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There are,

So shall we feel thy Spirit's power,

Madonna degli Angeli. There we saw a fine church, And so our meeting prove

which is built over a small brick house, rough in its Paint emblem of that happy hour

exterior, but deemed most sacred, having been inhaWhen we shall meet above.

bited by San Francesco at the time he first formed Then, in that glorious garment drest

the rules of the order of friars who were afterwards To all the faithful given,

called by his name. Over the door was a fresco by May we partake an endless feast

Overbeck; a German artist of great talent, now resiWith thee, our God, in heaven.

dent in Rome. I had seen many engravings from HENRY DOWNTON.

his paintings, and been charmed with the beauty of the composition, and the grace and expression of his

figures: my expectations as to his paintings had been Miscellaneous.

raised by the extravagant praise which I had heard Assisi.-Having been advised by a friend in Rome bestowed upon them, but I confess that to me his

colouring seemed cold and feeble.-Miss C. Taylor's not to leave Assisi unvisited, and as our road led us

Letters from Italy. within about two miles of that town, we determined CHIURCH RESTORATION*.-But the magnitude of to walk thither while our horses baited, for we again the object before us demands a proportionate exercise travelled with Vetturino horses. Leaving the carriage, of judgment anıl self-restraint, lest by our indiscretherefore, at La Madonna degli Angeli, we set forward. tion, we prejudice the very cause we have at heart.

It is not by lavish expenditure, showy decoration, or We had a steep hill to climb, and the day was in

the revival of obsolete usages, that we shall promote tensely hot; but the church and convent of San' the real welfare of our church, or the restoration of Francesco were in sight, and, forgetting our fatigue, we her altars: on the contrary, any appearance of extrapressed on. These buildings stand on the edge of a vagance, or of a superstitious tendency on our part, lofty rock, and are seen for many miles around; I will alarm prejudice, and furnish selfishness with pleas do not remember to have read any account of this for withholding what is due to God. Matters of taste

are unduly magnified when they are allowed to put a church, and yet few objects have struck me more.

stumbling-block and an occasion of offence in a in fact, three churches, built one over the brother's way. In all such cases the apostolic precept other : the lowest is hollowed in the solid rock : the should be followed :“ That we that are strong ought to second is supported on arches, which viewed at a dis. bear the infirmities of the weak, and not to please tance have a fine and singular effect; and the whole itself so noble, are not always suitable. For instance,

ourselves.” The arguments urged in aid of a cause, is crowned by a semi-Gothic building, surmounted by the cost and sumptuousness of the Jewish temple are a tower. We first visited the upper church, a spa- sometimes put forth as examples to modern churcheious aisle spanned by a single arch: the walls are builders. Yet the cases are surely not analogous. covered with frescoes by Cimabue and Giotto: I The religion of the Jews was ceremonial and embleregret that time did not permit us to examine these matic, intended to strike upon the senses, and suited

to a people too carpal to bear a more spiritual revelacelebrated remains of early art*. Descending to the

tion. But its forms were to be done away, and the second church, we were awe-struck as the door glories of its temple eclipsed by the clearer manifestaopened: the interior was perfectly dark to us, coming tion of Christ himself. And it is by a too close imitafrom the full blaze of an Italian noon-day sun. In tion of a worship thus symbolical, and in its nature the far distance we heard the solemn chanting of the transitory, that we believe the Romish church to have

erred from the simplicity that is in Christ. The very requiem, which the friars were performing over the essence of the Christian worship is its spirituality; body of a departed brother. We descended a long the distinction of our own church, that she neither flight of steps. Our eyes gradually became accustomed unduly magnifies nor rejects or decries the help furto the faint glimmering of light which the funereal

nished to devotion by outward appliances. And her tapers shed around, and by degrees we discovered the architecture should be like her ritual-calm and holy,

devout and reverential; as remote from what is gorfriars in their dark dresses, and the priests officiating geous or gaudy, as from bald and penurious nakedness. at the altar. There was an awful and almost fearful T'here should be no danger of mistaking one of her solemnity in the scene : those unearthly voices, now churches for either a Romish chapel or a dissenting dying away in the plaintive strain of the Lacry- meeting-house. The language of lier ceremonial and

of her services is, “ Holiness becometh thine house, O mosa," now swelling loud in the tremendous “ Dies

Lord, for erer.” And we shall best impart this sense Iræ.” Sweet female voices, mingling from time to

of sacredness to her structures by the use of solid and time with the harsher chanting of the friars, filled the durable materials, by just proportions, and a rigid subterranean arches with rich and beautiful harmony. adherence to architectural proprieties in their conI could scarcely breathe : it was as if a spell were on

struction and arrangements, and by that personal me. Soon, however, the sounds ceased; the last rites

awe for places so holy which appears in guarding

them from profane uses, in devoutly frequenting them, were performed; and, as we stood, a long train of in cherishing them as set apart for the worship, and nuns, all closely veiled, passed us. Then friars flitted especially consecrated by the presence, of the Lord past, and soon the church was silent as the grave. Almighty. We were then conducted to the lower church, where From “ Parochialia; or Church, School, and Parish," by

the rev. John Sandford, M.A., vicar of Dunchurch, chaplain to repose the bones of San' Francesco of Assisi, the

the lord bishop of Worcester, and hon, canon of Worcester. founder of the order of Franciscans. This church is Longmans, 1845. comparatively modern, and not very interesting.

London : Published for the Proprietors by EDWARDS and Finding that the hour we had appointed for our return HUGHES, 12, Ave Maria Lane, si. Paul's; J. BURNS, 17, was long pagt, we descended the hill quickly to La

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Portman Street: and to be procured, by order, of all Booś cellers

in Town and Country. An account of them will be found in “Kugler's Hand-Book of the History of Painting.”



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The church of Bosham is supposed to have been CHURCH OF BOSHAM.

built about A.D. 1120, by William Warlewast, Boshan, anciently Bosenham, in the county of bishop of Exeter. It was collegiate ; consisting Sussex, four miles west of Chichester, was at one

of a dean and five prebendaries. It was a royal period a place of great importance. In the reign free chapel, exempt from ecclesiastical jurisdiction, of Edward the Confessor it was the occasional re- until the dissolution, when it was made parochial. sidence of earl Godwin, whose son Harold, after- It was invested with many privileges, deemed at wards king of England, sailing from thence, was

the period most valuable, which raised it in digdriven by a storm upon the territory of Guy, count nity and importance. of Ponthieu, by whom he was made prisoner, and The church itself is chiefly in the early English conveyed to the castle of Beauvain. He was style. In a niche in the north wall is the reliberated by William, duke of Normandy, on con- cumbent effigy of a female. The Norman font is dition that he should promote the duke's interests still preserved. There are some remains of the and further his advancement to the English prebendaries' stalls, and a few vestiges of the conthrone. But, after his return, he secured the ventual buildings There was a small monastery crown to himself, which led to the battle of founded here, by Adelwach (see Lewis's Top Hastings, where he was slain*. There are some Dic., &c. vestiges remaining of the castle.

from the battle-field still breathing, and ended his days at a

cell near the abbey of St. John, at Chester, where he lived It will be borne in mind that many curious legends are ex- as an anchorite; others affirming that his corpse was conveyod tant respecting Harold's fate ; some stating that he was removed to Waltham abbey, which he had founded.




built and endowed by him at Taunton, and another

at Grantham. The abbey of Netley also shared RICHARD FOX, BISHOP OF WINCHESTER.

his munificence.

Bishop Fox died 14th October, 1528, and was RICHARD Fox was born at Ropesley, near buried with great solemnity beneath the floor of Grantham, in Lincolnshire. He was first a mem- his own chapel*. The exact place of his sepulture ber of Magdalen college, Oxford, which, how

was for some time uncertain ; but, on investigation ever, he was obliged to leave on account of the being made, the tomb was discovered and opened. plague. He then went to Pembroke hall, Cam- The account of the state in which the remains bridge, of which he was elected master A.D. were found is peculiarly interesting: the state1507, and held the situation until 1517, though ment from Dr. Nott, one of the prebendaries, is during that period he filled the see of Winchester. kindly supplied by a late fellow of Corpus Christi He was elected chancellor of the university the college:year in which he was translated from the see of Durham to Winchester. Henry VII. advanced

DEAR SIR, -I much lament that a long and painhim to the highest honours, and chose him one of ful illness has prevented my fulfilling earlier the prothe sponsors of Henry VIII. ; in whose reign, mise which I made to you some time ago, of dehowever, not finding his influence great, he re- scribing the state in which we found the tomb of tired from court with archbishop Warham, A.D. bishop Fox, the venerable founder of your college, 1515.

when we were obliged to replace the stone that Hume

says: “The ministers whom Henry most covered it (the old stone having fallen in), and the trusted and favoured were not chosen from singular remains of what seems to have been an old among the nobility, or even from among the painted altar piece, discovered lying in it. laity. John Morton and John Fox, two clergy necessary to remove the earth which had accumulated

On the 25th of January, 1820, we had found it men, persons of industry, vigilance, and capacity,

at the back of the altar screen to the height of about were the men to whom he confided his affairs and three feet. To do this, it was requisite that the steps secret counsels. They had shared with him all should be lowered which led through bishop Fox's his former dangers and distresses, and he now chantry from the southern aisle to the back of the took care to make them participate in his good altar screen. fortune. Morton was restored to the bishopric of In lowering the steps, we took up a small part of Ely: Fox was created bishop of Exeter. The the paving of the floor adjoining to them, and were former, soon after the death of Bouchier, was surprised at finding very near the surface what looked raised to the see of Canterbury. The latter was

like a ledger stone. We naturally inferred if this made privy seal, and successively bishop of Bath and Wells, Durham, and Winchester,

“ Passing through the iron gate in the south aisle, we be

“ For hold with admiration the sumptuous and elaborate monumental Henry,” as lord Bacon well observes, « loved to chapel of bishop Richard Fox, the founder of Corpus Christi employ and advance prelates; because, having college, Oxford, which has recently been restored by Mr. James

Kellow, mason, of this city; and it now appears with all that rich bishoprics to bestow, it was easy for him to freshness and perfecrion which it had when first erected. In reward their services. And it was his maxim to this magnificent chapel erery effort of ingenuity and skilful raise them by slow steps, and make them first tionably affords one of the most extraordinary examples of de

workmanship has been exerted to its utmost; and it unquespass through the inferior sees.

sign and sculpture in existence. Four equal divisions compose The chief competitors for favour and autho

the architectural design of the front, the elegance of which

corresponds with the ornaments that enrich it. These divisions rity,” says Hume, “under the new king, were are formed by octagonal turrets, rising from the pavement, and the carl of Surrey, treasurer, and Fox, bishop of exceeding

the height of the surmounting parapet, where they are Winchester.

Between these turrets, and rising This prelate, who enjoyed great from the ornamented course below the parapet, are smaller credit during all the former reign, had acquired finials, each supporting a petican, the favourite device of Fox. such habits of caution and frugality as he could The height of the chapel is divided into two stories: the lower, not easily lay aside ; and he still opposed by his panelled compartments of elegant design and exquisite workremonstrances those schemes of dissipation and manship. In the western division is the door of entrance to

the chapel ; and in the third division eastward, which projects expense which the youth and passions of Henry

a little on the basement, is an arched recess, containing a sculprendered agreeable to him.” Surrey's conduct tured effigy of the bishop, who is represented as an emaciated was far more suited to the monarch's tastes.

corpse, clothed in a winding sheet. The divisions of the upper

story are composed of large arches : the spandrils are charged It would appear, however, that bishop Fox did with pelicans, and the arches are subdivided into two open not retire from public political life without seri- compartments by ornamented mullions, forming inner arches

terminated by crocketed finials. ously and solemnly warning the monarch to be

two openings, and, in their height, by embattled transoms. The ware of the encroachments of Wolsey, his aim at surmounting cornice and its parapet are very elegant: the prounlimited authority and supreme power, nor to jecting course is enriched by a very beautifully designed and suffer the servant to be greater than his master, delicately under-cut, and marked with the initial letters " H.W. It had been well for the haughty cardinal and in one part. The parapet is composed of lozenge-shaped comthe licentious monarch, had these monitions been partments, enclosing quatrefoils in open work, and terminatea

by large and small leaves alternately disposed on the summit. attended to.

Between the octagonal turrets and the outer mouldings of the He was a great promoter of architectural im- arches on windows of the upper story are canopied niches,

which, together with those on the lower story, make the whole provements, as the cathedral of Durham and the

number of pichos, which originnlly contained statues, thirtyepiscopal castle bear witness. At Winchester his eight. Their canopies are nearly alike, the difference being chapel remains as a lasting monument of his taste only in the detail of the ornaments. The pedestals, intended 10

sustain the figures, are remarkably elegant, particularly those and munificence.

rising from the base of the chapel. The whole of the open work During the last ten years of his life bishop Fox between the arches was originally filled with stained glass of the

most exquisite colours and design, the whole of which was onwas entirely deprived of his sight. It does not

tirely demolished by the soldiery in 1642. Behind the altar of appear, however, that the time was spent by him this chapel is a small oratory, to which the founder resorted for in idleness. Corpus Christi college, Oxford, owes

devotion. It has no other ornament than a large niche. The

ambries belonging to this little vestry are still remaining in their its foundation to this prelate. A school was original position."

rese are also divided into

was really a ledger stone it could belong only to I believe, invariably the custom for bishops to be bishop Fox's tomb; though it had been generally buried with some ring on the right hand : religious believed that the tomb lay much deeper. To ascer- notions were even attached to the observance of it. tain the point, we removed more of the paving, and There was no other circumstance whatever that soon found that the stone in question was really the could justify the belief that the tomb had ever been ledger to bishop Fox's tomb. But we found at the visited before. On each side of the coffin lay the same time that it was broke in three pieces ; that pieces of the wands of the officers who had attended those pieces, instead of being placed in close contact, the funeral; for on solemn occasions it is customary were separated five or six inches one from the other; for the officers, before the grave is closed, to break and that the earth was constantly falling in upon the their wands and lay them beside the coffin. The coffin, through the interval between the separated bishop's head rested, gently inclined, upon his bosom: portions of the ledger. This was ascertained by the features were destroyed; but there was enough of introducing a candle at the open interval. The light the dried flesh remaining to give a general, though an thus admitted enabled us to observe that the coffin indistinct, appearance of a human face. The mitre, was entire, and that the lid lay upon it in the manner in great part remaining, continued on the head. It it had been originally placed, though it seemed evident had been of velvet: the plush was quite destroyed, that it had never been fastened down with nails ; and but the web was nearly entire. On the left side lay the coffin itself appeared to have been loose planks the crozier : the hand, bent round, still seemed to fastened lightly together, rather than of the usual hold it. The hand was covered with a glove, which compact construction. We remarked also that, was perfect, though colourless, and preserved all the besides the earth which had fallen in upon the coffin bones in their places : the articulations of the joints from the fissures of the ledger, there were four or five were distinctly visible. The crozier was of wood, large pieces of stone laying edgeways between the very neatly carved at the top part: at the bottom coffin and the side of the tomb. We at first thought there were marks of a ferule having been once atthat they might have been broken pieces of the tached; but it had fallen off. The crozier did not ledger; but, on removing them (which was done appear to have been covered with velvet, as was easily by the hand on lifting up one of the broken usually the case; indeed, the carved work upon it was portions of the ledger), we found them to be of a of a nature not to have been hid. The appearance of very different sort of stone, and covered with painled the crozier was altogether so interesting that we figures. These fragments were carefully removed to deemed it worthy of being taken up, for the purpose the chapter-room, and the tomb closed up, as well as of having an accurate drawing made of it. Two were the state of the then existing ledger permitted. made by Mr. Cave, an artist of considerable merit at

The dean and the prebendaries present then con- this place. One of those drawings is preserved by sidered what was best to be done towards preserving the dean and chapter, the other is forwarded, at your the tomb and the remains of your venerated founder desire, for the president of your college. secure from injury ; and it was resolved immediately The feet of the figure were in boots, a well-known to remove the broken ledger, supply a new one, and part of the customary dress of ecclesiastics in those take out carefully the dirt and rubbish that had fallen days, in which they were generally buried. Between in upon the coffin, fastening the stones with strong the feet lay a small leaden box, very carefully fastened cement when they should be laid down again, and up: it was about two inches and a half long by two providing a proper inscription to note when these inches wide. It had no inscription on it except the reparations were made.

initials “R. F.This box was taken up and was A stone being prepared by the 28th, in the morning afterwards opened in the dean's presence. I will of that day the prebendaries in residence, and my describe its contents presently. self as treasurer, attended to see that everything was The tomb contained no further object of curiosity. done with care and decency. The dean would have It was about seven feet long, and two feet nine wide attended, but his health did not permit him to do so. at the widest part: the extreme ends were proporAll the broken pieces of the old ledger being re- tionally narrow : it was about four feet deep, and was moved, and an imperfect piece of arching that covered very neatly built of stones nicely squared and jointed. the lower end of the tomb, the whole lay open to the stone was left of its natural colour: we observed view. Our first care was to take out gently by the no trace either of painting or engraving on its sides : hand all the earth that had fallen in. A large there was no date on any part of it. quantity of earth was so removed ; but it was evi. The only additional remark I shall trouble with is, dently no more than what had fallen in in the course that the nearer inspection we had of the coffin this of years through the fissures of the ledger, for, when morning confirmed the conjecture which the first view the whole was cleared, it became manifest to all of it had led us to form, of its having been made of observers that the tomb and coffin had never suffered planks very loosely fastened together; such as might injury either from sacrilegious profanement or have been used either for the sake of great humility, rude curiosity. There was only one circumstance or from circumstances that required haste. which authorized a suspicion that the tomb had ever Every thing having been carefully examined and been opened, which circumstance was this. On re- placed in decent order, the ledger, which had been moving the lid of the coffin, the remains of the vene- previously prepared, was laid over the tomb, ana rable figure lay exactly in the form in which they neatly fastened with cement. On the ledger the folmust have been placed when the coffin was closed : lowing inscription was engraved :-“The stone that the right hand rested on the bosom ; the glove which covered this tomb having become dilapidated, it was covered it was entire, though the colour was fled; replaced by a new one, January 28, 1820. Thomas but there was no ring observable either on the thumb Rennell, D.D., dean." or any of the fingers. To be certain of this, the Such are the particulars which I have to commuperson who had gone into the tomb to clean it out nicate respecting the causes that led to the opening was directed to feel whether any ring was covered by of your founder's tomb, and what occurred in the the glove. He satisfied us fully that there was none: doing of it. It remains now to speak of the contents had there been one fallen off from the hand it must of the small leaden box, and to describe the fragments have been seen, for the figure lay undisturbed, and of the painted stone taken out of the tomb. in many places the folds of the robes were entire. The box contained a small piece of vellum, carefully We were all convinced, therefore, that there was no folded together, on which were written very neatly, ring remaining, which leads us to suppose that the in gothic characters, the following words (the ink was tomb had once been opened ; for in former days it was, uncommonly good and black):

“Quinto die Octobris, anno domini millimo quin- , for the sake of preserving them, and as a mark of gentesimo. vicesimo octavo, obiit et sepultus est affection or respect. Ricardus Fox, hujus Ecclesiæ Epūs. qui hanc rexit For your greater satisfaction I will subjoin the exact ecclesiam septem et viginti annis integrè."

measurements of the tomb and coffin :This inscription is interesting on two accounts :


Ft. In. First, it gives us the true date of Fox's death. Godwin


7 1 mentions none. Richardson, in his edition of God

Greatest width

2 9 win, gives the date the 14th of September, but this


3 11 is evidently an erroneous date. Secondly, the in

COFFIN. scription seems to imply that the good bishop was


5 11) buried the day on which he died. There are some

Width at the head

1 10 circumstances that make this event by no means im

Width at the feet

16 probable. Fox had long contemplated his approach- The coffin was of oak. There was no appearance ing end with such complacency that he is said to have of a single nail having been used about it. wished for it earnestly. He was of an extremely It may be satisfactory for yourself and the college humble mind, and avoided pomp and parade, as far to be informed that, when the tomb was cleared and as his own person was concerned. He was aware also the lid replaced on the coffin, and every thing was of Wolsey's impatience to become possessed of the arranged previous to the putting down the ledger, there see and its treasures, which had been promised to him was an air of peace and repose in the whole which it at his death. If we suppose that Fox was buried on was soothing to the mind to contemplate. It assimithe same day in which he died, we shall be able to lated itself to the firm belief we are permitted, through account for the appearance of the coffin, which seems God's mercies in Christ, to encourage, that the good as if it had been hastily and inartificially put toge- are blest, and that their works follow them, that they ther. A fac-simile of the inscription is annexed to are more than at rest, that they are in joy and felithe drawing of the crozier.

city as soon as they ccase from their labours. The Respecting the pieces of stone which had been sacred calm that seemed to hover round the remains found in bishop Fox's tomb, nothing but conjecture of your venerable founder operated on me powerfully can be offered concerning them; and those conjec- to subdue that dread of death in which sometimes we tures will be, I fear, far from satisfactory. We joined indulge irrationally and even improperly, seeing that the pieces of stone together with the utmost care, and a Christian's hopes are brightest on the other side the were enabled to make out the figures painted on them grave. I did not quit the spot until all was secured ; with accuracy. A drawing was made of them for the and, when the stone closed upon the good bishop's dean and chapter by a gentleman well versed in anti- tomb-not to be removed, I hope, till the last day-I quities, and an admirable draftsman, who chanced, fervently ejaculated within myself, "O, may my latter fortunately for us, to be at Winchester at the time: end be like his.” his name is Mr. Shipster. As to the subject of the I beg my best respects to the president and the painting, I apprehend there can be little doubt of its college, and am, being the coronation of the virgin Mary. This was a

My dear sir, favourite subject among the Roman catholics of

Very faithfully, yours, former days. I have seen it represented in a variety

Geo. FRED. Nott. of ways; sometimes on corbel stones, sometimes as Close, Winchester, Sept. 3, 1821.

apitals of columns, sometimes over the entrances of doors, sometimes as ornameuts in chapels, and in one instance as the finishing of a crozier. In many in- SHORT READINGS FOR FAMILY PRAYERS. stances the mode of representing the coronation of the virgin is similar to that of the painting in question.

No. XXVII. On this head, therefore, I apprehend there can be no

BY THE Rev. HENRY WOODWARD, doubt. How it came to be preserved in Fox's tomb, and when it was painted, it must be very difficult to

Rector of Fethard, Tipperary. ascertain. That it was painted long anterior to Fox's time seems to me clear, from the dress of the person

ges, the tressure which forms the frame, as it were, THERE is no complaint more frequent amongst of the picture, and the gothic ornaments on the seat. those who care for their salvation, than that of I think that these may be safely referred to the early wanderings in prayer. And it has been doubted part of the 13th century.

by some whether any, even of the holiest saints, If I were to offer any conjecture as to the stones have their thoughts so fully in subjection as to be being preserved, mutilated, in Fox's tomb, it should be the following :-Fox's chantry stands on the site of quite free from this infirmity. an old chapel; for a range of chapels, including St.

When we enter into our closet, and shut to the Swithin's shrine, stood, it is now clearly ascertained, door, and kneel down in solitude and stillness, to behind the high altar screen : it is not improbable but realize God's presence and hold communion with that Fox, in building his chantry, might have de- heaven, such is the moment at which the great stroyed a chapel, of which the painting in question adversary most anxiously and actively plies his might have formed the ornament over the altar. The warfare against the soul. Now it is that he makes stone we may suppose to have been broken in taking his most subtle and vigorous assaults, not upon the down; which is rendered probable by the nature of outworks of our more exterior life, but upon the it, for it is Purbeck marble, which, when it is long ex- citadel of thought itself. We have now withposed to the air, is very liable to break. The stone drawn from the bustling and seductive world being broke, it is far from improbable that Fox, to around us. He has now no alluring objects to show his veneration for a relic once hallowed, might have ordered it to be inclosed in his tomb, to secure it place before our eyes, no siren's songs with which from profanation, being no longer fit for religious to charm our ears, no scenes of busy life to shift

before purposes. If we do not suppose the fragments to

us, no succession of visitors or intruders have been placed in the tomb by design, it will be whom he can bring in, and set to talk about this difficult to conjecture how they could have come there, world, and make the heart forget that there is especially as they were placed in an artificial manner another. No: from all these the man who betakes If they were placed there by design, it must have been himself to prayer is now removed, and would


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