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tillon de Longjumeau, produced in 1835, is still pop- | Hungerford Collegiate Institute has its seat here. ular. He died in Paris, May 3, 1856.

Population 1890, 3,181. ADAM, GRAEME MERCER, editor and author, was ADAMS, ABIGAIL SMITH, the wife of President born May 25, 1839, near Edinburgh, Scotland; John Adams, and mother of John Quincy Adams, educated at Portobello and Edinburgh; came to was the daughter of Rev. Toronto, Canada, in 1858, as a publisher of books; William Smith, of Weyin 1878 devoted himself to literature; founded the mouth, Massachusetts, Canada Educational Monthly; editor (1880) of where she was born, Nov. Canadian Monthly, which, with Goldwin Smith, he 23, 1744. By her mother, founded eight years earlier; was in New York for also, she was of sturdy some time as a publisher's editor in 1876 and 1883; Puritan stock. Her childin 1892 made that city his residence; in 1896 re- hood and youth, owing to moved to Chicago and became editor of the Self a delicate physical constiCulture magazine; served as major of militia in tution, gave little promise repelling the Fenian invasion of Ontario in 1866; of the remarkable woman author or reviser of text-books on history and lan- that she was destined to guage; of Justin McCarthy's History of Our Own become. In 1764 she Times; of Scenic America, and People's History of married John Adams; and the United States; author of a history of the Cana- in 1784-85 accompanied dian Northwest; Life of Sir John A. Macdonald; her husband to France and Precis of the History of England; with Miss Weth- England. In London, as

ABIGAIL SMITH ADAMS. erald, of An Algonquin Maiden, a romance of early the wife of the minister of Canada; a History of Canadian Literature, and of a the United States, at a period when the loss of the score of minor publications.

colonies still rankled in the minds of the Tories, she ADAM, JEAN, a Scottish poetess; born near experienced with patient dignity thinly veiled hostilGreenock in 1710, and died in the poorhouse at Glas- ity and open sneers. Returning to the United gow in 1765. Her Poems (1734) were of a religious States, she resided with her husband at the seat of character, and in the Tate and Brady strain. The government for twelve years, whence she returned to authorship of There's Nae Luck Aboot the House is Braintree. Her letters, published by her grandson, ascribed to her, but more probably it was written by Charles Francis Adams, in 1840, contain a graphic Mickle.

portrayal of eighteenth century manners. She died ADAM, LAMBERT SEGISBERT, was a noted sculp- at Quincy, Massachusetts, Oct. 28, 1818. tor; born at Nancy, France, in 1700; died, in 1759. ADAMS, ALVIN, founder of the Adams Express Fourteen years before his death he became professor Company, born at Andover, Vermont, June 6, 1804. in the Paris Royal Academy, and the garden of Ver- Shortly after the first United States express route was sailles now contains some of his best statuary. Nich- started between New York and Boston by William OLAS SEBASTIEN, brother of Lambert, born at Nancy, Harnden, Mr. Adams withdrew from the produce 1705, died 1778, was also a master in the art. One business, into which he had entered at Boston, about of his productions is entitled Prometheus Bound. 1837, and started an opposition route. After spend

ADAMANT, a term now used to signify any ing three years alone in this business, he was joined substance of exceptional hardness. The use is more by Ephraim Farnsworth. The business rapidly inin a figurative and poetical sense than in actuality.creased, and extended over a large tract of the Union. Among the ancients the term was used to describe a The California express was started in 1850, and in mythical stone of marvelous hardness, which, as the that year the firm name was changed to Adams Exfable grew, was also endued with magnetic proper- press Company. Mr. Adams died in Watertown, ties. Theophrastus called the emery-stone of Naxos, Massachusetts, Sept. 7, 1877. in his day the hardest known substance, by this ADAMS, CHARLES BAKER, an American naturalist name. Corundum is now but rarely called adamant. and geologist, was born at Dorchester, Massachu

ADAMS. The name of a village in Adams town- setts, Jan. II, 1814. He graduated at Amherst Colship, Berkshire County, in the northwest part of the lege in 1834, and then studied theology for two state of Massachusetts, 47 miles from Springfield. It years at Andover, Massachusetts. From 1838 to 1847 is on the Pittsfield branch of the Boston and Albany he was professor of chemistry and natural history in railroad, in the midst of the sylvan beauties of the Middlebury College; at the time of his death he was Berkshire hills. Near the village, Mount Greylock, professor of zoology and astronomy at Amherst Colthe highest point in the state, rises to an altitude of lege, which office he had filled for six years. He 3,600 feet. The district is drained by the Hoosac died in St. Thomas, Danish West Indies, Jan. 19, River, and supplied with water-power from its rapid 1853. stream. The chief industry is the manufacture of ADAMS, CHARLES FOLLEN, an American humortextile fabrics. Population 1890, 9,213.

ous versifier, was born at Dorchester, Massachusetts, ADAMS, a town in Jefferson County, in the north- April 21, 1842. While serving in the Thirteenth crn portion of New York state, is situated 156 miles Massachusetts Infantry in the Civil War, he was W.N.W. of Albany, and 40 miles N.E. of Oswego. wounded and taken prisoner at Gettysburg. It is a manufacturing town, containing tanneries and published Leedle Yawcob Strauss and Other carriage manufactories, also a foundry, a malthouse, Poems (1878). He contributed much humorous a sash and blind factory, and a cabinet-shop. The dialect verse to periodicals.

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ADAMS, CHARLES Francis, an American states- at Madison. Among his works are a Manual of man, author and diplomatist, son of President John Historical Literature; Democracy and Monarchy in

Quincy Adams and grand- France, and other aids to study.
son of President John ADAMS, DANIEL, M.D., an American educa-
Adams, was born in Bos- tional author, was born at Townsend, Massachusetts,
ton, Ang. 18, 1807. At Sept. 29, 1773; was a graduate at Dartmouth, 1797.
two he was taken abroad He took an active interest in the political affairs of
and spent his early years in New Hampshire ; was well known as an editor and
Russia and England, where physician, and also became popular as an educator;
his father was United States he published a number of school books, among
minister, and graduated which was a useful textbook on arithmetic. He
at Harvard in 1825. He died at Keene, New Hampshire, June 8, 1864.
studied law in the office

ADAMS, Edwin, an American light comedian ; of Daniel Webster, and born at Medford, Massachusetts, Feb. 3, 1834. His was admitted to the bar first success on the stage was at the National Theatre

in 1828. From 1831 to in Boston, in the part of Stephen in Sheridan CHARLES FRANCIS ADAMS.

1836 Mr. Adams served in Knowles's Hunchback. Most of his engagements the Massachusetts legislature as a Whig, but after were in the East, among others his appearance as this he adopted the tenets of the Free Soil party. Mercutio at the opening of Booth's Theatre. His In 1848 this party, in convention at Buffalo, nomi- favorite and most successful roles were the characters nated Mr. Adams for Vice-President of the United of Iago, Claude Melnotte and Enoch Arden. Mr. States, with Martin Van Buren for President, but Adams appeared in Shakespearean roles with Edwin both failed of election. In 1858 Mr. Adams was Booth in 1869–70, visited Australia, and soon after elected to Congress from the third district of retired on account of ill health. He died in PhilaMassachusetts as a Republican, and in 1860 he delphia, Oct. 25, 1877. was re-elected. In 1861, he was sent as minister ADAMS, GEORGE EVERETT, American Congressto England, where he remained seven years. His man, born at Keene, New Hampshire, June 18, duties at this period were more onerous than those | 1840. He graduated at Harvard in 1860 ; studied of his father in the same office half a century before. at the Dane Law School, Cambridge, MassachuThe Trent affair and the Alabama question were setts, and then practiced. He was elected to the among those he had to face, and his firmness and Illinois state senate in 1880. Two years later he self-control in those trying times were admirably became a member of the Forty-eighth Congress, and displayed. In 1872 the liberal Republicans con- was re-elected for the three succeeding terms. sidered his name as a candidate for the Presidency, ADAMS, HANNAH, an American authoress; born but the barren honor fell to Horace Greeley. He at Medfield, Massachusetts, in 1755. She was probawas an arbitrator of the Alabama claims, 1871–72, bly the first woman in America who took to authorand was president of the board of overseers of ship as a means of livelihood. Her pen was fertile Harvard College for several years. Mr. Adams has | in religious and historic works, of which A View of an equal claim to the gratitude of his country for Religious Opinions (1784) is the one with which her the memoirs of his illustrious parents and grand name is more generally associated at the present parents, edited by him from 1850-1877. He died day. Simple to a degree in habits, and circumscribed in Boston, Nov. 21, 1886.

as her travels were to points within a radius of 10 ADAMS, CHARLES FRANCIS, JR., second son of miles of her native village, she yet made many Charles Francis Adams, was born in Boston, May friends. She died at Brookline, Massachusetts, Nov. 27, 1835; graduated at Harvard in 1856, and was 15, 1832, and hers was the first body interred in admitted to the bar in 1858. He entered the vol- Mount Auburn cemetery. unteer service at the beginning of the war and was ADAMS, Henry, an American political essayist, mustered out in July, 1868, as brevet brigadier- | third son of Charles Francis Adams; born in Boston, general of volunteers. In 1869 he was appointed Massachusetts, Feb. 16, 1838; graduated at Harvard, on the board of railroad commissioners for Massa- and as private secretary accompanied his father's chusetts, and in 1884 became president of the Union mission to England in 1861. On his return, and Pacific railway. He has published Chapters of Erie, for several years, he was an instructor at Harvard, and Other Essays, and a volume dealing with rail. From 1870 to 1876 he edited The North American road accidents and their causes. In 1882 he was Review. He is the author of numerous books and made a member of the board of overseers of Har. essays, among which are Historical Essays (1871); vard University.

Life of Albert Gallatin (1879); and A History of ADAMS, CHARLES KENDALL, was born at Derby, the United States, 9 vols., (1891). Vermont, Jan. 24, 1835, and was educated at the Uni

ADAMS, HERBERT BAXTER, an American hisversity of Michigan at Ann Arbor, where he grad torian and educator; born at Amherst, Massachusetts, uated in 1861. He served for many years as pro- April 16, 1850; educated at Amherst and Heidelfessor of history in that institution, and in 1881 ob- berg; appointed, in 1876, fellow of history at Johns cained a like position at Cornell University, Ithaca, Hopkins University, he was successively associate in New York. In 1885 he became president of that history, associate professor and university professor. university. This position he resigned in May, 1892, He became historical lecturer at Smith College, and became president of the Wisconsin University | Northampton, Massachusetts, in 1878, and at Chau

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tauqua in 1888. He assisted in founding the Amer- of 1845, but on the roth of November he published ican Historical Association and became its first the results of his calculations, assigning to the secretary. Mr. Adams's works constitute valuable unknown planet almost the same place that Adams historical contributions to the literature of his coun- had in an unpublished paper which he left with the try.' Among them may be mentioned The College astronomer royal at Greenwich Observatory the preof William and Mary; Maryland's Influence in vious October. Leverrier • thus acquired a larger Founding a National Commonwealth; Thomas Jeffer. share in the honor of the discovery, but the merit son and the University of Virginia; and The Study of of Adams is none the less, and the council of the History in American Colleges and Universities. Royal Astronomical Society awarded equal honors

ADAMS, ISAAC, an American inventor; born in to both in 1848. Neptune was actually observed Rochester, New Hampshire, in 1803.

He com

near the place assigned by Galle, at Berlin, in Sepmenced work as a factory operative at an early age, tember, 1846. In 1858 Adams was appointed to and in 1824 went to Boston in search of work. In the chair of mathematics in St. Andrews, which, 1828 he invented the improved printing-press with however, he vacated within a few months, on being which his name is associated. Its introduction into nominated to the Lowndean professorship of astrongeneral use operated as a revolution in the art of omy, Cambridge. He made important researches typography, and so thoroughly as to cause a demand on the secular acceleration of the moon's mean for thirty different sizes of the press. He retired motion, and on the theory of the November meteors.

a He died at Cambridge, , his labors, and served as a senator in the Massachu- | ADAMS, John Quincy, an American politician setts legislature in 1840. He died at Sandwich, New and municipal reformer; the eldest son of Charles Hampshire, July 19, 1883.

Francis Adams; born Sept. 22, 1833. After graduatADAMS, JASPER. An American educator; born ing at Harvard he entered the legal profession in at Medway, Massachusetts, Aug. 27, 1793. He grad his native state of Massachusetts. He served in the uated at Brown University and afterward took a legislature, and was defeated as the nominee of the course in theology at Andover. Returning to his Democratic party for governor in 1871. He has alma mater as professor of mathematics in 1819, he devoted many years to the study of problems of devoted his entire life to the instruction of youth. municipal reform. Died Aug. 14, 1894. In 1824 he was chosen president of Charleston Col- ADAMS, John R., was born in Plainfield, Conlege, South Carolina, and was called to a similar necticut, in 1802, and graduated from Yale Colposition at Hobart College, New York, in 1826. He lege in 1821. He taught in Phillips Academy, Anreturned to the South in 1828, and for eight years, dover, Massachusetts, for three years, and subseand for the second time, was president at Charleston. quently became pastor of various Congregational In 1838 he was appointed chaplain, and professor of churches of New York, Massachusetts and Maine. history, ethics and geography, at the United States During the Civil War he rendered valuable services Military Academy at West Point, Again returning to the Union soldiery as chaplain of the Fifth to the South, he was the head of an academy at Pen- Maine and One Hundred and Twenty-First New dleton until his death at Charleston, Oct. 25, 1841. York regiments. Died at Northampton, MassachuHis Elements of Moral Philosophy has been largely setts, April 26, 1866. used in colleges and higher institutions of learning. ADAMS, Julius WALKER, an American soldier

ADAMS, John, an American educator ; born at and engineer; born in Boston, Oct. 18, 1812 ; eduCanterbury, Connecticut, Sept. 18, 1772. He grad- cated at the United States Military Academy. Enuated at Yale College in 1795. He presided for a

He presided for a tering the profession of a civil engineer after his time over Plainfield Academy and Bacon Academy graduation, Colonel Adams became an assistant in in Colchester, Connecticut, becoming principal of the engineer's departinent of the Providence and Phillips Academy, Andover, Massachusetts, in 1810. Stonington railroad; subsequently obtained proIn this position he was very successful until the motion and superintended the construction of time of his resignation in 1833. Removing to Illi- several and most important enterprises. Among nois, he was active in establishing many Sunday these were the United States dry-dock, the Brooklyn schools. Yale recognized his services with the hon- navy-yard, the New York and Erie railroad; the orary degree of LL.D. in 1854. He died at Jack- Brooklyn system of sewerage, and the New Haven sonville, Illinois, April 24, 1863.

water-works. When Sumter was fired on Mr. ADAMS, John Couch, an English astronomer, Adams's early military training brought him to the the discoverer, simultaneously with Leverrier, of the front as the colonel of the Sixty-seventh New York planet Neptune, was born at Lidcot, near Launce- Volunteers; he served with distinction, and was ston, in Cornwall

, England, June 5, 1819. He was severely wounded at the battle of Fair Oaks. With educated at St. John's College, Cambridge, where, the surrender of Lee's army Colonel Adams resumed in 1843, he attained the honor of senior wrangler, his engineering labors. For many years he was the was elected a fellow, and became a mathematical chief engineer of the city of Brooklyn and consulttutor. Soon after taking his degree he undertook ing-engineer to the public works department of the to find out the cause of the irregularities in the city of New York. He is a member of the New motion of Uranus, anticipating, indeed, his own York Academy of Science. and Leverrier's discovery, that they were due to the ADAMS, NEHEMIAH, a Congregational clergyinfluence of a planet unknown at that time. Lever- man and theologian; born at Salem, Massachurier did not commence his researches till the summer setts, Feb. 19, 1806; graduated at Harvard and



Andover Seminary. He began his ministry in the works of standard authority in the various branches First Church of Cambridge, and in 1834 became of higher and modern surgery. pastor of the Essex Street Church, Boston, a rela- ADAMS, WILLIAM, an American Presbyterian tion terminating only with his life. He was a clergyman; born at Colchester, Connecticut, Jan. prominent figure in the theological controversies of 25, 1807. He graduated at Yale in 1827, studied his time, and was an ardent advocate of slavery in theology at Andover, and was ordained pastor of the the South. His book, South Side View of Slavery Congregational Church (1854), provoked intense discussion and condemna in Brighton, Massachution from the anti-slavery element, as did also his setts, in 1831. He took later volume, A Sable Cloud (1863). Among his charge of the Central other books are The Cross in the Cell; Scriptural | Presbyterian Church, in Argument for Endless Punishment; Life of John New York City, in 1834, Eliot. He was a man of eloquence and scholarly and became moderator attainments. Died in Boston, Oct. 6, 1878.

of the new-school GenADAMS, SAMUEL, an American military surgeon, eral Assembly at Washwas born in Maine. He was distinguished for ington in 1852. In 1853 bravery and efficiency in hospital and field service he became pastor of the during the Civil War, and rose to be medical in- Madison Square Presspector of the Ninth Corps. One notable instance byterian Church, and of his intrepidity was his dressing the wounds of from 1873 until his

WILLIAM ADAMS. General Porter while under severe fire. He died of death he presided over the Union Theological Semiyellow fever in Galveston, Texas, Sept. 9, 1867, nary in New York City. He contributed numerous while endeavoring to stay the ravages of an epidemic articles to various religious magazines and wrote there.

several devout books. He died at Orange Mountain, ADAMS, SETH, an American inventor and man- New Jersey, Aug. 31, 1880. ufacturer; born in Rochester, New Hampshire, April ADAMS, WILLIAM FORBES, the pioneer mission13, 1807. After an apprenticeship in a cabinetary bishop of the Protestant Episcopal Church in the maker's store, he proceeded to Boston and worked territories of Arizona and New Mexico; born in Irein a machine-shop. This training was of material | land, Jan. 2, 1833, he came to America at the age assistance to him when, a few years later, he estab- of eight years. At first he studied law and was adlished himself in the business of manufacturing mitted to the Mississippi bar. Ordained deacon in machinery, and in 1833, when he co-operated with 1859, and priest in the following year, he became his brother Isaac in improving and manufacturing rector of St. Paul's Church, New Orleans. Consethe latter's newly invented printing-press. Increas- crated a bishop in 1875, he resigned the arduous ing and enlarging his plant as the commercial missionary duties of his see in 1877 on account of demand for the Adams press increased, he accumu- ill health. In 1887 he was translated to the bishoplated a handsome fortune. Bowdoin College was ric of Easton, in Maryland. one of the principal objects of his philanthropy, and ADAMS, WILLIAM TAYLOR("Oliver Optic''), an figured largely in the beneficial provisions of his will. American author, born in Medway, Massachusetts, He also founded the Adams Nervine Asylum for the July 30, 1822. He was for 20 years a teacher in the treatment of hypochondriacs. He died at Newton, public schools of Boston, for 14 years a member of Massachusetts, Dec. 7, 1873

the school committee of Dorchester, and for one ADAMS, THOMAS, an eloquent English and Puri- year a member of the legislature. He wrote numertan preacher, of whose personal history few details ous novels for young people, two for older readers, are precisely known. From 1612 till about 1653 he and many newspaper stories. Died March 27, 1897. held charges in Bedfordshire, Buckinghamshire and ADAMS-ACTON, JOHN, an English sculptor; London. His published works consist of collections born at Acton, Middlesex, Dec. 11, 1836. of sermons (1618) and a commentary on the Second admitted to the Royal Academy in 1855, winning Epistle of St. Peter (1633).

the first silver medal in each school and the gold ADAMS, William, an English clergy man and medal for his sculptural composition entitled Eve writer of devotional works; born in 1814; was author Supplicating Forgiveness at the Feet of Adam. His of The Shadow of the Cross (1842), and other sacred works in ideal sculpture and portrait statuary and allegories. He died at Bonchurch, in the Isle of busts are numerous and valuable. Wight, 1848.

ADAM'S APPLE (Adami pomum), in botany, ADAMS, William, an English surgeon; born in the name bestowed by old-time botanists on the London, Feb. 1, 1820. Early in his professional plantain tree (Musa paradisiaca), from the popular career he was appointed demonstrator of morbid notion that it was the fruit of “the tree of the knowlanatomny at St. Thomas's Hospital, London. After edge of good and evil," eaten by the progenitors of holding various other important professional po- the human race. A species of the Citrus has also sitions and appointments, he was elected, in 1867, been so called. In anatomy the term is made use of vice-president of the Pathological Society. The to denote the protuberance of the os hyoides in the Harveian Society, in 1873, honored him with its front of the human throat. It was fabled to have presidency, a like dignity being conferred by the been produced by the forbidden fruit. See ANATOMY, London Medical Society at its annual meeting in Vol. I, p. 825 1876. Dr. Adams is the author of several medical ADAMSON, John, an English archæologist and 46




Portuguese scholar, was born at Gateshead, Sept. 13, seat of Addison Academy and a large union school. 1787. His Memoir of Camoens appeared in 1820, Several factories are in operation, and the town is and The History, Antiquities and Literature of Portu- the center of a tobacco-raising district. Population gal in 1842-46. He died at Newcastle, Sept. 27, 1890, 2,166. 1855.

ADDISON, LANCELOT, an English clergyman ADAMSTHAL, a village of Moravia, on the and author, father of Joseph Addison (Vol. I, p. banks of the River Zwittawa, about nine miles N. 146); born at Crosby Ravensworth, in the county of the capital city of Brünn. It is a favorite resort of Westmoreland, England, in 1632. He gradufor tourists, having in its vicinity the famous Regis- ated at Queen's College, Oxford, in 1655, and beKala cavern in the limestone rock.

came a zealous royalist and Episcopalian. SuccesADAN, LOUIS ÉMILE, a celebrated French sively chaplain at Dunkirk and Tangier, a royal painter; born in Paris, March 26, 1839. He studied chaplain, dean of Lichfield, and archdeacon of Covat the School of Fine Arts and under Picot and Ca- entry, his principal literary works relate to Barbary banel, and then went to Italy for further instruction. and Morocco. He died at Lichfield, Staffordshire, Commencing to exhibit in 1863, he has achieved April 20, 1703. marked success, especially with aquarelles. He was ADDISON, THOMAS, physician, was born near awarded the gold medal at the Paris exposition in Newcastle - on - Tyne, England, in 1793. He re1889, and received the decoration of the Legion of ceived his medical education at Edinburgh, settled Honor in 1892.

in London, and in 1837 became physician to Guy's ADANSONIA, a genus of trees of the family Mal- Hospital. He made a special study of pneumonia

| Linnæus named it in honor of Adanson, the and phthisis, and was the discoverer of what has botanist. Two species are known. One (A. digi- since been known as Addison's disease. He also tata), commonly called baobab tree, or the monkey- wrote on the subjects of poisons and diseases of bread tree, is a native of the tropical portion of West women. He died June 29, 1860. Africa, now introduced in the East and West Indies. ADDISON'S DISEASE. See PATHOLOGY, Vol. It is a very large tree, not attaining a great height, XVIII, p. 384. but exceeding all trees in thickness. Its trunk is from ADDRESS, FORMS OF, are ceremonious terms 20 to 30 feet in diameter, branches 60 to 70 feet employed in addressing oral or written communilong, and often as thick as stems of large trees, cations to persons bearing titles of nobility or forming a hemispherical head of 120 to 150 feet in honor, or holding offices under constituted authoridiameter. The pulp of the fruit is pleasant to the With titles of nobility republican America taste, eaten with or without sugar. The expressed has but small concern. The Federal constitution juice, mixed with sugar, is much esteemed as a bev- provides (art. i, sec. ix, 8) that “no title of nobility erage, very refreshing, effectual in quenching the shall be granted by the United States. And no thirst, and valuable in putrid and pestilential fevers

. person holding any office of profit or trust under The other (A. Gregorii) is a native of Australia, and them shall, without consent of the Congress, accept is known as the cream-of-tartar tree.

of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind ADAR, a month of the Jewish year. See CALEN- whatsoever from any king, prince, or foreign state.” DAR, Vol. IV, pp. 678, 681.

As regards alien applicants for the privilege of ADEL, the capital of Dallas County, in the south American citizenship, the provisions of the revised west-central part of the state of Iowa. It is sit- statutes require of those who have borne any hered. uated near the Raccoon River, some miles itary titles or orders of nobility in their native lands N.N.W. of Des Moines, and is a station on the express renunciation of the same at the time of deDes Moines, Northern and Western railroad. Popu- claring their intention of becoming citizens, and belation 1895, 1,081.

fore the issuance of first papers. ADDEMIRI ORAL-DAMIRI. See DAMIRI Still, diplomatic intercourse has brought to WashVol. VI, p. 794.

ington, in the train of ambassadors, ministers and ADDISCOMBE, a word formerly used to des- attachés, some of the ceremonious surroundings ignate the military academy founded in 1809 by the of the Old World. Certain forms of address are Honorable East India Company of England for therefore customary in addressing persons officially the instruction of its cadets. Addiscombe House, or otherwise distinguished. A list of those in com

A a seat of the Earl of Liverpool, situated in the parish mon use follows. of Croydon, Surrey, England, about 10 miles south The President of the United States, by custom, is of London, was purchased for the site of the addressed as “ His Excellency.”

In conversation academy.

When the company's forces were re- and formal oral addresses, the term “Mr. President” placed by imperial troops on the suppression of the is used by all other than the President's personal Sepoy mutiny in 1858, Addiscombe, where many friends or intimate acquaintances. noted soldiers had obtained their education, ceased The Vice-President is addressed, in written comto exist. See ARMY, Vol. II, p. 591.

munications, as “ The Honorable, the Vice-President ADDISON, a town of Steuben County, in the of the United States,” or « The Hon. western portion of the state of New York. It is 24 | Vice-President of the United States.” When acting miles W. of Elmira, and on the banks of the as the ex officio presiding officer of the Senate the Canisteo River. The New York, Lake Erie and appellation “Mr. President” is made use of by senWestern railroad and the Addison and Pennsylvania ators. railroad have depots in the town, which also is the Cabinet officials are addressed as The Honor


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