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putting an end to the reign of terrorism which had population of about 3,000,000 and a European popprevailed in the region between the Limpopo and ulation something over 300. Large portions of the Zambesi for more than half a century, in con: region are wholly uninhabited, the native population quence of Zulu invasion from the south. The Zulu being congregated for the most part in that portion headquarters for systematic plunder and massacre, of the territory where they can receive British profirst under Umsilikatzi, and later (after 1870) under tection against seizure by traders in slaves. What is Lobengula, was at Buluwayo. The death of Loben- known as the British Central African protectorate in gula, Jan. 23, 1894, shortly after British occupation the vicinity of Lake Nyassa, and extending toward of Buluwayo, November, 1893, marked the con- the Zambezi, maintains an administration under clusion of the enterprise for establishing British rule which life and property are safe. The climate of in Mashonaland and Matabeleland. The South this part of British Central Africa, though not favorZambezian uplands, from the Limpopo, or north able to the health of Europeans in general, is less border of the Transvaal, to the Zambezi

, are a north- unhealthy than that of the greater part of tropical ern extension of the Transvaal plateau, with an Africa. The chief town is Blantyre, in the Shiré elevation of from 3,000 to 4,000 feet. They form highlands, with a population of 6,000 natives and one of the most highly favored regions in the whole 100 Europeans. Zomba, on the Shiré River, is the of Africa. The scenery of the country is of the seat of the administration. Coffee and rice are grandest type, with much that is indescribably lovely among the successful products of the region, and and beautiful. No part of South Africa offers such about one fourth of the ivory exported from Africa splendid advantages to the farmer as Matabeleland is from the vicinity of Lake Nyassa. and Mashonaland. All European cereals, with most CENTRAL AFRICA. Central or tropical Africa, European tropical fruits and vegetables, thrive well. extending from the Zambesi to the bend of the The climate is remarkably good. There is hardly a Niger, or, roughly, between 18° S. and 18° N. lat., limit to the mineral wealth, especially gold, copper, consists of some 7,000,000 square miles, double the and iron. It is believed that the largest and richest size of Europe, or of Australia, or of Canada. Eng. gold-field in the world, covering an area of several land's share in Central Africa is roughly estimated hundred square miles, is that of Mashonaland.

at 2,000,000 square miles, and the total trade of the ZAMBEZI Basin. All that part of the middle and whole enormous area is approximately valued at upper Zambesi region, the altitude of which ranges $47,000,000. from sea-level to 2,500, or at most 3,000, feet, was In this immense central part of Africa there still formerly a great inland sea, and it is not now suf- remain native states not yet subjected by any Euficiently elevated to escape the malignant influences ropean power, but supposed to be within the sphere which are the result of tropical heat and large rain- of influence of one or another. A wholly unannexed fall, together with extensive swampy tracts and slug- region is that which extends from the western limits gish streams. What may be called the Zambezi of Egypt across to the eastern French limit in the basın, in the narrower sense, is a hotbed of fever. A Sahara, and from central Soudan in the south to the more favorable climate is found in the higher parts country of Fezzan in the north. It contains a of Nyassaland and especially the Shiré highlands. mountainous, uninhabited region, which the exploraIt is in these highlands that the Arab and other slave- tions of the European powers have not yet reached. hunters had especially pursued their devastating The total white population in the whole of Cenwork until the final success of British expeditions tral Africa, inclusive of officials, missionaries, traders for its suppression, in March, 1894.

and others, is estimated to not exceed 6,000. Of The inland regions of South-Central Africa were the total exports from Central Africa, all but an first reached by explorers, not from the Indian Ocean insignificant fraction are products of the jungle, by the natural highways which the great rivers form, such as palm oil, palm kernels, groundnuts, ivory, but by the long overland route from the Cape, caoutchouc, gums and similar articles, for which through Bechuanaland and Matabeleland. Living there is only a limited demand, and of which plenstone had led the way on this route in 1849 to 1856, tiful supplies are obtainable from other parts of the and by 1870 had traversed in its entire length and world. Central Africa is as capable as any other breadth the whole of the vast Zambezi basin. After region on the face of the earth of producing coffee, Livingstone the filling in of details of exploration cotton, sugar, tea, tobacco, cereals of all kinds, and was steadily prosecuted by travelers, hunters, traders, cattle; but for the development of its capabilities missionaries, scientific explorers, and mining pros an adequate white population is absolutely necespectors. Mr. W. Montagu Kerr, in 1884, for the sary. Certain regions in all parts of Central Africa first time traversed, in a northeasterly direction, the are adapted to prolonged European residence, even whole region from the Cape across Zambezia to Lake if not suited to the development of European coloNyassa. The first detailed account of Matabeleland nies. Blantyre, to the south of Lake Nyassa, has for and Mashonaland was given by Mr. Kerr. The Mata- years maintained a considerable population of Engbele gold-fields were discovered in 1868, and the lish origin, who can, with proper care, keep their expeditionary efforts of the chartered South Africa health. The Portuguese have lived for generations Company were begun in 1890.

in West Africa, where the edge of the plateau comes British CENTRAL AFRICA. To the north of the well down to the coast, and on the southern section Zambezi, an immense region, the total area of which of Portuguese West Africa a Aourishing Boer settleis officially stated at about 500,000 square miles, is ment has been established for years. It is claimed, known as British Central Africa. It has a native and undoubtedly with justice, that instead of 6,000 AFRICAN LANGUAGES- AGASSIZ

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Europeans, 600,000 could manage to live a vigorous | ing a white man, more particularly one of Dutch and healthy life in Central Africa, and that there descent, born on the African continent. It is used will be no lack of settlers as soon as the profit of in contradistinction to the term Uitlander, which residence there becomes apparent.

signifies one born in another country. The territory secured by England in East Equa- AFRIKANDER BUND OR BOND, an torial Africa, as a result of the dismemberment of ciation, organized in 1879, and consisting of Afrithe Zanzibar domain, has received the somewhat kanders. It aims at the political independence of fantastic name of Ibea, a term formed by the initial South Africa, and the formation of the United States letters of the full title, Imperial British East Africa. of South Africa there. The Imperial British East Africa Company, under AFTERGLOWS, the extraordinary brilliancy a royal charter dated September 3, 1888, obtained often seen in twilight colors after the sun has sunk the same year from the Sultan of Zanzibar a strip of to rest. Foreglows are the morning glories before the Zanzibar coast. This was extended by a second actual sunrise. Observers have noticed the prevaconcession in 1889 and a third in 1891, giving a total lence of such phenomena after great volcanic eruplength of coast subject to the company of about 450 tions, and are inclined to ascribe the glows to the miles, with all the adjacent islands as far south as presence of an infinite quantity of microscopically Zanzibar. From the coast British East Africa extends minute particles suspended in the air. west to the border of the Congo Free State and the AFTON, a town of Union County, in the southCongo-Nile water-parting. It probably exceeds in western part of the state of Iowa. It is situated on area 1,250,000 square miles, and has a population the banks of Twelve Mile Creek, in a fertile agriculestimated at about 13,000,000. The country is tural district, and on the Chicago, Burlington and opened up by means of exploring caravans carrying Quincy railroad, 12 miles E. of Creston. A good trade goods. The most advanced permanent posts private normal school and business college is occupied by Europeans are from 250 to 300 miles located here. Population 1895, 1,144. inland, where a healthy plateau has an elevation of AGAMI. See TRUMPETER, Vol. XXIII, p. 594. 7,000 feet. Mombasa, on the coast, which has a fine AGAMOGENESIS. See Biology, Vol. III, p. harbor, is the seat of government. A good road 686. has been constructed to connect Mombasa with AGAPEMONE (Gr. “An abode of love"), the Kibwezi, nearly 200 miles inland, where a mission name given to a species of reconstructed Eden, is successfully carrying on the industrial education founded in Somersetshire, England, in 1848, by of the natives. A survey has been made for the con- Henry James Prince, an ex-minister of the Church of struction of a line of railway, over 657 miles long, England. In practice, despite their pretensions, the from the coast at Mombasa to Lake Victoria Nyanza. Princeites, or "Lampeter Brethren,” were fanatics Mombasa is connected with the coast ports of the and free-lovers. Prince claimed to be “God incarcompany by telegraph lines, and with Zanzibar by a nate,” free from all desire, and he and his devotees submarine cable. *

E. C. Towne. lived in voluptuous ease. The term is also used AFRICAN LANGUAGES. See Philology, Vol. to denote the residence of any sect of free-lovers. XVIII, p. 780.

AGAPETÆ, the "beloved women” of the primAFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPALitive church who lived with ascetic men, professing CHURCH, an organization of colored Methodists, to observe lives of celibacy. This practice of spiritwhich withdrew from the care of the Methodist Epis- ual love soon led to irregularities, and was concopal Church in 1816. They elected the Rev. demined by the Lateran Council in 1139. Richard Allen as their first bishop. In tenets and AGARÚH, JAKOB GEORG, a Swedish botanist of doctrine they follow substantially the parent body. note; son of K. A. Agardh; born at Lund, Sweden, Four academies, one university, and two weekly Dec. 8, 1813. He was appointed professor of botany newspapers contribute to the advancement of the in the university of his native town, and wrote colored Methodists. In 1891, they returned to the several standard works on botany. census authorities the names of 4,150 ministers and AGARDH, KARL ADOLPH, a noted Swedish 475,565 lay members. The question of amalgama- political economist and naturalist; born at Bastad, tion with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Sweden, Jan. 23, 1785. He entered the church in Church has been seriously considered, and may be 1812, and in 1834 was consecrated bishop of Carl

stad. He published three valuable treatises on seaAFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL ZION weeds. Died at Carlstad, Sweden, Jan. 28, 1859. CHURCH, an offshoot of the African Methodist AGARICUS. See MUSHROOM, Vol. XVII, p. 74. Episcopal Church, the result of a schism and seces- AGASSIZ, ALEXANDER, American geologist sion in a New York congregation in 1820. Their and zoologist, born in Neuchâtel, Switzerland, Dec. first bishop was the Rev. Christopher Rush, chosen 17, 1835.

17, 1835. He followed his father, Louis Agassiz, to in 1838, under the title of superintendent. In 1891, the United States in 1849, graduated at Harvard in the church numbered 3,650 ministers and 425,000 1855, and received the degree of B.S. from the members. In doctrine and tenets they follow, in the Lawrence Scientific School in 1857. Two years later main, the Methodist Episcopal Church.

he collected numerous specimens of fish, for the AFRIKANDER, a term of Dutch origin, signify- Harvard museum, while on a trip to California as an

On his return in The chief authority used for the above account of Africa to date, 1860, he served as assistant in the Museum of ComA. H. Keane's Africa, in Sanford's Compendium of Geography, is an admirable contribution to knowledge of the Dark Continent. parative Zoology for five years. In 1866, he became

assistant on the coast survey.

acted upon.

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AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION – AGENDA

A. AGASSIZ.

connected with the famous Lake Superior cop- tract marriage in different states at ages varying per-mines, and developed the deposits of the from 14 to 21 years, and females from 12 tó 21

Calumet and Hecla mines years of age. An American citizen cannot be a
until they became the most Representative before he is 25 years of age, Senator
valuable in the world. He before 30, or President before 35. Between the ages
was appointed chief curat- of 18 and 45 the male citizen is liable to military
or of the museum on his service, and between 21 and 60, in most states, to
father's death in 1873, a service as juryman. In criminal law, no act done
position he held until 1885. by a child under 7 years of age is a crime, nor an
He has since been engaged act done when between the age of 7 and 14, except
in visiting foreign collections it is shown that the child has sufficiently mature
and museums, and in deep-sea understanding to distinguish between right and
dredging, making many im- wrong. See Age, Vol. I, p. 278; also LONGEVITY,
portant contributions to sci- Vol. XIV, p. 857.
ence. He is a member of AGE OF CONSENT. Age-of-consent laws are

numerous scientific societies, those which are enacted by the legislatures of the both in this country and in Europe, and the author various states providing that young girls under of several scientific works.

a certain age, therein designated, shall not be AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION, a scientific associa- capable of consenting to carnal or illicit intercourse tion organized at Lenox, Massachusetts, in 1879, with the opposite sex. These laws provide that if a for the purpose of stimulating interest in matters sci- male person of sufficiently mature age to be chargeentific. Originally confined by its founder, Mr. H. H. able with the crime of rape shall have illicit interBallard, to his pupils at the Lenox Academy, it was course with a girl of less age than that named in the turned into a general organization in 1880, which statute he shall be guilty of rape, and punishable in has increased to a membership of about ten thou- the same manner and to the same degree as though sand, grouped in some one thousand chapters. A he had committed the offense with force and against most valuable feature of the society is the inter- the will of the girl. The old English laws, from change of scientific information, specimens, etc., by which much of the law of the United States is members corresponding with one another.

derived, fixed the age of consent at 10, and later at AGASSIZ, Mount, extinct volcano of Arizona, in 12 years, and consequently the early statutes of the Coconino County, a few miles north of Flagstaff, on various states of this country usually fixed the age as the Atlantic and Pacific railroad, and at the head of of one or the other of those periods of the English the Little Colorado basin. It is one of the San law. Within the last decade the laws fixing the age Francisco mountains, and is 10,000 feet in height. of consent have received radical changes, both in

AGATHA, SAINT, a noble lady of Sicily. She is this country and in England, and the age has been said to have resented insults of the prefect Quin- fixed in England at 16 years, and in most of the tianus, and to have suffered martyrdom at Catana, states of this country at either 14 or 16 years. in the persecution of Christians under Decius, 251 has recently been increased in Florida to 17 years, A.D. The Roman and Anglican churches com- and in Kansas and Wyoming to 18 years. This memorate her martyrdom on February 5th.

reform has not met with success in some states, but AGAVE. See American aloe, under ALOE, Vol. the modern tendency seems to be that the age of I, p. 597.

consent should be at least 16 years. In only 10 AGE. Legal divisions of human life differ con- states is the age now less than 14 years. Recent siderably in different countries, being sometimes investigations of the extent of crimes against young arbitrary, and sometimes founded on nature. The girls have aroused public interest, with the prospect whole period previous to 21 years of age is generally that in other states laws may be passed to materspoken of as infancy; but notwithstanding this ially increase the age of consent. general division, which is applied to both sexes, the AGENCY, is the relation between two or more ages of male and female differ for different purposes. persons, whereby one is authorized to act for and

In England, a male at the age of 12 may take the on behalf of the other, to a more or less limited oath of allegiance; at 14, consent or disagree to extent, in the transaction of business affairs. The marriage, choose his guardian and be an executor; one thus employed is termed the agent, while the but when 21, is at his own disposal,-may alien and employer is termed the principal. Agency is a devise his lands, etc. A female at 7 years may contractual relation, which may be either express be given in marriage, at 14 choose a guardian, at 17 or implied. Unauthorized acts of an agent become be an executrix, and at 21 dispose of herself and binding upon the principal, if ratified by him. Ratiher lands.

fication will be presumed from the silence of the In Scotland, the marriageable age is 14 in males principal after notice of the act, or from acts inconand 12 in females. Both sexes are of age at 21. sistent with a contrary presumption. Generally, all

In France, 18 in males and 15 in females is full persons of sound mind, and of sufficiently mature age; these are the ages at which they may respec- age to transact the business required, including martively marry with consent of parents. At the age ried women and minors, are legally qualified to act of 21 men are eligible for public office.

as agents. See AGENT, Vol. I, p. 280. In the United States a person becomes of legal AGENDA, a term in theology, signifying pracage when he or she is 21, males being able to con- tical duties, as distinguished from credenda doc

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AGENOIS-AGNOSTICISM

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trines or matters of faith. The term is also used to sylvania in 1838. He lectured in the Philadelphia signify the church ritual, or the book of services. School of Anatomy, and established the School of The service-books of the Lutheran Church are called Operative Surgery. Subsequently he became a surAgenda

geon in the Philadelphia Hospital, and also in the AGENOIS, that part of the old province of Gui- Pennsylvania Hospital. For several years he was a enne, in France, which now forms part of the depart professor in the medical department of the Univerment of Lot-et-Garonne; area, about 1,080 sq. miles. sity of Pennsylvania ; and he was also, for some time,

AGENOR, the name of six mythological celeb- a surgeon at Will's Ophthalmic Hospital. Dr. Agrities: I. A son of Neptune (Poseidon) and Libya; new was connected with numerous cases of great father of Cadmus, Phænix, Cilix, Thasus, Phineus public and scientific importance, the best known and Europa. He was twin brother of Belus, and being that of President Garfield; and he has made became king of Phænicia. 2. A son of Iasus, and many valuable contributions to medical literature. father of Argus Panoptes, king of Argos. 3. Son Among his works are Practical Anatomy (1867); and successor of Triopas, in the kingdom of Argos. Anatomy and Its Relation to Medicine and Surgery;

A son of Pleuron and Xanthippe and grandson and Principles and Practice of Surgery (1878). Died of Ætolus. 5. A son of Phegeus, king of Psophis, March 22, 1892. in Arcadia. 6. The bravest of the Trojans, son of AGNI, a Hindu deity; the god of fire, a bearer Antenor and Theano. He engaged in single com- of incense and purifier, and a mediator between bat with Achilles, but was rescued by Apollo. man and gods. See BRAHMANISM, Vol. IV, pp.

AGGLOMERATE, OR VOLCANIC AGGLOM- 206,208. ERATES. See GEOLOGY, Vol. X, p. 239.

AGNOMEN, an additional name given by the AGGLUTINATE LANGUAGES. A term em- ancient Romans on account of some quality, action, ployed in comparative philology to denote those virtue or accomplishment; thus P. Cornelius Scipio tongues in which no proper inflexions exist, but received the agnomen of Africanus. in which the pronouns are made to adhere to the AGNOSTICISM. This term was first used by root of the verb to form the conjugations, and in T. H. Huxley, about 1869, to signify that state of which the prepositions unite with substantives to mind toward the supernatural which neither accepts form the declensions. In an agglutinate language,

In an agglutinate language, nor denies its existence, but holds that its problems as the term itself imports, there must be no incor- are not the subject of demonstration or scientific poration of the root and the adhering word; the two investigation. It is generally accompanied by a must simply lie side by side, “glued” together, very positive scepticism, since the agnostic temperawithout change in either. An agglutinate language ment does not recognize faith as a means of is so termed in contradistinction to an inflexional information or a source of certitude. Strictly, mat language. The Turanian language of Asia is typ- ters of religious belief or speculative philosophy he ically agglutinate, while the Aryan and Semitic places in the realm of the unknown, with a strong tongues are essentially inflexional.

inclination to pronounce them unknowable. The AGNADELLO, a village in the province of Cre- term is a derivation from a Greek word meaning mona, northern Italy, 10 miles E. of Lodi, near "without knowledge," and the religious bias that which the French under Louis VII completely gave rise to its coinage is disclosed by the fact that defeated the Venetians, May 14, 1509.

Huxley took it from the inscription on an Athenian AGNES, SAINT, a celebrated Christian virgin and altar, which, as St. Paul described it, was dedicated martyr of Rome. She is said to have been behead- to the “unknown god.” ed by order of Diocletian 303 A.D. Her martyr- Agnosticism differs from the scepticism of the dom is commemorated on January 21st, by the seventeenth century, in that, on the one hand, it is Greek, Roman and Anglican churches.

not so dogmatic in its denials, and on the other AGNEW, CORNELIUS REA, an American aurist hand, that its scope is wider. It does not deny, for and oculist, born in New York City, Aug. 8, 1830. it admits, that there are many facts, as of consciousHe graduated at Columbia College, and studied ness, that do not as yet submit themselves to the medicine at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. methods of experimental science; but it holds judgAfter he received his degree he held several import- ment in suspense concerning spiritual things, and ant medical posts, one being that of director of the often is hopeless, as to them, of passing beyond New York State Volunteer Hospital. In 1868 he mere opinion or hope. It is of broad scope, for it established an ophthalmic clinic in the College of challenges all the conclusions of metaphysics and Physiciansand Surgeons, and later founded the Brook- belief, although it admits the value of hypothesis as lyn and Manhattan Eye and Ear hospitals. For a means of directing and testing the investigations years Dr. Agnew was connected with the state hos- of phenomena. The real root of agnosticism is pital for the insane at Poughkeepsie, and was deeply in inductive or experimental philosophy, under interested in the educational institutions of New which a law of nature, once established, can be veriYork City. He contributed numerous papers to fied by the ability of any one to reproduce the medical journals on diseases of the eye and ear. same phenomena by the same methods. To the He died in New York City, April 18, 1888.

true disciple of this school the “Absolute” or the AGNEW, DANIEL HAYES, American surgeon, born “First Cause” must ever remain unknowable, since in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, Nov. 24, 1818. in nature causation is always reducible to a series of After studying at Jefferson and Newark colleges he sequences or a recurrent order of phenomena. To graduated in medicine at the University of Penn- | this chain there is no conceivable logical end.

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AGONISTICI— AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES

The prevalence of the methods of inductive Congress, approved by President Lincoln, July 2, science, and the fruitfulness thereof in enlarging the 1862, and was contemporaneous with the act estabhorizon of human knowledge, has made this form lishing an agricultural commission. Provision was of scepticism very common, not only among men made that such states as had public lands subject to engaged in investigation of material forces and sale at private entry at $1.25 per acre should take order, but among those who from a lower plane their apportionment in this land; but where the catch the contagion of their thought. For a further state had not such land, the government was to exhibition of the historical relations of agnosticism issue scrip authorizing the holder to locate public and of its nature, see SCEPTICISM, Vol. XXI, p. 383. lands subject to sale at private entry elsewhere.

AGONISTICI, a sect of ascetic Christians who These appropriations passed under the control of lived in northern Africa in the fourth century. the legislatures of the several states, limited, how“Wrestling," as the Greek original of their name ever, by the act of Congress as to the disposition imports, with the world, the flesh and the devil, they to be made thereof, and of the application of the renounced matrimony, and esteemed it wrong to proceeds. The lands and scrip were to be sold, and work. They were condeinned at a council of the not more than 10 per cent of the fund arising church, and persecuted out of existence by Pope could, at the discretion of the legislature, be devoted Melchiades.

to the purchase of lands for sites of experimental AGOULT, MARIE CATHERINE SOPHIE, COMTESSE farms. All of the proceeds not thus invested were D', a French authoress; born at Frankfort-on-the- to be placed in stocks yielding not less than five Main, Germany, Dec. 31, 1805, whither her father, per cent, and the interest arising therefrom was to the Count de Flavigny, had fled for safety during go to “the endowment, support, and maintenance of the Reign of Terror. She was educated at a convent at least one college where the leading object shall in Paris, and in 1827 married the Comte d'Agoult. be, without excluding other scientific and classical She soon left her husband and lived with the com- studies, and including military tactics, to teach such poser Liszt, to whom she bore three daughters, the branches of learning as are related to agriculture eldest of whom married Émile Ollivier; the second, and the mechanic arts,” in such manner as the legisGuy de Charnacé; and the third, first, Hans von latures of the states may respectively prescribe, in Bülow, and afterward, Richard Wagner. Marie order to promote the liberal and practical education d'Agoult had a fancy for authorship, and wrote of the industrial classes in several pursuits and prounder the pseudonym of Daniel Stern. Her best fessions in life. Additional Congressional aid was work is her Esquisses Morales et Politiques (1849); extended in 1890, by an appropriation to cover the and among her works may be mentioned Nélida; cost of establishing and maintaining experiment Lettres Républicaines; Histoire de la Révolution de stations in the several states. See AGRICULTURAL 1848 (1851); and Mes Souvenirs, 1806–1833. She EXPERIMENT STATIONs, in these Supplements. The died in Paris, March 5, 1876.

states that had lands within their own borders subAGREEMENT, an understanding on the part of ject to entry received 1,770,000 acres of land. The two or more persons to which they have assented, states that had not public lands subject to entry wherein mutual promises are made to perform received scrip in an amount equivalent to 7,830,000 some act. The term has much the same signifi-acres, making the total appropriation, under the act of cance as contract, but is of more extensive appli- 1862, 9,600,000 acres. The value of this land, at cation. An agreement might not in some cases be the minimum price of $1.25 per acre, was twelve mil. a contract, as because it did not fulfill the require- lion dollars, but it is estimated that these grants ments of the law of the particular place at which it have realized to the states more than thirty million was made ; but a contract must always be an agree- dollars. In addition to the foregoing, provision ment. But the term agreement is seldom applied to has been made for agricultural colleges in the new specialties or contracts under seal. The term prom- states of North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, ise, which is a necessary element of an agreement or Washington, Wyoming and Idaho by the appropria. contract, is of narrower application than either, and tion of 90,000 acres to each, except in the case of refers to the engagement or undertaking of a party South Dakota, to which. 120,000 acres have been without regard to the consideration or the undertak- given. ing of the party to whom the promise is made. To In these colleges the course of instruction covers constitute a valid agreement, there must be a con- a course of four years.

The curriculum embraces sideration, the parties must assent to the terms of chemistry, botany, geology, zoology, entomology, the agreement with the full knowledge thereof, and horticulture, veterinary science, the various interests the object to be attained must be lawful. The rules associated with theoretical and applied agriculture, of law having applications to contracts apply also to as well as language, literature, history and general agreements. See Contract, Vol. VI, pp. 322–24. science. Tuition is generally free, so that the living

CONTRACT AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES are institutions expenses of the student constitute the only expense, for instruction in the science and practice of agri- and this may be reduced to a minimum by exercising culture. The first governmental aid extended to the privilege of devoting certain specified hours to schools of this class in the United States was an remunerative labor. On the continent of Europe appropriation by Congress of 30,000 acres of public agricultural colleges have been in existence for almost land for each Senator and Representative, to be a hundred years. They are especially favored in applied in the states which they severally repre-Germany, where there are several hundred in active sented. This bill was passed by the Thirty-seventh I and successful operation. The best results have

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