substance which, on throwing it into water as

ACETIC ANHYDRID (C’H®Ó)’O, a colorless, a waste, he observed to effervesce and rapidly generodorous fluid, discovered by Gerhardt in 1852, the ate a heavy gas having a luminous quality. It was result of the action of oxychlorid of phosphorus on a calcium carbide (CaC). Further research indicated dry sudium acetate, in proportions of one part of the practicability of using the process for the prooxychlorid to three of sodium acetate.

duction of illuminating gas, and devices for this ACETIC ETHERS are acetates of alcohol radi- purpose were patented, and a company formed in cals. Common acetic ether, a distillation of sodium New York to reap the commercial fruits of this proacetate, alcohol and oil of vitriol, is a mobile liquid tection. The success of the company depends on of agreeable taste and smell, used in medicine and the profitable production of the calcium carbide and in the flavoring of wines.

the reasonable control of the patent rights, for the ACETONE PYRO – ACETIC SPIRIT apparatus necessary to the use of the gas is perfected (C*HO) is a colorless liquid, which, mixed with water, to the point of industrial efficiency. Under a presalcohol or ether, is used to dissolve camphor, resin sure of 600 pounds to the square inch, acetylene gas and fat. It has a biting taste, and its odor, which becomes liquefied. In this form the manufacturer resembles that of peppermint, is pleasant. Acetone delivers the gas to consumers. He puts it up in a belongs to a class of organic bodies derived from the tank of pressed steel, 6 inches in diameter by 472 aldehydes. It is used extensively in the preparation feet in length, and much resembling the water tanks of chloroform.

used with house ranges or furnaces. At the dischargeACETYL is an organic radical not yet isolated, pipe there is a reducing-valve through which the gas but is supposed to exist in acetic acid and its deriva- may pass to the ordinary gas-piping of a building, at tives. The formula on this hypothesis is (C2H2O) a suitable pressure for burning. It is only necessary OH. The reason for assuming the existence of this that the burners should be sufficiently small

, say of radical in the acetic compounds is, that the formula a half-foot capacity per hour. These tanks contain to which it leads affords the simplest explanation of a supply adequate for three months' use in an ordithe most important reactions of acetic acid.

nary dwelling, and can be replaced by the manufacACETYLENE OR ETHINE GAS. This com- turer as often as they are exhausted, in a way like pound consists of two parts of carbon and two parts that of supplying the soda-fountains of a city with of hydrogen (C2H%). It is a colorless gas that burns charged reservoirs. Portable lamps for use on biwith a vividly bright flame, and it has a pungent odor, cycles and as headlights, have been experimentally suggestive of garlic (by which its presence in the air produced. may be detected), and it is very soluble in water. Commercially, in making carbide of calcium, 1,130 Acetylene gas was first discovered by Sir Humphry pounds of coal-dust and 1,750 pounds of burnt lime Davy, but it was Berthelot who, in 1862, formed it yield about 2,000 pounds of the carbide, with 12 directly from the elements by electrolysis. It can also hours' expenditure of 180 electrical horse-power. be made by applications of heat; as by the passing of This short ton will yield, it has been shown, 10,500 menthene and carbon dioxid through a red-hot tube, cubic feet of acetylene gas, which has an illuminatand in other like ways. It is also a product of im- ing value of 100,000 cubic feet of ordinary lightingperfect combustion. On the facts now named de- gas of 22 to 25 candle-power per 5-foot standard pends the development of its commercial use as an burner. The temperature of an acetylene fiame, as illuminant.

compared with ordinary coal gas, is as 9 to 14. Per Henri Moissan, a French chemist, in 1894, dis- candle-power its heat is one sixth that of coal illu

OR

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ACHÆANS-ACHOR

minating gas. Its combustion is complete and the most noted of these was a lake in Epirus or Thescarbonic acid resulting, which escapes into the room, protia, through which the river Acheron flowed. is one sixth that of ordinary gas. The calcium car- Other similarly named lakes were near Hermione in bide is not affected by heat, and only appreciably by Argolis, in Campania near Cape Misenum, and in the humidity of the atmosphere.

Egypt near Memphis. Near Heraclea in Bithynia An invention so revolutionary encounters the re- was a peninsula of this name. Here a deep chasm sistance of companies engaged in the production of was said to have been the place where Hercules other lights, as of ordinary gas and electric lights. descended into the infernal regions to bring up It would do away with street-mains, enormous de- | Cerberus. livery-tanks, gas-meters, wires and other expensive ACHILLEA, a genus of plants of the family of appliances. But great obstacles to its practical Composita, having small heads of flowers disposed in development are to be found in the cost of produc- corymbs, the receptacle covered with chaffy scales ing the calcium carbide on a commercial scale, the and no pappus. The flowers of the ray are pistillate, purchase of manufacturing rights by great companies and have a short, roundish tongue or lip; the flowers opposed to the development, and the speculative of the disk are perfect, the tube of the corolla flatly valuation of territorial rights and of royalties. compressed and two-winged; the involucre is imbri.

ACHÆANS AND ACHÆAN LEAGUE. See cated. The common yarrow, or milfoil (A, millefoACHAIA, Vol. I, p. 93, and GREECE, Vol. XI, p. 107. lium), abounds in some parts of North America and

ACHÆMENIANS. See PERSIA, Vol. XVIII, in all parts of Europe. It is a foot or more in p. 565 sqq.

height, its leaves bipinnated into very slender and ACHALGANJ, a minor town of British India, crowded divisions, segments narrow and crowded, in the southern part of the province of Oude, and and the ray-flowers white or rose-colored. near the Ganges. Population, 5,000.

ACHILLES' TENDON (tendo Achillis), the term ACHENBACH, ANDREAS, a German landscape used by anatomists to denote the tendon attachand marine painter; born in Cassel, Germany, in ing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles of the 1815. He studied art at Düsseldorf and in the prin- calf of the leg to the heel-bone. It is capable of cipal schools of the Continent. His works have ob- resisting a force equal to 1,000 pounds' weight, tained favorable recognition, and many examples are and yet it is often ruptured by the contraction of to be found in the private galleries of America. these muscles in sudden extension of the foot. SeriAchenbach obtained a gold medal at the Paris ex- ous wounds and bruises of the tendo Achillis were hibition of 1855, and was in 1864 presented with the formerly considered fatal. The origin of the term cordon of the Legion of Honor.

is the myth of Achilles, whose mother, the Nereid ACHENBACH, Heinrich, a German statesman Thetis, dipped him in the Styx to insure his invuland jurist; born Nov. 23, 1829. In 1858 he became nerability. All but the heel, whereby she held him, privat-docent, and two years later was appointed pro- became impervious to the darts of his enemies, and fessor of German law at the University of Bonn; in the heel was he wounded by the treacherous Paris. this position he held for six years, during which time His death is fabled to have taken place before the he founded a periodical treating only of mining Scæan gate at the siege of Troy. laws, and published several valuable works on the ACHILLI, GIOVANNI GIACINTO, an Italian Proancient land relations of the Germans and on Ger- | testant translator of the New Testament. Born man and French mining laws. In 1866 he became in Viterbo in 1803, he was educated for the ministry connected with the Prussian Diet, and was in the same and entered the order of Dominicans. In 1839 he year made chief councilor in the Prussian ministry became a convert to Protestantism and issued the of commerce. He spent another six years in this version of the New Testament with which his name service, after which he was transferred to the minis- is generally associated. This has been regarded as try of public worship. In 1873 he became minister ihe best version in the Italian language. Visiting of commerce, agriculture and public works.

England on a lecturing tour in 1852, he became ACHENBACH, OSWALD, a German landscape involved in a lawsuit with Cardinal Newman, whom painter. He was a brother and pupil of Andreas, he sued for slander. In his later years he was and was born in Düsseldorf, Feb. 2, 1827. At 36 appointed Italian professor in the English college

| years of age he accepted the position of professor of at Malta. painting in the academy of his native place. He has ACHIMENES, a plant of the natural order Gesner. painted much of the Alpine scenery, and his works See HORTICULTURE, Vol. XII, p. 265. are favorites and frequent in American galleries. ACHOR. One of the forms of pustules occur

ACHENE, a dry and hard, one-celled and one- ring on the faces of children suffering from impetigo seeded indehiscent fruit, resembling and popularly contagiosa. The pustules are very small, but have spoken of as a seed. Examples are found in the head extensive and severely inflamed bases. They beof fruits of the buttercup, the “pits” of strawberries, come covered with crusts of a yellow color, resemthe plumy fruit of dandelion and thistle-down. bling dried honey in appearance. This species of Called also Achenium, Akenium or Akene.

skin disease is most frequently met with in childACHERONTIA OR DEATH'S HEAD MOTH. hood, resulting from improper food and want of See BUTTERFLIES, Vol. IV, p. 596.

cleanliness and attention. Poulticing and the appliACHERUSIA, the name of several lakes and cation of white precipitate ointment will remove the swamps in ancient times which were fabled to be external symptoms, if used in conjunction with connected with the lower or infernal regions. The aperient medicines to regulate the health.

acea.

A C H R X M A TINJA C O NI TIN

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an

ACHROMATIN. See PROTOZOA, Vol. XIX, pp. Fox, daughter of the first earl of Ilchester; born 832, 833

Jan. 3, 1750. She married, 1770, Major John Dyke ACHROMATISM. See Light, Vol. XIV, p. 601. Acland, accompanied him to America, and shared ACHTKARSPELEN, meaning the “ eight par

in all the vicissitudes of Burgoyne's campaign. ishes,” is a commune in the province of Friesland, When her husband was wounded and taken prisoner Netherlands. It contained in 1891 a population of in the second battle of Saratoga, she followed him, 9,250 inhabitants.

and was received with the utmost cordiality by GenACHTYSKA, same as AKHTYRKA, Vol. I, p. 436. eral Gates. For some time before her death at TetPopulation 1883, 23,892.

ton, Somersetshire, England, July 21, 1815, her adACIDIMETER OR ACIDOMETER, an instru- ventures furnished a favorite subject for pen and ment for determining the real strength of hydrated pencil. acids. The most usual form of this instrument is a ACLAND, Sir HENRY WENTWORTH, Bart., was glass tube graduated into a hundred equal parts, into born in 1815, and educated at the University at Oxwhich an alkaline liquor, the strength of which has ford, where, after making a study of medicine for been determined, is placed. The acid to be tested some years, he took the degree of M.D. in 1848. In is of known quantity, and its strength is ascertained 1858 he became a regius professor there. The uni

. by the proportion of liquor necessary for its satura- versity museum was founded partly through his tion.

efforts. Sir Henry Acland accompanied the Prince ACKERMANN, RUDOLPH, the father of Eng- of Wales on his tour through America in 1860. He lish lithography, was born at Schneeburg, in Saxony, published The Plains of Troy, while still a student at April 20, 1764. He removed to London in 1795, college, and 15 years later he gave to the public a and opened a repository of fine arts in the Strand, work entitled Memoir on the Visitation of Cholera in which was very successful. He introduced the art Oxford, 1854. He was also the author of a number of lithography into England, and was the originator of scientific and medical papers.

. of the “Annuals,” which he commenced by his For- ACLAND, Sir THOMAS DYKE, English get-me-not, published in 1823 and after. He did statesman, father of Arthur Herbert Dyke Acland; much to promote wood-engraving, the art of water- born at Killerton, Devonshire, May 25, 1809. · He proofing and the introduction of gaslight into was a companion of W. E. Gladstone at the Unishops. He died March 30, 1834.

versity of Oxford, proceeding to Parliament as ACKLEY, a town and railroad junction in the member for West Somersetshire in the Conservative extreme N.E. portion of Hardin County, Iowa, near interest. He sat for this same constituency for 10 Beaver Creek, about 132 miles W. of Dubuque. years, supporting the repeal of the Corn Laws, and The Illinois Central and the Iowa Central railroads evincing deep interest in agricultural questions. cross each other here. There is a convent of the He was largely instrumental in organizing the volSisters of Mercy in Ackley, and a foundry, machine- unteer force of his native county. He changed his shop and flour-mill. Population 1895, 1,458. polities in 1865, and entered the House of Commons

ACKNOWLEDGMENT is the act of one who has as a follower of Mr. Gladstone. He was defeated executed a deed or other instrument in going before a at the election in 1886 and retired to private life. proper officer and declaring that the instrument so ACLIDE was a weapon in use among the early executed is his own act and deed. The term is also Romans. Called 'also aclis. It could be used as a applied to the certificate of the officer before whom missile or as a club. such declaration was made. If the acknowledgment ACLINIC LINE is the name for the magnetic is regular on its face, the instrument is admissible as equator, which cuts the terrestrial equator, inasmuch evidence without further proof, and is in condition as on the former line the magnetic needle has no to be recorded. The usual officers before whom ac- dip, but lies horizontal. The aclinic line is irregular knowledgments are taken are judges of courts of and also variable. record, justices of the peace or notaries public. In ACNE. See Skin DISEASES, Vol. XXII, p. 121. soine states a deed is void without acknowledgment, ACOMA, a pueblo or Indian village situated on except between the parties thereto, and subsequent a high plateau or mesa in Valencia County, New purchasers without actual notice.

Mexico, about 14 miles S. of Cubero station on ACLAND, ARTHUR HERBERT Dyke, an Eng- the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, and 55 miles lish member of Parliament. Born in 1847, he was S.W. of Albuquerque. A winding pathway cut in educated for the church, was ordained, and for some the side of the sandstone rock of the plateau is the time was a prominent figure in Oxford University only method of access to the summit of the mesa. life. Leaving the church, he was for a time the The Spanish explorer Coronado visited Acoma as principal of the Oxford Military School. In 1885

In 1885 early as September, 1540. he entered Parliament for the Rotherham division ACONCAGUA, the loftiest peak of the Andes. of Yorkshire, which constituency he has continued It is an extinct volcano, and reaches an altitude of to represent as a Gladstonian Liberal. He has 23,900 feet, being situated about 100 miles E.N.E. been very active in promoting the cause of technical of Valparaiso. The mountain gives its name to a education, and in 1892 served as president of the Chilian province. See ACONCAGUA, Vol. I, p. 98. council of education. He has published a Hand

See CORALS, book Political History of England, and Workingmen Vol. VI, p. 371. Co-operators.

ACONITIN (C??H^'NO), the active principle ACLAND, CHRISTINA HENRIETTA CAROLINE or base of the Aconitum Napellus, or monk's-hood,

CHACORITIA, Organs of anemones.

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ACORN SHELLS-ACTINOMYCOSIS

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also called aconitia. See Vol. I, p. 98. It occurs tain, 1,900 feet high, rising from the plain on the as a white powder, or as tabular and colorless crys- Isthmus of Corinth, Greece. It served as the citatals. It is slightly soluble in water, but dissolves del of the city proper, which was on its northern freely in alcohol. Aconitin is one of the most fatal slopes. It was the strongest natural citadel in Greece, poisons, its detection, on account of the infinitesimal and is to the present time the site of a fortificadose necessary to cause death, being extremely diffi- tion.

tion. Here, too, stood the far-famed temple of cult. Its taste is bitter and acrid.

Venus. Of its pristine glories but seven Doric colACORN SHELLS OR BARNACLES. Names ap- umns remain. Extensive archäological excavations plied to the Balanida, the most numerous cirripeds have been made on its slopes under the auspices of both in species and in individuals. Balanus, the various learned societies. best-known genus of the northern seas, is found in- ACROLEIN OR ACRYLIC ALDEHYDE crusting rocks and piles between tide-marks. A (CHO), a strongly refracting and liquid acid, colspecies in South America reaches a height of nine orless and limpid, of less specific gravity than water. inches, and is considered by the natives a delicious It constitutes the acrid principle produced by the article of food. See.CRUSTACEA, Vol. VI, p. 665. distillation of glycerin or its compounds and fatty

ACOUSTIC TELEPHONE. See MECHANICAL bodies. It is a product of the dehydration of the TELEPHONE, Vol. XXIII, p. 127.

glycerin. In the state of vapor, while in process of ACQUAVIVA DELLE FONTI is a southern Ital distillation, it is extremely irritating to the eyes and ian town, situated at the base of the Apennines, in the respiratory organs, to which property it owes its province of Bari, 16 miles S. of the town of Bari. name. The pungency of the odor exhaled by a It has a station on the Bari and Taranto railroad, newly extinguished candle-wick is due to the presand contains several buildings of note, a parish ence of a minute quantity of this acid. church, two hospitals and several convents, and is ACROMYODI, a sub-order of passerine birds, surrounded by walls and ditches originally built embracing the Oscines, or singing-birds. as a defense to the city. The climate is agreeable. ACROTERIUM. See ARCHITECTURE, Vol. II, Population, 7,986.

p. 459. ACQUIESCENCE, in law, is such consent to any ACS, a village of Hungary, in the district of matter as may be reasonably inferred from neglect to Komorn, about six miles S.W. of the town of take legal proceedings in opposition thereto. Komorn. Situated on the right bank of the Dan

ACQUITTAL is a discharge or release from an ube, it has a noted palace, and was the scene of sevobligation. In criminal law it means a judicial eral encounters between the Austrians and Hungadischarge from an accusation or charge made rians in the war of 1849. Population, 3,963. against one by indictment or otherwise. Acquittal

Acquittal ACT. In a legal sense, this word is used to sigin fact is such as takes place when a jury, after nify a law, judgment, decree, edict, or something hearing the evidence in a criminal proceeding, finds done by an individual or by a body of men. Acts a verdict of not guilty. Acquittal in law means are spoken of as intentional or unintentional; as such acquittal as results from the operation of law malicious, wanton and criminal; as reasonable; as of without a trial, as where one is charged as accessary, diligence, of negligence, fraud or trespass. When and the principal is found not guilty, thus discharg- a bill is passed by a legislative body, it becomes an ing the indictment. An acquittal is a bar to any act of that body. Act of God, as a legal term, is an further prosecution for the same offense, or any part inevitable happening which results from natural thereof which was involved in the former trial. causes, and which could not have been prevented by

ACRASPEDA, a group of jelly-fishes, or meduse, any artificial means or human care, such as lightwhich develop directly from the egg, and are not ning, tempests, floods or earthquakes. When a conbudded from a hydroid stern, as in the Hydromedusa.tract becomes impossible of performance by the act No velum is present, and for this reason they were of God, the parties are excused thereby; and if the termed Acraspeita Some authors have used the law casts a duty upon a man which the act of God equivalent term Discophora, but later zoologists have prevents him from performing, he is excused. But applied the term Scyphomeduse to the class.

the destruction of a building by fire is not by act ACRELIUS, ISRAEL, a Swedish clergyman, the of God, unless the fire is caused by lightning or historian of his compatriots' settlements in America. some other superhuman agency. A loss caused by He was born in Osteraker, Dec. 25, 1714; graduated the great fire in Chicago was held not to be caused at the University of Upsala. In 1749 he emigrated by the act of God. See Act, Vol. I, p. 122. to America, and took pastoral charge of the Swedish ACTA ERUDITORUM, the first literary journal settleinents on the Delaware. His history of these of Germany. See PERIODICALS, Vol. XVIII, p. 540. plantations was published in Stockholm in 1759. He ACTA MARTYRUM ET SANCTORUM. See died at Fellingsbro, Sweden, April 25, 1800. BOLLANDIST FATHERS, Vol. IV, p. 18.

ACRI, a town in the province of Cosenza, com- ACTINIDÆ. See ACTINOZOA, Vol. I, p. 130. partimento of Calabria, in southern Italy. It is 13 ACTINOMORPHOUS, a term usually applied to miles N.E. of the town of Cosenza, on an affluent the regular flower of the older botanists; that is, a of the river Crati, and in a fertile and salubrious flower whose parts are equally repeated about the region. Population 1881, 3,944.

center, on the radial plan. As the flower may be ACROBATES OR ACROBATA. See PHALAN- divided into similar halves in several vertical plants, GER, Vol. XVIII, p. 727.

it is also spoken of as polysymmetrical. ACRO-CORINTHUS, a solitary and steep moun- ACTINOMYCOSIS. See PARASITISM, Vol.

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XVIII, p. 270; VETERINARY SCIENCE, Vol. XXIV, process for the recovery of his debt. Population, p. 204.

372. See STATUTE MERCHANT, Vol. XXII, p. 471. ACTION, in law, is a proceeding instituted in ADA, a township, the county seat of Norman court by one or more persons against another, or County, in the northwest portion of Minnesota, others, to secure the punishment or redress of a about 30 miles N. of Glyndon. It is a station wrong, or the enforcement of a right; distinguished on the Great Northern railroad. A large creamery from judicial proceedings which are non-controver-is in operation here. Population 1895, 845. sial in form, as the probate of a will. In a wide ADA, a village of Liberty township, Hardin sense of the term, an action may be classed as County, in the northwest-central part of Ohio, 15 either civil or criminal. An action instituted by miles E. of Lima. It is a station on the Pennthe sovereign power for the punishment of crime sylvania railroad. It is the site of the Northwestern is criminal; but if instituted by the sovereign power Ohio Normal School, founded in 1870. Its manufacin the capacity of owner or contracting party, or by tures are four, lumber, flax, sash, doors, etc. Popua subject or citizen, it is civil. The term indictment, lation 1890, 2,079. frequently applied to a criminal action, is properly ADA, a steamboat station on the navigable river used only of one kind of formal complaint, by which Theiss, in the southern portion of Hungary. It is such a proceeding may be presented for trial. A situated about 60 miles N. and above the concommon-law action is classed as real, personal or fluence of the Theiss and the Danube. Population mixed; real, when the claim made is title to real 1895, 9,697. estate; personal, when it demands a chattel, damages ADAGIO, a term in music, used to signify a slow for an injury, a debt, or a statutory penalty; and, or leisurely measure of time. In the more complimixed, when it demands both real estate and dam- cated and classic compositions of orchestral or chamages for a wrong. In a legal sense, action, cause, ber music, the second or third movement is usually proceeding and suit, are interchangeable terms, and marked adagio, serving as a contrast to the rapid refer to equity as well as to law. The chief classifica- and energetic movements of the parts of the sonata tion of civil actions are: actions ex contractu, or those or symphony which follow or precede it. The chief based upon contractual relations; and actions ex use of the adagio is its capacity of expression, delicto, or those founded upon a tort, and which are affording, as it does, to the composer the most favorbrought for the purpose of obtaining satisfaction able method of expressing his individuality of feelfor damage caused by a wrongful act. Right of ing.

| Some of the finest specimens of the use of the action is the right to institute a suit under circum- adagio are to be found in the sonatas and symstances which will permit a recovery. See Action, phonies of the old masters, especially Beethoven. Vol. I, p. 132.

The modern school of composers has had greater ACT OF CONGRESS. See CONGRESS, in these success in andante movements. Supplements.

ADAIR, JAMES, an Indian trader of English birth ACTON. A township in Middlesex County, in who resided for 40 years among the Chickasaw the northeast part of the state of Massachusetts.

and Cherokee Indians, or from 1735 to 1775, study. includes the villages of South and West Acton, is ing their dialects and attempting to trace their traversed by the Boston and Maine and the New origin. In 1775 he published a History of the York, New Haven and Hartford railroads, and is American Indians, in which he endeavored to estabdrained by the Assabet River. There are some lish the identity of the Indians with the descendants manufactures, such as clothing, flour, etc. Popula- of the lost Ten Tribes of Israel. The most valuable tion (1895), 1,978.

part of his history is in the vocabularies and comACTON, JOHN EMERICH EDWARD DALBERG, parisons of Indian dialects. LORD, an English stateman; born in Naples, Italy, ADAIR, John, American general, born in ChesJan. 10, 1834. Lord Acton is a leader of the Eng. ter County, South Carolina, in 1759. He served in lish Catholic party, and was elected to Parliament in the Revolutionary War, and took part in the Indian 1859 as member for Carlow, Ireland.

He was

war as a major of militia, under St. Clair and Wil. raised to the peerage in 1869, and was noted for his kinson, in 1791. He was defeated by Little Turtle, conspicuous hostility to the doctrine of Papal infal- the Miami chief, Nov. 6, 1792, at Fort St. Clair, libility at the Ecumenical Council at Rome in that Ohio, and forced to retreat. He commanded the year. Lord Acton founded the Home and Foreign Kentucky militia at the battle of New Orleans, and Review and edited the Weekly Review and the later was representative from Mercer County in the North British Review. He was, in 1887, given the Kentucky legislature, registrar of the United States honorary degree of D.C.L. by the University of Ox-land-office, and United States Senator. In 1820 he ford.

was elected governor of Kentucky, and in 1831 a АС BURNELL, a parish in Shropshire, member of Congress. He died in Harrodsburg, England, eight miles S. of Shrewsbury. At the castle Kentucky, May 19, 1840. here, now in ruins, Edward I held, October 12, ADALIA OR ANDALIYEH. Same as SATALI, 1283, a national council of the three estates of Vol. XXI, p. 317. the realm. This council, while the forerunner of ADAM, ADOLPHE CHARLES, a French musical the present parliamentary system, enacted the composer; born in Paris, July 24, 1803.

He was proStatute of Acton Burnell, sometimes called the fessor of composition in the Paris Conservatoire, Statute of Merchants. By the terms of this statute and also contributed to the newspapers. He was suca creditor by bond of record obtained a summary cessful in comic operas, of which the chief, Le Pos

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