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Every encyclopædia has to confront, from the start, questions of plan and arrangement, involving the best method of putting its information before readers so that it shall render them the best service. There are but two expedients that have had any practical consideration; one may be called the library and the other the dictionary plan.

The dictionary plan consists in entering, for convenience in consultation, as many titles of articles as possible, and defining them as sententiously as possible. A book so made is essentially a lexicon, or glossary of terms, and nowadays we have come to have a class of dictionaries which, because of their definition of all sorts of technical, trade and patented terms, are, as they call themselves, encyclopædic. But a true encyclopædia is far more than a word-book. A word-book breaks all arts, sciences, philosophies, mechanisms and history into adjectives and nouns, and defines each separately. The difference is immense. For example, a man who knows all about a ship may be content with dictionary definitions of keels, stems, booms, strakes, etc., but the landsman has no acquaintance with these terms until he can turn to some account of ship-building, where he finds them used in a context that gives them intelligibility. Until he reads in this manner he does not even know the terms he needs to have defined. Now, an encyclopædia deals with events and things, rather than with words, and is therefore at once more elementary, as it is also more exhaustive and complete, than a dictionary. It is to help those who do not know what details or terms to look for. It is to explain processes, sequences, relations; and so the encyclopædia has a function far different from that which a dictionary can take up. The latter helps one to a ready understanding of what he has encountered in the world; the former takes him into new fields, and acquaints him with things he has not met with or anticipated.

Undoubtedly, the earliest design of an encyclopædia was to furnish students with a cheap, compact and universal library. At first, books were so expensive that students were unable to buy the special histories, commentaries and treatises published. The situation was not altered when books became cheaper; for industries and sciences and researches were multiplied and subdivided still faster. The encyclopædia then came, and offered, in a compendious way, the contents of thousands of volumes. It also grew rapidly in bulk, until, finally, the largest referencebook in the history of English literature appears in our thirty-volume edition of the ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. It contains nearly 12,000,000 more words than the most voluminous encyclopædic English dictionary extant, and thus illustrates the impossibility of taking into even an elaborate lexicon the historical, biographical, geographical, and statistical features of an encyclopædia.

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA was first published in 1771. Its proprietors announced it as on a new plan, the different sciences and arts being “ digested into treatises and systems.” It was a distinct adoption of the library plan, and it has been adhered to in all subsequent editions. The result is, that the edition here announced contains long articles that would make over fifty duodecimo volumes of 600 pages of small-pica print, each devoted to some special branch of art, theology, science, history, etc. The entire compass of this issue of the work would make 140 such volumes.

It is this library system that has constituted the strength and the weakness of the BRITANNICA,—the strength, because it lays under contribution a higher and more critical scholarship; the weakness, because the difficulty of referring to particular details or topics is increased. The testimony to its strength is unimpeachable, for it comprises the verdict of scholars and reading men the world over, indorsing its authority, and commending its skill of presentation and comprehensiveness as unapproached in any other English work of reference. The testimony also further indorses the fact that its pages are the storehouse from which other encyclopædias both replenish their columns and correct their errors. But beyond all this, it is indorsed triumphantly in the fact that more copies of the ninth edition of the BritANNICA have passed into circulation, by scores of thousands, than of any other reference-book of contemporary sale.

A treatise has a law of art to govern its production; defining and explaining do not result in an art. Thus, were one to visit an inclosure in which were gathered all the material of a classic temple,- the stones and cements, the framing and the girders, the columns, keystones, capitals, molding and chiseled friezes,-it might instruct one to find each detail packed in barrels and cases, duly labeled, and assorted into piles, according to the alphabetical order of their labels. But such

iv

PUBLISHERS' PREFACE

instruction would be far inferior to that gathered from the study of the temple itself, with all its parts and members in place and order, exhibiting at once the architect's design and the constructor's skill. There is something, therefore, in “distinct treatises and systems" that must forever elude the definer. A writer, too, however skilled and accomplished, sacrifices his best qualities if he must break his subject into details and write them up separately for presentation under an arbitrary alphabetical arrangement.

It is, then, because of the library or treatise plan of the BRITANNICA, that its scholarship has been recognized as unsurpassed, its criticism as vital and lucid, its information as so varied and instructive. Let the plan stand, with all its splendid characteristics; a suitable system of reference is all that is needed to make the BRITANNICA stores of knowledge accessible. Thus, while keeping its own matchless qualities, it partakes of every convenience offered by the topical encyclopædias, that boast of needing no index.

After some years of experience with the book, having sold it all over the United States, and having learned in the operation what would best adapt it to the needs of the English-speaking world, THE WERNER COMPANY undertook to make this new edition (virtually the Tenth) of the ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA. The aims sought are, to supplement the BRITANNICA as to bring all the developments of history, discovery, arts and sciences down to date; to extend biography as to include living men of distinction; to enlarge the view of American interests; and to supply references to the original text, making the whole work available for easy consultation.

The work was intrusted to an editor who had spent twelve years in the study of the BRITANNICA, about whom was gathered an office-staff of twenty and a special staff of sixty-seven persons, including heads of bureaus in Washington, army and navy officers, eminent theologians, college presidents and professors, women at the head of the best-managed reforms, educators, statesmen and specialists. Their names will be found in the front of each supplementary volume.

The features of this new WERNER EDITION of the BRITANNICA are as follows:

1. An exhibition, by means of copious cross-references, of all the matter usually found in encyclopaedias, which is incorporated in the original text of the BRITANNICA. This was done, primarily, to indicate the completeness of the treatment of details in the original work, obscured by the treatise plan, and to show the reader how to find them; and secondly, to avoid repetitious handling of subjects, thus saving room for new matter.

2. An extension of the original articles on history, geography, discovery, pure and applied science, invention, politics, arts and literary and general criticism, down to the very day of publication.

3. The introduction of new topics, either arising from the differentiation of new departments of science; as, Ecology, SENSE-ORGANS, SEGMENTATION OF THE VERTEBRATE BRAIN, etc.; or from discovery and invention; as, ARGON, ROENTGEN RAYS, KINETO-PHONOGRAPH, TESLA's OscilLATOR, SUBMARINE Boats, etc.

4. Biographical enlargement, to cover eminent living persons, and the hundreds who have recently won distinction, of whom this edition sketches, under the authority of personal correspondence, many whose names appear in no other work of reference.

5. A particular survey of American interests in their latest phases.

6. A presentation of technical subjects in a form comprehensible to ordinary readers, as in the treatment of ELECTRICITY, MORPHOLOGY, etc.

7. A method of copious illustrations, amounting in number to fifteen hundred, including likenesses of notable persons, seals and capitols of states, college and university buildings, architectural structures in great cities, monumental work, and figures and diagrams exhibiting mechanisms and results of biological research.

8. A system of treating subjects by departments, so that large groups passed under the charge of specialists. Among others, The Werner COMPANY especially acknowledges the services of C. H. Cochrane, M.E., in Mechanisms, Dr. John M. Coulter in Botany, G. Mercer Adam in Literary Biography, Hon. C. D. Wright and Dr. John M. Finley in Sociological Questions, Hon. John Sherman in United States Finances, Dr. John Bach McMaster in Political Organizations, Dr. W. A. Locy in Zoology, Dr. Alexander Smith in Chemistry, Dr. S. W. Stratton in Electricity, Dr. B. A. Hinsdale in Education, and Mrs. Ellen M. Henrotin in the Advancement of Women. The systematic work of these departmental coadjutors will be found invaluable.

9. The last word that has yet been said on every theme of general or special interest.

10. It is claimed for this SUPPLEMENT that it will give new value to sets of all British and American editions heretofore bought, as well as bring them down to a later date than any other encyclopædia extant. The aim of The WERNER COMPANY has been to put upon the market a work superior to and more recent than any work of reference in the language. Its articles are made as popular in style as fidelity to truth will permit, and, in any event, on no point of vital importance are its pages to be surpassed.

PARTIAL LIST

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS

TO THE NEW AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT.

(ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.]

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G. MERCER ADAM, founder of The Canadian Monthly; William Albert Locy, Ph.D., Professor of Zoology,

formerly editor of The Canada Educational Monthly; Northwestern University, Evanston, Ill. author of Life of Sir John A. Macdonald, etc.; and BENJAMIN A. MACDONALD, formerly Editor The Billiard Editor of Self Culture (magazine), Chicago, Ill.

Mirror. Rev. P. A. BAART, A.M., of the Diocese of Detroit. ROBERT CRAik McLean, Editor Inland Architect, Chicago, Ill. ALBERT S. BOLLES, LL.D., author of Financial History of John Bach McMASTER, C.E., Ph.D., Professor of Amerthe United States, etc.

ican History, University of Pennsylvania; author of WALTER CAMP, author of Football, Facts and Figures, etc. A History of the People of the United States from the John F. CARGILL, formerly U. S. Deputy Mineral Sur- Revolution to the Civil War, etc. veyor, author of A Freak in Finance, etc.

John P. Meany, Editor Poor's Manual of Railroads, New 1. I. CASE, J. I. Case Threshing-Machine Company.

York. CHARLES F. CLARK, President of the Bradstreet Company. G. W. MELVILLE (COMMODORE), Engineer-in-Chief, United CHARLES H. CLARK (CAPT.), assistant ordnance officer, States Navy, Washington, D.C. War Department, Washington, D.C.

Nelson A. Miles (MAJ.-Gen.), Commanding the Army of JAMES B. Clow, Sanitary Expert, Chicago, Ill.

the United States, Washington, D.C. CHARLES HENRY COCHRANE, M.E., author of Artistic JOHN J. MITCHELL, President Illinois Trust and Savings

Homes, and How to Decorate Theni; The Wonders Bank, Chicago. of Modern Mechanism (1896); etc.

William F. MORSELL, Ph.D., Assistant Director United LYMAN E. COOLEY, C.E., Engineer United States Deep States Geological Survey, Department of the Inte

Waterways Commission; formerly Chief Engineer rior, Washington, D.C. and member Board of Trustees of the Sanitary J. STERLING Morton, Secretary of Agriculture, WashingDistrict of Chicago; etc.

ton, D.C. John M. COULTER, LL.D., Head Professor of Botany, MARY E. MUMFORD, Member of Philadelphia Board of University of Chicago.

Education, and Vice-President General Federation CARL A. Daniell, Editor Presto, Chicago, Ill.

of Woman's Clubs. JOHN H. FINLEY, PH.D., President Knox College, Gales- SIMON NEWCOMB, LL.D., F.R.S., Professor of Mathema. burg, Ill.

tics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University; D. W. FLAGLER (BRIG.-GEN.), Chief of Ordnance, Wash- Superintendent of the Nautical Almanac, United ington, D.C.

States Navy Department, etc., Washington, D.C. JAMES CARDINAL GIBBONS, Baltimore, Md.; Primate of S. N. D. North, Secretary of National Association of the Roman Catholic Church in America.

Wool Manufacturers, Boston, Mass.
Albert G. GLOVER, Editor Engraver and Printer, Boston, Fred. Pabst, President Pabst Brewing Company.
Mass.

Fred Lewis PATTEE, M.A., Professor of English and A. W. GREELY (BRIG.-Gen.), Arctic explorer, Chief Sig- Rhetoric, Pennsylvania State College; author of A nal-Officer, Washington, D.C.

History of American Literature, etc. HENRY F. GRIERSON (CAPT.), Specialist in Irrigation, etc., ROSSITER W. RAYMOND, Ph.D., Mining Engineer and Rochester, N.Y.

Metallurgist; Secretary of the American Institute of BAIRD HALBERSTADT, Mining Engineer and Geologist; Mining Engineers, New York.

member of Pennsylvania Board of Examiners; etc. Thomas B. REED, Speaker Fifty-first and Fifty-fourth W. E. Hale, inventor of the Hale Elevator, etc.

Congresses, etc., Washington, D.C. MARK W. HARRINGTON, LL.D., President of the Uni- JOHN SHERMAN, Ex-Secretary of the Treasury; United

versity of Washington, Seattle, Wash.; formerly States Senator from Ohio; Secretary of State, etc. Chief of United States Weather Bureau.

ALEXANDER SMITH, Ph.D., Assistant Professor of General Henry E. O. HEINEMANN, Journalist, Chicago, Ill.

Chemistry, University of Chicago. ELLEN M. HENROTIN, President General Federation of A. G. SPALDING, First Captain Chicago Baseball Club, etc. Women's Clubs.

John F. STEWARD, Deering Harvester Company. B. A. HINSDALE, PH.D., LL.D., Professor of the Art and MELVILLE E. STONE, General Manager Associated Press. Science of Teaching, University of Michigan.

$. W. STRATTON, Ph.D., Ryerson Physical Laboratory, Emil G. Hirsch, D.D., Professor of Semitic Languages University of Chicago.

in the University of Chicago; Rabbi Sinai Congre- CHARLES H. Thornton, Daily Commercial Record, Duluth, gation, Chicago; member Board of Directors Chicago Minn. Public Library; etc.

R. H. THURSTON, LL.D., Director of Sibley College, and SHEPPARD Homans, Consulting Actuary; First President Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Cornell Uni

Actuarial Society of America, and Corresponding versity.

Secretary London Institute of Actuaries, New York. E. C. TOWNE (Yale, '56), Chicago, Ill. A. W. HULING, Editor The Argus.

HENRY C. Wallace, Editor The Creamery Gazette, Des E. W. HUNTINGFORD, M.A., Professor of Classics, Trinity Moines, Iowa. University, Toronto, Canada.

FRANCES E. WILLARD, LL.D., President of the World's ALBERT E. HYDE, Sanitary Expert, etc., Chattanooga, and National Women's Christian Temperance Union, Tenn.

Evanston, Ill. FRANKLIN JOHNSON, D.D., Professor, Divinity Depart- W. D. WILLES, Press Club, New York. ment, University of Chicago.

Edward L. Wilson, Editor Wilson's Photographic MagaJ. H. S. JOHNSTONE, Editor The Horseman.

zine; author of Quarter-Century in Photography. 1. Thomas Kelley, JR., M.D., Washington, D.C.

J. L. WITyROW, D.D., LL.D., Moderator of the General Day Otis KELLOGG, D.D., Editor New Supplement to the Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United

ninth edition of the ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA; States. formerly Professor of English Literature and His- De Volson Wood, Ph.D., Professor in Stevens Institute, tory, Kansas State University.

Hoboken, N.J. FRANCIS E. LEUPP, Board of Indian Commissioners, De- CARROLL D. Wright, LL.D., United States Commispartment of the Interior, Washington, D.C.

sioner of Labor, Washington, D.C.

ILLUSTRATIONS

IN THIS VOLUME.

311

398

621

Page.

PAGE.

Albert Memorial, London

115 Arizona

230

American Surety Co.'s Building, New York-

224

Arkansas.

232

Antheridium

194
Apical Cell

203

STATE CAPITOL BUILDINGS.

Apisides---

210 Albany, New York

113

Archegonium

217 Annapolis, Maryland.-

Igo

Archesporium
218 Austin, Texas

292
Auditorium Building, Chicago
224 Baton Rouge, Louisiana---

379
Bacterial Forms
Baseball-Field, Diagram of.

371 COLLEGE AND UNIVERSITY BUILDINGS.
Beehives and Beehouses--

Adelbert College, Cleveland, Ohio------

47
Bell of Moscow, The Great
413 University of New Mexico, Albuquerque--

116

Bellevue Hospital, New York-

411 Amherst College, Massachusetts--

166

Bicycle, Modern Safety ---

458 Beloit College, Wisconsin -

414

Bison, The American

479 Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine---

536

Boston Public Library -

528 Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 595

British Museum, The---

576

Bryn-Mawr College, Pennsylvania

602

Bruges Belfry ----

406

Bunker Hill Monument.

PORTRAITS.

Capitol at Washington, D. C. -----

224 Abbott, Lyman,

15

Chronicle Building, San Francisco.-

224 Aberdeen, John Hamilton Gordon, Seventh Earl of. 26

City Hall, Baltimore...

331 Abert, John James.

26

City Hall, Phænix, Arizona

231 Abdul-Hamid II.--

24

Elevation of Administration Building, Chicago. 224 Adams, Abigail Smith -

42

Exchange Building, Kansas City ----

224 Adams, Charles Francis..

43

Faneuil Hall, Boston--

527 Adams William ---

45

Fisher Building, Chicago

224 Agassiz, Alexander..

84

Fort Street Union Depot, Detroit

224 Albani, Madame..

113

Grand Central Passenger Depot, Chicago.

224 Alboni, Marietta ----

116

Hotel Ponce-De-Leon, St. Augustine--

224 Alcott, Louisa May----

118

Hotel Waldorf, New York ---

224

Aldrich, Thomas Bailey--

119

Liberty Enlightening the World, New York-

397 Alexander III

I21

Masonic Temple, Chicago----

224 Alexandra, Princess of Wales -

Mills Building, San Francisco--

224 Allen, Ethan

129

Modern Beehive ---

399

Allibone, Sa uel Austin---

133

Newberry Library, Chicago---

224 Allison, William B.---

134

Residence, St. Joseph, Mo.-

224 Allston, Washington---

136

Residence, St. Louis--

224 Alma-Tadema, Lawrence.

137

Residence, St. Louis..

224

Ames, Edward Raymond....

167

Schiller Building, Chicago

224

Andersen, Hans Christian-

178

State, War, and Navy Department Building, Wash- Anderson, Robert----

179

ington, D. C.-----

224 Andrassy, Julius, Count-

181

The Brandenburg Gate, Berlin ----

431 Andrew, John Albion

181

The Reichstag Building, Berlin.

430 Andrews, Edward Gayer.---

182

The Rookery, Chicago

224 Andrews, Elisha Benjamin--

182

The Treasury Building, Washington, D. C.-- 224 Angell, James Burrill,

186

Trinity Church, Boston..

224 Anthony, Henry Bowen...

195

Union Trust Company's Building, St. Louis

224 Anthony, Susan Brownell.

195

United States Custom House and Postoffice, Chicago 224 Appleton, Daniel Sidney' --

208

Arabi Pasha, Ahmed-El-Houssian---

STATE AND TERRITORIAL SEALS.

213

Argyll, George Douglas Campbell, Duke of.... 228

Alabama

107 Arnold, Benedict-----

242

Alaska

109 Arnold, Matthew

244

vi

I 22

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