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so exposed to the fierce southeasterly gales that it is barren plateaus. The streams, also, are utilized and visited by but few sailing-vessels, nearly the whole distributed by canals over the surrounding land, of its foreign trade being conducted by powerful while the underground waters are reached by deep ocean-going steamers, landing from which, in rough wells, pumps and other appliances. Pasturage and weather, is an ordeal not without risk. This “Liv- stock-breeding of all kinds have been greatly devel. erpool of Africa," as it has been called, is the sea- oped, especially in the eastern provinces. Cattle of

, ward terminus of two important railways,- one to the long-horn Dutch variety are largely bred as draft Bloemfontein, capital of the Orange Free State, with animals; the native fat-tailed sheep yield mutton for a branch to Graham's Town, and another north- the market; while the Angora and English breeds westward branch; and the other lying more to the supply large quantities of wool for exportation. The west, and running to Graafreynet through several colony is, in respect of industries, still mainly dethriving market towns and centers of agricultural pendent on the mother country for textiles, hardindustry.

ware, chemicals, paper, china and earthenware; but In the eastern division, beyond Grahain's Town more or less successful essays have already been toward the Kafir frontier, there are no Dutch and made at distilling, brewing, tanning, spinning and very few English settlements. Six in the extreme weaving, carriage-building and soap-making. Foreast are all stations on a railway running from East eign trade is rapidly increasing, the total imports London on the coast to Aliwal north on the Orange and exports having advanced from $60,000,000 in River at the Free State frontier. It was in this dis- 1884 to $123,475,000 in 1893. trict that various settlements were formed by the The governinent of Cape Colony is a governor Anglo-German legion when it was disbanded after appointed by the crown, a ministry of 6 members, the Crimean War. The administrative center here a house of assembly elected for 5 years, and a is King William's Town, a flourishing trading-place legislative council, or upper house, of 22 members and chief depot for the traffic with Kaffraria. East elected for seven years. By a law passed in 1882, London, the only outlet for the whole region, has speeches may be made in the Cape parliament both extensive harbor-works, carried out in recent years, in English and in Dutch. The systematic British yet it still remains an exposed roadstead, inaccessible immigration begun in 1820, and at first promoted for days together. Since 1888 the South African by state aid, resulted in making an eastern division railways have been developed in the direction of a of the colony, which was mostly British, with its common continental system, which already reaches center at Graham's Town, while the western division Pretoria, capital of the South African Republic, and remained almost wholly Dutch ; but a process of Johannesburg in the same state, and is likely to be fusion followed, making Cape Town, in the west, extended to the Zambesi, and thence to Buluwayo almost an English city, while some of the eastern and Salisbury.

districts show a majority of voters of Dutch descent, Cape Colony has over 8,000 miles of roads, and and antagonism between the English and Dutch is government railways 2,253 miles in total length, nowhere found. involving an investment of $99,160,095. The tele- BASUTOLAND. On the northeast of the extreme graph lines comprise 5,602 miles. They are oper- east end of Cape Colony lies Basutoland, an irreguated and were in great part constructed by the lar oval with an area estimated at 10,293 square government.

miles. It borders on the Orange Free State. It Besides 537 square miles of forest in Cape Colony, is one continuous elevated plateau, though broken a total area of 100,609,606 acres is in the hands of and rugged, and the abundant grass on it has enabled private owners, and 41,041,025 acres are still public the Basutos, its native African population, to rear land. The chief agricultural productions are wheat, immense herds of cattle. It is well watered and has oats, barley, mealies, Kafir corn, rye, oat hay, tobacco, a fine climate, and is said to be the best grain-prowine, brandy and raisins. Other products are wool, ducing country in South Africa. British possession mohair, ostrich feathers, butter and cheese. The was first taken by annexation to Cape Colony in sheep-farms of the colony are often of very great August, 1871, but since March 13, 1884, it has been extent, from 3,000 to 15,000 acres and upward. directly under the crown, with a resident commisFarms in tillage are comparatively small. It is owing sioner as governor. The population at the last cento the generally deficient rainfall that pastoral pur- sus, in 1891, was 587 Europeans, and 218,324 nasuits necessarily prevail over tillage. Of the 92,000,- tives. European settlement is prohibited, permanent 000 acres distributed among 20,000 holdings in occupation being reserved to the natives. 1890, less than 1,000,000 were under cultivation, the BECHUANALAND. On the other side of the Orange chief crops being wheat (4,000,000 bushels) and maize Free State, and to the west of the South African (3,000,000 bushels). Nearly 20,000 acres are occupied Republic, lies an extensive region constituting an by the most productive vineyards in the world, yield- annex to Cape Colony, on the north side of the ing an average of 6,000,000 gallons of wine and Orange River, and bordering to the west on Ger1,250,000 of brandy. Improved methods of irriga- man West Africa. The larger part of this region to tion are bringing more land under cultivation every the west and north is the crown colony of Bechuanayear, especially where advantage can be taken of the land, with an area of 71,000 square miles, annexed nature of the ground to create artificial reservoirs. Sept. 30, 1885, and a still larger extent of territory Basins of vast size, containing from 100 to 200 and to the north of it, attached by way of a protectoreven 250 million gallons, have been made the means ate, making the whole Bechuanaland region under of reclaiming extensive tracts in the karoos, or dry, | the colonial governor 170,000 square miles. The

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governor of Cape Colony is the governor, acting in the whole world. At present there are no open through an administrator, whom he appoints. The workings, all operations being carried on by means general elevation of the country is from 4,000 to of shafts and underground galleries, as in ordinary 5,000 feet above sea-level. The climate is healthy. coal-mines. To control the output, and prevent a Many parts are deficient in water-supply. The chief glut of the market, individual claims were gradually industry is agriculture, and the country is well | bought up by the larger capitalists, sometimes at adapted to the growing of maize and the raising of enormous prices, and the whole of the diamond cattle.

interest united in one amalgamated corporation. GRIQUALAND WEST. The southeastern section of Owing to the great depth of the pipes, the mines this region north of the Orange River is Griqua- may be regarded as practically inexhaustible. In land West, lying next to the Orange Free State. It 1889, 1890 and 1891 the output exceeded $20,000,is an integral part of Cape Colony, annexed in 1871 ooo, while from 1867 to 1893 the total yield fell little and incorporated in 1877. It comprises an area of short of $332,500,000. about 18,000 square miles. Kimberley, its principal Besides the diamond-fields and the copper-mines town and its chief mining center, distant 620 miles already mentioned, the extensive coal-measures of by rail from Cape Town and 430 from Port Eliza- | the Stromberg uplands, which the railway from East beth, has a population of about 20,000, and is rapidly London crosses at a pass 5,750 feet high, contain a becoming a great stronghold of British power and vast store of fuel for future use. influence throughout South Central Africa. Here Natal. The present colony of Natal was formerly was held the first “South African and Intercolonial an integral part of the Cape of Good Hope setExhibition,” in the year 1892. The diamond-fields tlement. It was erected in 1856 into a separate of Griqualand West are the chief mineral wealth of colony under the British crown, and has been, since Cape Colony. An African diamond was first found 1882, under a governor appointed by the crown. By south of the Orange River, in the Hopetown district, a colonial charter granted in 1893, the governor

, early in 1867. It was eventually sold for $2,500. A appoints a cabinet of ministers, and, with their admuch larger stone, obtained in the same locality in vice, a legislative council, or upper house, of 11 1869, was sold, when cut down from 83 to over 46 members. He also provides for the election, by the carats, for $56,000. No other finds were made on people, of a legislative assembly of 37 members. the south of the Orange, but search elsewhere led to The colony has an area of about 20,460 square valuable finds, scattered over a vast area north of the miles, with a coast about 200 miles in length. Of Orange. Valuable river diggings were discovered at the land of the colony, 2,250,000 acres are reserved Pniel Kopje and Klipdrift (now Barkly), facing each for native occupation, and 8,250,000 acres have been other on the left and right banks of the Vaal. The acquired, by grant from the crown, by Europeans. diamonds of this district are said to be of purer The leading crops are sugar, maize, wheat, oats, and water than any others. The diggings still yield over other cereal and green crops, and tea-planting has $200,000 a year, the total production down to 1893 been recently introduced. The coal-fields of the having been considerably over $10,000,000.

colony are of large extent, and rich beds of iron ore The true placers, or dry diggings, where the stones have been found in many parts. There are 399 occur in situ, and have consequently to be mined miles of railway open, nearly all constructed and with costly appliances, lie clustered together about worked by the government. The main line extends 24 miles southeast of Pniel, in a district less than 12 from the port of Durban to the border of the Transmiles in circumference, close to the Orange Free vaal, 306 miles. An extension of 161 miles gives railState frontier. Here have been opened the four way communication to Johannesburg. The populagreat “pipes," as they are called, of Bultfontein, Du tion of Natal at the last census (1891) was 544,000. Toit's Pan, De Beers, and Kimberley, the last, which Durban, founded in 1846, on the only inlet accessigives its name to the neighboring town, being the ble to shipping along the whole of the Natal coast, richest diamond-mine in the world. The pipes, ris- and the outlet for the whole trade of the colony, ing above the surface from 60 to 100 feet, are most consists of two distinct quarters, connected by rail probably extinct craters. They are found to broaden Durban proper, on the north side of the basin, in out to depths of over 2,000 feet, penetrating, in de- which the water is only seven feet deep, and Port scending order, through a variety of rocks, down to Natal, at the entrance. The population of Durban the primitive granite and gneiss. The diamonds are (Europeans, Zulus, Hindus, Arabs, Chinese, and found, not in the rock formations, but in the yellow other Asiatics) is about 30,000. and the lower-down blue eruptive matter which fills ZULULAND. Zululand, lying on the coast to the the pipes, and which is supposed to have been forced north of Natal, has an area of a little over 12,500 upward by the pressure of the underground gases. square miles, with a population, in 1893, of 857 The stones are distributed in the blue rock, appar- whites and 163,447 natives. After the death of Cetyently in a certain regular order known to experienced wayo in 1884, and the Zulus proving unable either miners. A peculiarity of the Cape diamond-fields, to establish orderly government or to resist enas compared with those of Brazil and India, is the croachment by the Transvaal Boers, England interhigh proportion of largestones that they have yielded. fered, and in May, 1887, constituted what remained Several have been found weighing upward of 100 of the old Zulu kingdom a British protectorate, carats in the rough state. The famous “Stewart," administered by a resident commissioner under the found in an outside claim in 1872, weighed 288

governor of Natal.

In 1895 this protectorate was carats, being exceeded in size by only three others extended by taking in the southern section of

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Tongaland to the south limit of Portuguese East mongrel class, which consists of whites, Hottentots, Africa.

and blacks. ORANGE FREE STATE-SOUTH AFRICAN REPUBLIC. The original purpose of the Dutch settlement Two large Dutch states, lying inland in eastern being that of a fortified trading-station, and not that South Africa. The Orange Free State, extending of a colony looking to territorial expansion, the colofrom the Orange River to the Vaal River, and the nial authorities tried to confine the plantation to a much larger South African Republic, extending narrowly limited vicinity, even threatening with from the Vaal north to the Limpopo, mark the final death and confiscation of property those who venterritorial and political result of the presence of a tured to "trek” – that is, travel by wagon — in peculiar Dutch element in the original settlement of search of new settlements at a distance. To trek South Africa. The earliest forınal act of possession means to drag or draw. Dutch trekking was always

. at the Cape was that of two passing ships of the done by means of huge wagons, drawn by long teams English East India Company in 1620, the year of of oxen,- wagons which were immense schooners, the first planting of New England, in America; but covered and fitted to serve for both carrying and this was not followed up by the British government, housing purposes. Not only could the trekker travel and the first permanent settlement was effected by slowly onward at will, but he could tarry by the way the Dutch, in 1652, in sequel to compulsory explora- for a season of hunting or fishing, or delay on tions carried out, during the four years previous, by account of weather, or even for a season long enough the crew of a Dutch vessel wrecked on the coast of to plant and gather crops. Trekking became an Table Bay. The Dutch held undisturbed possession irresistible movement away from the original Cape for over 140 years. The first Boers (pronounced station, the continuance of which to the present Bûrs), or peasant farmers, began to arrive as early as time has not only created the two Dutch states men1654. They were mainly Dutch, but with a few tioned, but has scattered the primitive Boer element Germans, and after the revocation of the Edict of throughout the greater part of South Africa, from Nantes (1685) a considerable number of French the Cape northward to the Cunene River, and northHuguenots were added, together with other Protes- eastward to the Limpopo. tants (Waldenses) from the Piedmontese Alpine val- At the time of the British occupation in 1806, the leys. Owing to the great intelligence, energy, and total population of about 75,000 was about one third agricultural skill of these non-Dutch immigrants, Boers, one third pure and mixed Hottentot serfs, they took a leading part in the development of the and one third negro slaves. The Boers regarded colony, and to them is especially due the successful themselves literally as “the chosen people,” with a introduction of the culture of the vine. Having divine, indefeasible right to ownership of “the cursed brought their families with them, they increased children of Ham." They resisted to the utmost the more rapidly than the Dutch, many of whom were movement for the emancipation of the slaves, breakofficials and soldiers without families, who intermar- | ing out into open revolt in 1815, with extensive ried with the native women, and gave rise to the resort to trekking, and, when slavery was abolished mongrel element still commonly known as “Bas- in 1833, undertaking the so-called "Great Trek” of

tards.” Thousands of the present Boers are still 1834, to carry their families, their slaves and their proud of their Huguenot descent, and numerous herds beyond the jurisdiction of the British authorifamily and geographical names remain to attest the ties. Moving with immense wagons, which served former widespread influence of the French settlers. as their dwelling-places, and driving before them Nevertheless, the French and other non-Dutch set- such cattle as were not yoked in long files to tlers were gradually depressed under dominant their wagons, or tarrying in choice places for pasDutch rule, which, in 1724, officially banished all turage and for sufficient tillage of the ground to languages, except Dutch, from the schools and the supply their food necessities, they moved steadily pulpits. The Dutch attitude toward the natives was northward, out of reach of English control. Many equally that of brutal selfishness, such as has every- went to Natal, but moved farther on when Natal where appeared in Dutch colonial operations. Begin- was annexed by the British. In this way the Dutch ning by purchasing lands from the Hottentots, they Boers finally found, on the north side of the Orange employed, instead, forcible dispossession as they River, a land of their own, which they developed grew more powerful, and at last added the extreme into the Orange Free State, the present estimated measure of holding the owners of seized lands as area of which is 41,500 square miles, with an estislaves for tilling the soil. The Hottentots, accus- inated population of 208,000, of which about 78,000 tomed only to the tending of flocks, proved inferior are whites. The proceedings of the Boers followed agricultural laborers, and were gradually replaced the plan of either dispersing or reducing to virtual by negroes or negroid Bantus, mainly from the East servitude the natives whom they found on the soil; Coast. The foreign slave-trade, for accomplishing and even with concession to British demands in the this, began within 10 years of the foundation of the matter of slavery, they still exclude the blacks from settlement, and was for a time so extensive that the the franchise, from ownership of land, and from black slaves outnumbered the free peasantry. With bearing of arms, and both pay them badly and treat the falling off, later, of the importation of negro them with great harshness. slaves, the number at the time of emancipation car- The Orange Free State found its limit on the ried out by Great Britain in 1833 was not more north at the Vaal River. Across the Vaal, by the than 25,000, scattered over the agricultural districts, advance northward of other trekkers, a second exand most of these have since been absorbed in the tensive settlement of Dutch Boers was made, and

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this became the Transvaal, which, by the convention | mine close to Pretoria. The total mileage of railof London, Feb. 27, 1884, was recognized as the ways open in September, 1895, was 424; under South African Republic, the total area of which is construction, 384; and projected, 381. Pretoria is, roughly estimated at 114,000 square miles, with a by rail, 1,040 miles from Cape Town. Telegraph population, in 1890, of 680,000, 120,000 of whom lines within the Transvaal extend 1,952 miles. are whites, probably about half of them Boers, and TONGALAND. North of Zululand, the low-lying nearly all the rest English, or others of English malarious coast region extending from Lake St. speech. Rough, cruel, exterminating treatment of Lucia to Delagoa Bay, and known as Tongaland, the natives has been the rule of the Dutch trekkers. had always been claimed by the Portuguese, although Livingstone testified to having been a frequent eye. they had not entered it to make any permanent setwitness of the cruelties inflicted by the Boers on the tlement. By an agreement of August, 1890, benative populations, making captives of children, tween England and Portugal, a line was drawn preferably very young children, to be reared as annexing the more northern part, 5,000 square slaves, and unhesitatingly carrying out these or miles, to Portuguese East Africa, and giving Eng. other measures of Boer civilization, at whatever cost land the south part, with an area of 2,000 square of bloody suppression of native resistance. Dwelling miles. The extremely unhealthy climate, and the in rude habitations little better than hovels, on allot- absence of mineral wealth, protects the natives, who ments averaging about 6,000 acres, often clothed in are mostly peaceful agriculturists, from the encroachthe skins of animals, and knowing little contact ments of white settlers. with others except that of the bloody hand with the SWAZILAND. To the east of Tongaland, on the natives, the Boer life tended to be one of savage edge of the upland regions, and extending back isolation, absolutely barbarous, until the discovery of from the Lebombo range to the Drakenberg, the the gold-fields and the rapid development of min border of the Transvaal, there had sprung up the ing and associated industries brought British civili- little native state of Swaziland, through a successful zation upon the scene, with the extraordinary recent assertion of independence by the people, whose development of Johannesburg in the Witwatersrand chief was named Swazi. The rich pasture-lands and region, and of Barberton, the center of the Kaap extensive gold-fields of the district, together with gold-bearing region, near the Portuguese frontier. the desire of the Boers to push their limits as near So late as 1891 Dutch resistance to the limitations of as possible to the coast, led to efforts of encroachcivilization manifested itself in an attempt to organ- ment by the Transvaal, the last result of which was ize another trek in the direction of the Zambesi, a convention of November, 1893, between the British with the view of founding a new Dutch republic and Dutch authorities, by which Swaziland was ansomewhere beyond the Limpopo. Against this,

Against this, nexed to the Transvaal. The right to make a railway prompt protest was effectually made to President through it to Kosi Bay, on the Tongaland coast, had Kruger, April, 1891, by Sir Henry Loch, the high a short time before been conceded to the Boers. commissioner at the Cape, plainly intimating that PORTUGUESE STATE OF EAST AFRICA. Portuany attempt whatever to plant another Boer state guese East Africa extends from Kosi Bay, the north within reach of British authority would be forcibly limit of British coast territory in South Africa, for resisted. President Kruger's acceptance of this about 1,400 miles northeastward to the Rovuma marked the close of Boer political expansion in River, the south limit of German East Africa. It South Africa. The Transvaal capital, Pretoria, is divided into two nearly equal sections by the planned to accommodate ten times the number, has lower course of the Zambesi River. The southern 6,000 to 8,000 inhabitants. Its southern rival, Pot- section stretches from the coast for an average dischefstrooin, 90 miles farther south, the first place tance of some 200 miles inland to the east border founded in the Transvaal, and for some time the seat of the Transvaal and the eastern limit of British of government, and largest town in the state, has Central Africa. This section is also carried up the a population of about 5,000. Johannesburg has a valley of the Zambesi as far as Zumbo, more than population of more than 60,000, and a floating pop- 500 miles from the sea, and constitutes a Portuulation of 45,000 in the gold-fields. Barberton num- guese district nearly surrounded by British Zambesi. bers about 10,000. In the Orange Free State there The northern section extends from the coast, for an are no large centers of population. The government average distance of 300 miles, to Lakes Nyassa and of the Orange Free State is that of a popular assem- Shirwa and the River Ruo, beyond which a long bly, the Volksraad, of 58 members, and of a presi- north and south region constitutes a British Central dent, with an executive council of 5. The capital is African protectorate. The southern region is comBloemfontein. The Transvaal government consists monly designated Gazaland, and the northern, Mo. of a parliament of two chambers, each of 24 mem- zambique. In 1891 the whole was constituted the

, bers, and of a president with an executive council State of East Africa, and the two sections desigof five.

nated Mozambique and Lourenço Marques. The Gold-mining, carried on to a great extent in the collective area of the two provinces is about 620,000 various gold-fields, principally Witwatersrand and square miles, with an estimated population of 1,500,Barberton, is increasingly the overshadowing in- ooo. There are several ports on the coast. Mozamterest of the Transvaal. The total output for the bique is the capital of the northern section, and first half of 1895 was $28,180,610. For the year Lourenço Marques of the southern. The latter has 1894, 31 coal-mines were under development. Íron acquired special commercial and political importis also known to abound, and silver is worked in a ance as the terminus of the railway to the Transvaal

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and the natural outlet of the Boer republic. The rail- estimated at about 4,000,000. This new British way, 57 miles long, enters Transvaal territory at possession occupies the whole of the central region Komati Poort, where a junction is made with the between the German and Portuguese possessions on South African system, including an extension un- the west, and the Dutch republics and Portuguese dertaken by the Netherlands Company for an addi- East Africa on the east. It stretches from the north tional 290 miles to Pretoria, the Transvaal capital. limit of Cape Colony uninterruptedly northward to

GERMAN EAST AFRICA. German East Africa, the southern extremity of Lake Tanganyika, where with a coast-line on the Indian Ocean extending it has the Congo Free State on the west and German from Cape Delgado nearly due north for about 480 East Africa on the east. This gives a British highmiles to the mouth of the Umba, has an estimated way from the Cape through the Zambezi region and area of 400,000 square miles, and a population of across the Zambezi-Congo water-parting into the 2,900,000. It is shut in by British East Africa on Upper Congo basin. With the free navigation of the north, the Kongo State on the west, and Brit Lake Tanganyika, which is likely to be secured by ish Zambesia and Portuguese East Africa on the international agreement, British trade and enterprise south. It was only from the autumn of the year secure 400 miles more of continuous highway and 1884 that German agents, disguised as needy travel thereby reach a point only 150 miles distant from ers, passed over from the island of Zanzibar to the Mount Mfumbiro, which is now the southern limit mainland and secured, or pretended to secure, of the advance of British influence through Egypt treaties of annexation from local chiefs who were by way of the Nile. By an Anglo-German agreenominally vassals or subjects of the Sultan of Zanzi- ment of July, 1890, British passengers and goods bar, who was himself virtually under the protection have freedom of transit across the 150 miles from of Great Britain. The German imperial govern- Tanganyika to Mfumbiro. England only needs to ment proceeded upon the "treaties” as accomplished obtain, by agreement with the Congo Free State, on facts, and forced the Sultan of Zanzibar to submit the west, and Germany, occupying to the east, a conto the German claims. By two Anglo-German connecting link of territory 150 miles long, to be able ventions, of 1886 and 1890, the Sultan was dispos- to travel within her own borders down the center of sessed both on the mainland and on all the con- Africa from the mouth of the Nile to the Cape of tiguous islands except Zanzibar and Pemba, while Good Hope. A principal aim of Great Britain has the sultanate itself, thus limited to two islets with a has been to secure herself in the possession of this joint area of scarcely 1,000 square miles, was continuous territory through the heart of Africa declared (1890) a British protectorate. The vast from Cape Colony in the extreme south to Lake interior region thus brought under German control Tanganyika in the extreme north of Zambezia. The has been very little penetrated except by Arab Boers, soon after the restoration of the Transvaal dealers in slaves and ivory. The German East (1881), threatened this by aggressive movements on Africa Company, chartered in 1885, administers, the west,- movements made in secret concert with through an imperial commissioner, the district of Germany in Southwest Africa. This led the British the Usagara uplands, the finest district in the whole government, acting under an agreement with the region. The imperial government has given sub- native Bechuana chiefs, to constitute the greater part stantial assistance in divers ways, including heavy of South Bechuanaland a British crown colony. subsidies for railways, steamers and public works. British interests were further safeguarded by a proLying close under the equator, and without any tectorate over North Bechuanaland, proclaimed in great extent of highlands or of lofty plateau, the March, 1885, and by agreements, first with Germany, chances of German colonial development are poor. July, 1890, and later with Portugal, May, 1891, the There are probably not more than 30,000 square result of which was to definitely fix frontiers toward miles available for plantations and other branches the Congo Free State and the Portuguese and Gerof husbandry, and most of this lies in a decidedly man West African possessions on the west, and Gerunhealthy climate. Four fifths of the whole terri- man East Africa, Portuguese East Africa and the tory is a barren waste, almost uninhabited steppe, Transvaal on the east, the border of Cape Colony savanna, and bush. The total African possessions being the limit on the south. The whole of this of Germany, both southwest and east, acquired in vast region, between the Cape Colony border and the years 1884 to 1890, have an estimated area of Lake Tanganyika, is roughly divided into Bechuana884,810 square miles, and a population of 8,370,000. land south and north and Zambezia south and north. Developments of every kind, mineral, agricultural Across the whole of Zambezia, from the north border and commercial, have yet to be made. The total of the Transvaal, the map carries the general name value of imports and exports of the German colonies Rhodesia, about one third of which, lying to the and possessions in Africa during the year ending south and east of the Zambezi River, includes the with June, 1895, was $6,149,165. The great bulk two great native districts of Matabeleland and of the trade, especially in German East Africa, is Mashonaland, within which the English settlements carried on with other countries than Germany. so far made are situated. It is in Mashonaland, to

BRITISH SOUTH-CENTRAL AFRICA. Within less the northeast, that Salisbury, the Rhodesia seat of than 10 years vast changes have taken place in the administration, has been founded. Buluwayo, the political relations of South Africa, the chief result seat of Matabele uprising against English rule (1896), of which has been the creation of “ British South is the chief point of English occupation in MatabeleCentral Africa,” a territory nearly 1,000,000 square land. It was in 1890 that the chartered South Africa miles in extent, with a population approximately Company took formal possession of Mashonaland,

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