Page images
PDF
EPUB

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

87

come from those institutions where the course of Agricultural and Mechanical College of Mississippi, instruction is some special branch of agricultural edu- Agricultural College, Mississippi. cation, as, for instance, the cultivation of meadows, department), Columbia, Missouri.

University of Missouri (agricultural and mechanical the scientific methods of irrigation, means of re- Montana Agricultural College, Bozeman, Montana. claiming swamp-lands, the growth of fruit-trees, University of Nebraska (agricultural and mechanical apiculture, and kindred subjects of vital interest to

department), Lincoln, Nebraska.

State University of Nevada (agricultural and mechanithe farmer. The resulting benefits are illustrated

cal department), Reno, Nevada. by the fact that in Germany, Belgium and France, New Hampshire College of Agriculture and Mechanic where these schools exert a great influence, the lands Arts, Hanover, New Hampshire. now produce almost double the amount per acre

Rutgers Scientific School, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Las Cruces, raised before their institution, while in the United

New Mexico. States, where non-methodical methods usually pre- Agricultural College of Cornell University, Ithaca, vail, the annual crops are almost everywhere grow

New York. ing less in average per acre. England presents a

North Carolina College of Agriculture and the Mechanic

Arts, Raleigh, North Carolina. state of affairs similar to that of the countries men

North Dakota Agricultural College, Fargo, North tioned, and maintains many colleges devoted solely Dakota. to agricultural education.

Ohio State University (agricultural and mechanical In the United States the same degree of benefit department), Columbus, Ohio.

Oklahoma Agricultural College, Stillwater, Oklahoma. has not as yet attended the establishment of the

State Agricultural College of Oregon, Corvallis, Orecolleges that has been realized in foreign countries. gon. The governmental aid has been so liberal and State College, State College, Pennsylvania. abundant as to give them a fair test; yet it cannot

Rhode Island College of Agriculture and Mechanic

Arts, Kingston, Rhode Island. be said that they have proved successful, or that

Clemson Agricultural College, Fort Hill, South Carothe results attained have been wholly satisfactory. lina. Students of agriculture have given much thought State Agricultural College of South Dakota, Brookand attention to the matter, and are agreed that ings, South Dakota. the instruction given is not sufficiently practical, department), Knoxville, Tennessee.

University of Tennessee (agricultural and mechanical and does not meet the requirements of the farmer. Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, College The graduate is qualified for a position more re- Station, Texas. munerative than to that of the farm-laborer, but

Agricultural College, Logan, Utah. has not that intimate knowledge of farm-life that Burlington, Vermont.

University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, enables the husbandman to so manage his affairs as Virginia Agricultural College, Blacksburg, Virginia. to make of the business a success.

Washington Agricultural College and School of SciHerewith is given a list of colleges of agriculture ence, Pullman, Washington.

,

West Virginia University (agricultural and mechanical and the mechanic arts endowed by the acts of Con

department), Morgantown, West Virginia. gress of July 2, 1862, and Aug. 30, 1890.

University of Wisconsin (agricultural and mechanical Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical College, Au- department), Madison, Wisconsin. burn, Alabama.

University of Wyoming (agricultural and mechanical University of Arizona (agricultural and mechanical department), Laramie, Wyoming. department), Tucson, Arizona.

The following list shows the institutions for the Arkansas Industrial University, Fayetteville, Arkansas. University of California (agricultural and mechanical

education of colored students in agriculture and the department), Berkeley, California.

mechanic arts receiving the benefits of the act of Colorado Agricultural College, Fort Collins, Colorado Congress of Aug. 30, 1890:

Sheffield Scientific School (Yale University), New Haven, Connecticut.

State Normal and Industrial School, Normal, Alabama. Delaware College (agricultural and mechanical depart-versity, Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

Branch Normal College of Arkansas Industrial Uniment), Newark, Delaware. Florida Agricultural College, Lake City, Florida.

Agricultural College for Colored Students, Dover,

Delaware. State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts (University of Georgia), Athens, Georgia.

State Normal and Industrial College for Colored University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.

Students, Tallahassee, Florida. University of Illinois (agricultural and mechanical

Georgia Industrial College for Colored Youths, Col

lege, Georgia. department), Urbana, Illinois. Purdue University of Indiana, Lafayette, Indiana.

State Normal College, Frankfort, Kentucky. Iowa Agricultural College, Ames, Iowa.

Southern University, New Orleans, Louisiana. Kansas Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kansas.

Alcorn Agricultural and Mechanical College, Westside, Kentucky Agricultural and Mechanical College, Lex

Mississippi. ington, Kentucky.

Lincoln Institute, Jefferson City, Missouri. Louisiana State University (agricultural and mechan

Agricultural and Mechanical College for the Colored

Race, Greensboro, North Carolina. ical department), Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Maine Agricultural and Mechanical College, Orono,

Claflin University, Orangeburg, South Carolina. Maine.

Prairie View State Normal School, Prairie View,

Texas. Maryland Agricultural College, College Park, Maryland.

Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, Hamp

ton, Virginia. Massachusetts Agricultural College, Amherst, Massachusetts.

West Virginia Institute, Farm, West Virginia. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston, Mas- AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STAsachusetts.

TIONS. Methodical study, under government ausMichigan State Agricultural College, Agricultural College, Michigan.

pices, of the farmer's problems was scarcely known University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

before the second half of the nineteenth century. 88

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS

ance.

A hundred years earlier, Arthur Young (See Vol. It was further provided that where any state or XXIV, p. 755) conducted, at his own expense, an territory maintained or created two such colleges experimental farm at Stamford Hall, Essex, with or experiment stations, the Congressional grant of results of greater value to Great Britain than to his money made by the act should be divided between purse. His travels in all parts of the United King- them, unless the legislature otherwise directed. A dom and in France, and his publications of experi- sum of fifteen thousand dollars a year for each state ments and observations, showed how great a field of and territory was ordered to be paid out of the systematic research there was to be possessed. It | United States treasury to officers appointed by law was not until 1843 that the private experimental in each state and territory to receive the same, in farms of Sir John Bennett Lawes at Rothamstead, quarterly installments. To secure uniformity of and of Rev. Mr. Smith (c.f. Vol. I, p. 342) at Lois methods and results in the work of the stations, Weedon, again aroused public attention in any forms were to be provided by the commissioner of effectual way to the advantages of the methodical agriculture (now the Department of Agriculture) for study of agriculture. It was obvious, however, that use at each, and indications to be given of desirable what enthusiastic men of wealth might do in the lines of investigation, and generally he was to proway of experiment was out of reach of the tenant mote the purposes of the act by advice and assistfarmer of that day. If anything were to be done On the other hand, stated reports from each to increase the products of the land, or render farm- station are required to be made to certain desig. ing more profitable for the great body of agricul- nated officials of the general government, and turists, the government or some powerful organi- copies to be sent to every other experiment station. zation must intervene. The gradually increasing It is expressly stated that the act shall not be held depression of the farming interest became a matter to modify the legal relation between any state or of political importance, and Parliament, in 1889, territory and any of the colleges to be benefited. created a Board of Agriculture, one of whose princi- | The grants of money named were to become availpal duties

was to collect and diffuse technical able when a legislature had formally assented to the information, and it has many of the research func- purposes of the act. tions of the Department of Agriculture in the The objects of these experiment stations are United States. Still more recently a National Agri- declared to be “to conduct original researches cultural Union was formed, and it opened a large or verify experiments on the physiology of plants experimental farm, designed especially to test the and animals, the diseases to which they are severraising of crops not generally indigenous, on a scale | ally subject, with the remedies for the same; the sufficient to determine their industrial value. While chemical composition of useful plants at their differactual experiments in the field, as distinguished ent stages of growth; the comparative advantages of from laboratory work, are carried on by the agri- rotative cropping as pursued under a varying series cultural colleges at Cirencester, Downton and near of crops ; the capacity of new plants or trees for Carlisle, in England, the chief experimental farm of acclimation; the analysis of soils and water; the the realm is that of the Royal Agricultural Society chemical composition of manures, natural or artiat Woburn, in Bedfordshire.

ficial, with experiments designed to test their comIn France, agriculture is fostered by a special parative effects on crops of different kinds; the department of state, and it has long maintained adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants ; sheepfolds and other stock-farms, and carried on the composition and digestibility of the different experiments pertinent to changing farm problems. kinds of food for domestic animals; the scientific In Germany an experimental station was established, or economic questions involved in the production in 1851, at Möckern, near Leipsic, in Saxony, of butter and cheese ; and such other researches from which has grown an important, and perhaps or experiments bearing directly upon the agriculunequaled, system of government experimental tural industry of the United States as may in such farms.

case be deemned advisable, having due regard to the In the United States the development of these varying conditions and needs of the respective stations was closely connected with the agricultural states or territories.” colleges founded on government land grants. These It was also required that each station should publand grants were made by Congress in 1862, and lish reports of progress, or bulletins, at least every resulted in the establishment of agricultural colleges, three months, and that these documents should be or agricultural departments in some established col- furnished on application to any member of the lege, throughout the states of the Union. Some of farming community, so far as the income of the these colleges had purchased farms, and these neces- station would allow. At the passage of this act sarily became experiment stations, but each was a there were 17 experiment stations in existence, law unto itself, both as to the scope and the methods in as many states.

There are

states of its work. National legislation to foster these or territories without them, and in some states stations, and to promote some sort of system among there are two. To carry out this act Congress them, began with an act of Congress passed in appropriated $585,000 for the first fiscal year. In 1887. It provided for the establishment of experi- 1890 further provision was made to increase the ment stations in connection with each college, or allowance at the rate of $1,000 a year for 10 years; agricultural department of a college, enjoying the that is, until the maximum grant reached $25,000 proceeds of the land grants of 1862 and 1867, or per annum to each state or territory. Provision that should be established in accordance therewith. was further made that no discrimination of color AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES-- AGRICULTURE

now no

89

should be made by any legislature in distributing STATE.

TOWN OR Post-OFFICE. the government grants, but that the establishment Oklahoma,

Stillwater.
Oregon,

Corvallis. of separate stations for whites and colored persons

Pennsylvania,

State College P. O. should not be held to be a prohibited discrimina

Rhode Island.

Kingston. tion, if each shared alike in the bounty.

South Carolina,

Fort Hill.
Under this fostering legislation there has been a South Dakota,

Brookings.
Tennessee,

Knoxville. great accumulation of information, based upon care

Texas,

College Station. fully recorded and tabulated experiments, concern- Utah,

Logan. ing agricultural entomology, soils, diseases of plants Vermont,

Burlington. and animals, the relative values of fertilizers, man- Virginia,

Blacksburg, agement of crops and live-stock, restoration of worn

Washington,

Pullman.
West Virginia,

Morgantown. out lands, drainage, irrigation and methods of farm

Wisconsin,

Madison. ing. Any agriculturist may obtain publications Wyoming,

Laramie. of the stations gratuitously, by writing to the director

D. O. KELLOGG. of the station in his state or territory. The Department of Agriculture itself carries on

AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. See FARMERS' laboratory and field experiments, both in Washing. ORGANIZATIONS, in these Supplements.

, ton and at three or four points scattered in the

*AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES. country, with a view to climatic conditions ; but the The word agriculture is not found in Shakespeare field-stations thus established are usually maintained

nor in the Bible. Its first occurrence, so far as is by contract with some skillful person or farmer, who

known, is in Philemon Holland's translation of undertakes to carry out instructions from the depart. Plutarch's Morals, published in 1603, where referment. These instructions commonly relate to some

ence is made to "agriculture and husbandry.” It is specific inquiries; as researches upon phylloxera, also found in Sir Thomas Browne’s Vulgar Errors, black-rot, and other obstacles to profitable viticul published in 1646, and with increasing frequency ture, were made at Vineland, New Jersey, as other

from that time to our own. In its primary sense it investigations have been made elsewhere.

means merely the tillage or cultivation of the ground, Below is a list of the experiment stations estab- but, like the word husbandry, which it has largely lished by law existing in the United States in 1895. superseded, it is now understood as embracing all Their support involves an expenditure of about one

the various industrial arts that are employed in the million dollars a year, of which one sixth is borne raising and preparation for the primary market both by the several states and territories, and the rest by of the cultivated products of the soil and of domesthe general government.

tic animals and animal products. In this popular

acceptation of its meaning it certainly makes good STATE. Town or Post-OFFICE.

its claim to be the foundation of human industry and Auburn.

prosperity. As providing in their primary form the Alabama, Uniontown.

means of human subsistence, it gives employment to Arizona, Tucson.

a large proportion of the human race, and in its Arkansas, Fayetteville.

later and more scientific application it is laying California,

Berkeley.
Colorado,
Fort Collins.

under contribution departments of human knowl. New Haven.

edge that less than a generation ago were scarcely Connecticut, also the Storrs School.

recognized as having any connection with it. Delaware, Newark

HISTORICAL. On the North American continent Florida,

Lake City. Georgia, Griffin.

the beginnings of agriculture were naturally as Illinois, Champaign.

small as those of colonization. In our own times Indiana Lafayette.

the United States, after supplying the wants Iowa, Ames.

of its own large population, has exported upKansas,

Manhattan. Kentucky, Lexington.

ward of five and one half billions of dollars' New Orleans.

worth of agricultural products within a period Louisiana, Baton Rouge.

of ten years, and yet, of all the products that Calhoun.

go to the making up of these gigantic exports, Maine,

Orono. Maryland, College Park.

only two— maize and tobacco — were found growMassachusetts Amherst (2).

ing in the country on the landing of the first Michigan,

Agricultural College P. O. settlers, either in Virginia or on Plymouth Rock. Minnesota, St. Anthony Park, near Min

Almost all those numerous products of the soil neapolis. Mississippi, Agricultural College P. O.

which now flourish as in their natural habitat, and Missouri, Columbia.

constitute so large a proportion of the agricultural Nebraska, Lincoln.

wealth of the country, have been introduced from Nevada,

Reno. New Hampshire

abroad. The potato was introduced into that porHanover. New Jersey, New Brunswick (2).

tion of the colony of Virginia which is now North New Mexico Las Cruces.

Carolina in the latter part of the sixteenth century. New York, Geneva.

The Mayflower Pilgrims sowed barley, peas and Ithaca.

beans, along with the maize given them by the North Carolina,

Raleigh. North Dakota, Fargo.

Indians and thenceforth called Indian corn, in the Columbus.

spring following their landing. Wheat, rye and

* Copyright, 1896, by The Werner Company.

Ohio,

90

AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES

Τ

a

oats had already been introduced into Virginia, | tuted one of the most interesting and important buckwheat was brought into the country by the chapters in human history. Swedes and Dutch, and the year 1628 saw the intro- UNITED STATES FARMs. Nearly 2,000,000 new duction of hops. In the colony of Massachusetts farms, containing considerably over .

200,000,000 the cultivation of flax or hemp was made compulsory acres of land, were added to the agricultural domain in 1639, in Connecticut in 1640, and in Virginia, of the United States between 1870 and 1890. The where the domestic manufacture of linen thread was total number exceeding three acres in extent (exlikewise compulsory, in 1662 ; Pennsylvania, Mary-cept where five hundred dollars' worth of products land, and other colonies making similar enactments. had been sold from off the farm during the year) on As regards farm-animals, the New England colo- June 1, 1890, was 4,564,641, containing a total area nists imported a bull and three heifers in 1624, and of 623,218,619 acres, an average of 137 acres each, 140 head of cattle in 1629. In 1611, however, or as compared with 134 acres in 1880,—an increase in nine years before the landing on Plymouth Rock, average size for the first time in American history. 100 head of cattle were imported into Virginia. Of this area, 357,616,755 acres were improved, the These are examples of the fragmentary information acreage unimproved constituting 42.6 per cent of relative to the agriculture of colonial times that has the whole, as compared with 46.9 per cent in 1880. come down to us with the stories of the early Indian It was wholly in the West and South that the large wars, of the religious animosities of fanatics, and of accession to the number and acreage of farms took the hardships endured by the settlers. One thing, place between 1880 and 1890, every New Eng. however, is certain: the colony of Virginia, whether land state, together with New York, Pennsylvania from its earlier establishment or its less rigorous and New Jersey, showed a falling off both in the climate, or both, reached a point at which it had number and area of its farms. On the other hand, products to exchange for those of other countries Texas and the Dakotas added over 15,000,000 acres, at a much earlier date than did the colony of Massa- Nebraska over 11,000,000 acres, Kansas over 8,000,chusetts. As early as 1648 Virginia was exporting, ooo acres, Minnesota and Iowa over 5,000,000 acres, among other agricultural products, an average of no California nearly 5,000,000 acres, and Arkansas less than 1,500,000 pounds of tobacco per annum, nearly 3,000,000 acres to their respective farm areas or enough to load a solid freight train of 45 cars, as during the period above mentioned. It certainly we have them to-day. In 1729, 1,813 bushels of did not require the aggravation of an era of diminflaxseed, valued at the equivalent of $1.14 per ished exports and unremunerative prices to seriously bushel, were exported from Pennsylvania to Ireland disorganize the farming interests of the country, in and Scotland, and within the next 25 years the the face of this great and sudden shifting of the flaxseed exports of Connecticut alone attained an agricultural center of gravity. As regards the total annual value of £80,000, representing, in all proba- number of farms, Ohio is well in the lead, with 251,bility, not far from 400,000 bushels of seed. There 430, followed by Illinois, Missouri, New York, Iowa, ,

, was, however, no really important development in Texas and Pennsylvania, in the order named, and the agriculture of this country until after the Revo- each with upward of 200,000 agricultural holdings. lution, when concerted measures for its improvement The other extreme is found in Arizona, Nevada, and were first taken. In 1784, agricultural societies the District of Columbia, with 1,426, 1,277 and 382 were established in the city of Philadelphia and the farms, respectively. Of the entire number of farms, state of South Carolina; in 1791 New York fol- 71.6 per cent are cultivated by owners, 10 per cent lowed suit, and in 1792 Massachusetts did likewise. are rented for money, and 18.4 per cent are rented About this period there were many improvements for share of products. The largest proportion culin farm implements and machinery, perhaps the tivated by owners is found at the two extremes of the most notable being Whitney's cotton-gin, which country, New England and the Far West, while the gave to the cultivation of cotton in the South the largest proportion rented, whether for money or greatest impulse it has ever received, the annual shares, is found in the South ; South Carolina, Georproduction increasing from 2,000,000 to 40,000,000 gia and Mississippi, in particular, having more than pounds within ten years. Before the first quarter of half their farms rented. The total value of the the nineteenth century had passed, the influence of farms (land, fences and buildings only) of the United the agricultural newspaper was added to that of the States, as reported to the eleventh census by the agricultural society, and before 1835 both mowing farmers themselves, was $13,279,252,649, an average and reaping machines had been sufficiently per- of $21.31 per acre, or $2,909 per farm. Of the farms fected to give promise of the revolution they were occupied by their owners, 2,255,789 were free of destined to effect in the saving of labor. This encumbrance, and 886,957 were mortgaged. Of these brings us to the period at which a United States holdings, the largest percentages free of encumcensus embraced, for the first time, an inquiry into brance were, without an exception, found in the South, the condition of the agricultural interests of the while the largest percentages encumbered were in country. Six successive decennial censuses have Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska and South Dakota, in which since made more or less elaborate investigations of states the number of encumbered farms exceeds that the development of our agricultural resources, of the unencumbered. The total encumbrance on development that more than half a century ago farms occupied by their owners was $1,085,995,960, was beginning to excite the astonishment of the or 35.55 per cent of their reported value. The total civilized world, and of which it is not too much to annual interest charge was $76,728,077, and the say, that during the last twenty years it has consti- | average annual rate of interest 7.07 per cent, ran

a

AGRICULTURE IN THE UNITED STATES

91

[ocr errors]

ging from 5.43 per cent in Pennsylvania to 12.61 51.41 acres were under corn, 23.95 under wheat, per cent in Arizona. The total value of the imple. 20.20 under oats, 2.30 under barley, 1.55 under rye, ments and machinery on farms at the last census and .59 under buckwheat. As between the different was $494, 347,457, an increase of nearly $90,000,000 states, however, the widest variations obtained, many in 10 years.

It is an interesting fact that, notwith- of the Southern states having almost their entire standing the enormous developments that have cereal acreage in corn, while California and Washtaken place in Western agriculture, New York and ington had three fourths of theirs in wheat, and Pennsylvania still lead all other states in this impor- Maine, Montana and Wyoming had almost as large tant feature of farm equipment. The latter state, a proportion in oats.—Corn. Maize, or Indian corn, however, is closely followed by Iowa, and it will not was cultivated by the Indians before the advent of be surprising if this last-mentioned great and rap- the white man. It formed part of the first little idly growing commonwealth shall have passed the patch of ground planted at Plymouth, and its proKeystone State in this particular, as it has already duction has increased with the development of agridone in almost every other relating to agriculture, culture in general, until three times between 1889 by the end of the nineteenth century.

With one

and 1896 the annual crop has exceeded two billions or two exceptions, the Southern states and the graz- of bushels. Its enormous production illustrates, as ing states of the Far West appear to be the most does that of no other single crop, the wealth of that poorly equipped in this important respect, many of vast region which, under the operation of our liberal them having not more than one dollar's worth of land laws, has been brought under cultivation within implements and machinery for every three, four, or the last 30 years. The area devoted to corn in 1895 five acres of land in farms.

was 82,075,830 acres, and the production 2,151,138,FARM PRODUCTS. The products of the farms of 580 bushels, valued at $544,985,534, as compared the United States in the year preceding the census of with an area of 72,087,752 acres and a production 1890 were valued by the farmers themselves at no less of 2,122,327,547 bushels reported by the census of than $2,460, 107,454, and in view of that well-known 1890 for the preceding year. The

average

annual tendency of farmers to underestimate the quantities yield per acre for the 10 years ending with 1895 and values of products consumed upon the farm, it was 23.6 bushels, varying from 19.4 bushels in 1894 is not improbable that the figures quoted are several to 27 bushels in 1889 and 1891. Although corn is hundred millions too low. A careful estimate of cultivated from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the value of the vegetable products alone for the the Red River of the North to the Everglades of year 1895 places them at $2,100,000,000, and that Florida, fully two thirds of each year's crop is the the amount would be increased to $3,000,000,000 production of some 7 or 8 states in the Mississippi or more by the addition of the meat, wool, dairy | valley, whose several proportions vary from year to products and poultry, admits of no doubt.

year. More than three fourths of the corn-producCROPs. Although no other country in the world tion of the country is consumed in the county where possesses so great a diversity of soil and climate as

grown, and in many parts of the country there has does the United States, and, accordingly, none can been a noticeable tendency to restrict the area compare with it in diversity of agricultural pro- devoted to this product. The growing favor with ductions, the most conspicuous and significant fea- which a more diversified system of agriculture is ture of its agricultural development is, after all, regarded appears, however, to be stimulating the its annual production, on a scale absolutely with cultivation of corn, especially in the states in which out parallel in the history of the world, of those cotton was for so many years almost the only crop. important products of the temperate zone which Corn fails to find favor with the countries to which constitute the principal food-supply of a large portion the United States exports its other surplus breadof the human race.- Cereals. The total production stuffs, and the annual shipments abroad average less of corn, wheat, oats and barley in the United States than 50,000,000 bushels. In 1894-95 the total in 1895 was 3,529,757,808 bushels,-an amount exports amounted to only 27,691,137 bushels, valued slightly in excess of the total production of cereals at $14,650, 767, and those of corn-meal to only 223,(including rye and buckwheat) at the census of 1890, 567 barrels, valued at $648,844.—Wheat. For many over 900,000,000 bushels greater than that reported years wheat-production in this country increased in 1880, and well on toward three times that reported with amazing rapidity. There seemed to be no at the census of 1870. The center of cereal-produc- limit to the capacity of foreign nations to absorb our tion has not only been gradually moving westward surplus, at a price which, while subject to fluctuasince the first settlement of the country, but it has tions, was, on the whole, profitable to the producer, always been in advance of the center of population, and the success that attended the cultivation of and so far, at least, as the last 50 years are concerned, wheat in northern Minnesota and Dakota upon the it has gained upon the westward movement of popu- opening of the Red River valley and other similarly lation with each successive decade. It is now west favored regions was so marked as to give rise to one of the Mississippi River, since not only did the trans- of the most remarkable movements of population Mississippi states and territories add over 23,000,000 that have ever occurred, and concurrently to an enoracres to their cereal-producing area between 1880 mous increase in wheat-production. While the deand 1890, but the states east of the river, so far from velopment of the Northwest since 1882 forms, with keeping pace with this enormous increase, withdrew its attendant circumstances, one of the most interestnearly 2,000,000 acres from cereal cultivation. Of ing chapters in the annals of American agriculture, every 100 acres devoted to cereals at the last census, it can be referred to here only as one of the most

« PreviousContinue »