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for a time be out of the reach of spiritual foes, had | the Lord : we think of some relative or friend, they not a more subtle warfare to carry on, even that we may intercede for him at the throne of on the interior field of the mind itself. I do not grace. From each of these points countless lines mean to say that Satan can penetrate the very diverge. With the friend a thousand particulars, seat of thought: into this secret chamber of the collateral to our prayer, are intimately connected soul none, perhaps, but God can enter. But the -his residence, his neighbourhood, his family, his great deceiver has, doubtless, access to the imagi- history. Here, then, lie the strength and art of nation. There he can paint his images, or over- the deceiver. Out of all these associations he colour those already drawn: there he can touch selects the most attractive points: he presents the scenes, which memory brings back, with such them drawn out and pictured on the imagination : alluring strokes as, if we be not watchful of his he strews each path, which branches off, with devices, to turn our prayer into sin. No one, who flowers; and thus succeeds in diverting us from closely inspects the movements of his inward' man, the road that leads to God. can fail to notice that, when engaged in devotion, But he has devices of more deadly aim than there is some active agency at work to divert his this. He can, if we relax our vigilance, not only mind and thoughts from the important matter he scatter our devotions to the winds, but turn our has in hand. The attentive observer of his own prayer into sin. When we cry to God for strength heart will discover that Satan has various strata- against some fierce temptation, or when the ofgems for this purpose. His first essay, when we fences or follies of our youth pass in humiliating kneel down, is to prevent our going to prayer at review before us; when we worthily lament our all. And to effect this, it is really curious to notice sins and acknowledge our wretchedness, even how he can bring before the mind the very topics here we tread on slippery ground : here points of which are most likely to indispose us to pious attack are opened to the adversary, points to exercises. If there be any favourite object of which he directs his most envenomed darts. For, which we are in too eager chase; if there be any if we deprecate a thing, we must think of it: if matter in which we are engaged more difficult and we call a sin to remembrance, the times, the cirentangled than every other; if there be any haras- cumstances, the associations of that sin must start sing doubt how we ought to act, or what is best up, and re-appear before the mind. If, then, to be done, on any pressing occasion; in short, while we ourselves have conjured up such scenes, whatever is most likely to strike upon some string Satan can cast a cloud between our souls and the which will set an endless train of interests and sanctifying light of heaven, the mind has to associations in play, such is the object which the grapple with sins and temptations, all grouped tempter is sure with consummate skill to conjure around it, not in the energy of faith, but shorn of up, so as to prevent our even commencing the its strength, and on the low level of its depraved work of prayer ; at least he will strive to keep nature. Of all the wanderings in prayer, these us from it till the mind is perfectly untuned for are, need I say, the most to be deplored; wanderholy things, and till that Spirit which alone can ings in which the enemy of souls leads us, before teach us how to pray has been effectually banished we are aware whither we are going, to re-act in from the heart. If Satan fails in this first attempt, the thoughts the very sins for which we supplicate and we do, when we kneel down, compose our the pardon of heaven. thoughts and lift them up to God, his next endea- Such are the dangers to which prayer itself exvour is to lead the mind to turn off at every de- poses us. But let us be faithful, and we shall vious path which, as we travel on in prayer, pre- overcome the wicked one: let us resist the devil, sents itself to the mental eye.

and he will flee from us. And here I would, in The fact is, that, when we address ourselves to the first place, suggest this counsel : If, when on God, it is not as if the soul were breathing forth our knees, we find that our mind has lost its hold some barren aspirations, nor is it the mere up- on prayer, and that our thoughts have wandered heavings of the heart in shapeless sighs and ab- to the ends of the earth, let us not by a sudden stract wishes. There may indeed, at times, be exertion, as it were, pull in the reins, and thus "groanings of the spirit which cannot be uttered;" with a vigorous effort return to the path of duty. but ordinary prayer is a business which we trans- Such violent movements are not favourable to true act with heaven. When we pray, we must pray devotion. They may force us back to the task of about something: various topics must come before formal prayer; but calmer methods are required to the mind. We must bring forth out of the trea- re-collect the scattered thoughts, to compose the sures of memory things both new and old;" disorders of the bosom, and again to fix the and these we must present unto the Lord. Sub- wandering heart on God. When we find, then, jects, scenes, and persons, about which the heart that we have left the path of prayer, and got into is interested, must be pondered over, that we may | the labyrinth of the world, we should seek to disentake counsel of God's omniscience concerning gage our minds, not by a strong reaction, but by them. Hence it arises that, as the mind pursues a process as quiet and peaceful as the spirit of dethese trains of thought, it must be constantly votion which we would rekindle in the soul. We liable to turn aside from the narrow path of must not rush back with rude precipitancy into prayer. Each separate idea which comes to view, the temple of our hearts, but approach the sanceach individual object which appears upon the tuary with measured steps and gentle tread, as mental stage, these have all their various associa- those who feel themselves on holy ground. This tions and endless bearings. Every one is the will defeat one great end of Satan, which is not centre of its own system, and spreads out into a only to lead us out of the way, but to render that thousand branches. Here, then, the tempter is wandering a cause of annoyance and fretful imon the watch, and ready to assail. We call, for patience to the mind. instance, before the mind a case or scene, that we Thus far we may escape his snares. But we may offer it up in prayer or in thanksgiving before may do more: we may turn his stratagems to our own account, and make his plans recoil upon him- | dom, are called the Ataš neyoueva, must see that self. If thoughts, then, will intrude in spite of all it is one thing to render these words, by common our vigilance, and if we cannot turn them out, let consent, according to some supposed analogy, withus convert them into the aliment of prayer, and out any authority from or knowledge of the root; into fuel for the fire of our devotion. For instance, but it is quite another thing to contend, fiercely if some perplexing care is injected into the mind, and dogmatically, that such and such was the let us not trace it through the windings that it meaning intended to be affixed by the inspired opens, but let us at once submit in supplication writer. Blessed be God, so far as man's salvation unto God, and spread it before the Lord. If is concerned in the revelation of his word, nothing Satan presents to our mental eye some person who of importance has been obscurely rendered. It is, has despitefully used us or wounded us in the therefore, not an objection that, in the translation tenderest part, let us take the hint, and pray that of such difficult words as that under consideration, God will forgive this “enemy, persecutor, or we cannot ascertain the exact meaning ; and, thereslanderer, and turn his heart.” Again : should fore, that the translators have availed themselves the adversary, as I have already intimated, invade of those collateral aids which are afforded by the the sanctuary of confession, and essay to poison natural objects around, and have called in the the very tears of contrition and sighs of penitence; assistance of reason where revelation is silent or should he, by alluring pictures presented to the uncertain. But I do not think that such assistfancy, strive to turn our sorrows for past sins into ance can be ava ole in the present instance ; for the desire of repeating them; let us meet these the strong probability is, that the whole affair was cruel, horrible devices in the full panoply of still a miraculous act, and that the kikiun, whatever it more earnest prayer. Let us drown the siren's was, came forth out of the earth by God's bidding voice in strong cries to heaven. Let us seize each and the Lord God prepared a gourd, and made fiery dart as it issues from the wicked one, and it to come up over Jonah”), without any regard send it up in a flame of supplication unto God. to the ordinary laws of vegetable life. It seems Thus shall we turn the tide of warfare against the almost impossible of belief that men of such acenemy of our souls. Thus will he perceive that knowledged learning and piety as Jerome and where he intended mischief he has been only the Augustine should carry their differences, as to instrument of blessing: He will feel that he what the plant really was, to such an extent as “ imagined such a device as he was not able to they are recorded to have done. Nevertheless, perform.” He will see that no weapon can pros- their mutual weakness in the matter destroys what per against those that hold them fast by God, and confidence we might otherwise place in their reathat all things work together for good to them sonings. It is by no means clear how those that love him.” He will desist from his vain at- learned writers who have attempted to make this tempt. He will own the omnipotence of prayer, word identical with certain known vegetable suband no more heap fresh sacrifices upon its altar, stances, such as the gourd, the palma christi, or He will leave the saint alone with his God, and the ivy, could surmount the difficulty which must no longer seek to molest him with wanderings in ever surround the subject, taken in the natural prayer.

Independently of the fact of there being no direct JONAH'S GOURD.

clue to its identification, we know of no plant in

the vegetable creation that approaches the kikiun By C. M, BURNETT, Esq.

in the rapidity of its growth, even allowing the

utmost latitude of meaning that could possibly be The word “kikiun,” or “kikajon," occurs five taken for the parallel sentences in connection. The times in the book of Jonah, in connexion with words of revelation would satisfy the ordinary that remarkable account of God's dealings with reader that the plant, whatever it was, was of a the prophet on his mission to Nineveh. "It will few hours' growth ; for there we are distinctly told be remembered that, though he had an intimation “ that it came up in a night, and perished in a that the city would be spared, yet he did not fully night:” and, lest we should be in uncertainty believe it; he therefore left the city, and retired as to the definite meaning of this expression, on the east side of it, and erected a booth to pro- namely, whether it grew completely in a single tect himself from the weather, there to remain till night, or whether this was only a strong oriental he should see the event. It was while in this po- expression for a very rapid growth, we have the sition that the Almighty very graciously and mi- fact set at rest by the additional statement that raculously caused some kind of vegetable sub- “God prepared a worm when the morning rose stance to spring up around him, which in one the next day, and smote the kikiun that it winight grew into such luxuriance as to afford him thered.” This, however, does not satisfy some a shelter from the scorching rays of the sun. This biblical critics, who, resting their doubt' on the vegetable substance (kikiun) in our English Hebrew word put for “the next day" (lemechetranslation has been rendered “gourd ;' but by ret), incline to the belief that it has a reference to what authority I know not, beyond the fact that a much more distant time". But, without going the seventy, the Syriac, and the Arabic versions,

The same word occurs in Exod. xiii, 14 : “And it shall be and numerous commentators, have adopted the when thy son asketh thee in time to come”-or to-morrow, as in same word. In no other part of the Hebrew the margin ; in Deut. vi. 20: “And when thy son asketh thee

in time to come;" and Josh. iv. 6:“When your children ask scriptures, except those above-named, does it oc

their fathers in time to come.” This, however, only proves cur. It becomes us, therefore, to be very careful that the word has a wider latitude of meaning attached to it, in offering any opinion as to its real meaning ; for but not that it will bear such a latitude of meaning in Jonah all those who are unacquainted with the difficulty morning rose in time to come ;” and, if we make sense of it, as of rendering those words from the Hebrew text our English translators have done by rendering the words, " on which, from their occurring only once or but sel

the morrow," in this last passage, then the question of the miracle can no longer be cavilled at by the most dainty sceptic.


into the merits of such an argument, and making | Lord,” it seems incredible, were it not recorded, use of that reasoning which is not opposed to the that the desire to gratify his pride should have so word of God, we must see at once how unneces- obliterated his feeling and compassion towards so sary the whole transaction would have been, and vast a multitude of perishing souls. Surely he how inadequate to the purpose required, were we knew not what spirit he was of, when his anger to suppose the plant was several days in growing ; burned because God deprived him of a temporary for then would Jonah have left the scene before enjoyment, instead of gratifying his unmerciful it had afforded him any protection.

spirit. Yet multitudes of the present day, though The author of “ Scripture Illustrated,” observes: they have been surrounded and protected from the “ The gourd of Jonah should be no trivial lesson scorching effects of poverty and disease by the to theological disputants. So long ago as the days bounties of an overruling, merciful, but just God, of Jerome and Augustine, those pious fathers dif- sit under their gourd contemplating the misery, fered as to what the plant was; and they not the ignorance, and the destitution, not of one city only differed in words, but from words they only, “wherein are more than six score thousand proceeded to blows, and Jerome was accused of persons who cannot discern between their right heresy at Rome by Augustine. Jerome thought hand or their left,” but of many cities, and, like this plant was an ivy, and pleaded the authority the insensible prophet, looking more with ease and of Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion, and others: complacency to see what will become of them,” Augustine thought it was a gourd; and he was rather than using the talent committed to their supported by the seventy, the Syriac, the Arabic, trust, and praying to God with earnest prayer that &c., &c.*. Had either of them ever seen the he will spare them more time for repentance. This plant? No. Which of them was right? Nei- gourd cannot long defend them, any more than ther. Let the errors of these pious men teach us did the kikiun defend Jonah ; and, whenever it to think more mildly, if not more meekly, respect- pleases the Almighty to prepare a worm to smite ing our opinions, and not to exclaim, 'Heresy ! the gourd, which he may do in one night, if we or to enforce the exclamation, when the subject is have not availed ourselves of those privileges of so little importance as gourd versus ivy. while under the gourd which are denied to

“Nevertheless, there is a just importance in this thousands, we must expect to suffer from the subject as well as in others; and the most minute dreadful effects of God's anger. plant or insect mentioned in the word of God demands our best endeavours to obtain a competent acquaintance with it." This is just reasoning, so long as we do not suf

The Cabinet. fer our inquiries' to lead us away into error; but, in the case before us, like multitudes of others which have passed out of the hands of biblical

HARSHJUDGMENTS.-Charitable allowance should commentators, far too much weight seems to have be made for the weaknesses of an afflicted brother. been given to the merest inferences adduced by Not but that the Christian should exemplify fortitude authors to identify the plant, while the obvious -and blessed and happy is he that does so—but God purpose intended to be answered by recording it compassionates weaknesses : he makes allowance in the pages of revelation seems almost overlooked. when men judge harshly. Nay, we are not left to

The prophet Jonah expressly tells us that the dubious inference. We have had a case in point. Lord prepared this plant. In one sense he pre- That was an affecting scene, when Mary, the sister of pares every plant; but, if the plant in question had Lazarus, onder the recent smart of that dreadful loss grown sui generis, without any immediate inter- which laid her home and hearth desolate, Aung herposition on the part of God, what need was there self at the feet of him who often joined their happy that the act should be specially recorded in the word of God? We cannot, then, conceal the ob- circle, and heard the warm welcome from those lips vious fact, or divest it of the importance intended which now were cold and frozen in death, her dear to be conveyed to the mind of the humble reader brother's, her beloved Lazarus. That was an affectof God's word, that it was a supernatural act, an ing scene; and there was much of what the Christian immediate operation of the finger of God, without would call weakness in it too, when in an agony of the interposition or assistance of any previously grief she threw herself at his feet, and, in accents created vegetable substance. But we may, indeed, ask here, For what purpose said, with convulsive sobe, “ Lord, if thou hadst been

such as weeping woman's voice can alone convey, was this miracle recorded ! Was it simply and here, my brother had not died.” And he met her barely to assure the people of God of the miracu- not with cold severity of manner : he answered her lous power which he possessed ? Surely we might have gathered as much as this from many not roughly: he said not, “Woman, where is thy similar interpositions previously recorded.

faith, where is thy fortitude? What ! weeping for the There is perhaps no circumstance revealed in idol!" No: the cry of the desolate and widowed the scriptures which so strikingly contrasts the heart touched his bosom: he let her sorrow flow on magnitude of God's mercy and condescension with unreproved : he said nothing. He stood motionless the

rooted and overwhelming selfishness of man's for a few moments, while her grief flowed in a gushnature as this short transaction in the history of ing tide ; and when at last the silence was broken by Jonah's life. A prophet of God he was ; and, seeing that his former affliction, when the billows and the sorrowful inquiry, "Where have ye laid him ? the waves of God's wrath passed over him, had as he moved towards the spot, the tears were seen to brought him to confess that “salvation is of the drop from his own eyes—"Jesus wept*.”

• All these authorities are versions made immediately from • From " Self-Inspection;" by the rev. Denis Kelly, M.A., the Hebrew.

minister of Trinity chapel, St. Bride's, London.


soon as it is known that any one medicine has been HYMN.

made up wrong, or improperly given away, the shop

of the seller where it is prepared is shut up in a (For the Church of England Magazine.) “Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and

moment by the police! Every prescription received I will give you rest. Take my yoke upon you, and learn of by an apothecary is retained by him, and regularly me; for I am meek and lowly in heart : and ye shall fiud rest

entered in a book; and, for greater security, a ticket unto your souls. For my yoke is easy, and my burden is Jight."-MATT. XI. 28-30.

is also given with the medicine, addressed to the per0, MEEK and lowly one,

son for whom it is intended, and explanatory of its We fain would learn of thee,

nature, the name of the physician under whose hand Would fain thine cusy yoke put on,

such prescription or authority has been given, and also And from ourselves be free.

the precise time of the day when it was dispatched to Our weary souls too long

the invalid.” Now, let me ask, if this is to be viewed Have worn the chain of sin,

as a most prudent and rational regulation, why shquld And heavy on our hearts, and strong,

not such measure of precaution be adopted in our The galling links have been.

own country, or, indeed, enforced by a legislative And we have loved the thrall,

enactment, since it would have the effect of not only And knew not of our pain ;

preventing imposition, but save the lives thousands

from accidents and murderous intentions? It may only But now we hear thy blessed call : 0, call us not in vain.

further be added, that something worthy of imitation

may always be found, even among those nations who Thy gracious help afford :

are least of all to be copied generally, and, in other Unto our succour speed;

respects, any thing but models of conduct. Even the For, if thou make us free, O Lord,

Turks are to be highly commended for their humanity We shall be free indeed.

to animals, and might, in this respect, cause many, 0, high and holy one,

who take to themselves the character of Christians, O Jesus, ever-blest,

to blush for their neglect of a virtue practised by

infidels. We come to thee; for thou alone

FLORENCE. Italy is a country of contrasts, of Canst give the weary rest.

finery and rags tacked together; but none of its conHENRY DOWNTON. trasts strike the political economist so much as the

difference between Florence and Rome. All around

Rome, and even within its walls, reigns a funereal Miscellaneous.

silence. The neighbourhood is a silent desert: no Poisons. It is heartrending to think we should, stir or sign of men, no bustle at the gatos tells of a at the present day, be compelled to advert to so many populous city. But without, within, and around the awful instances which occur of persons buying arsenic of men. The suburbs of small houses, the clustere of

gates of Florence, you hear on all sides the busy hum and other poisonous drugs on representation of killing good, clean, tradesman-like habitations, extend a mile vermin, which, however, has turned out to have been or two. Shops, wine-houses, market-carts, country with the view, not only of putting to death their own people, smart peasant girls, gardeners, weavers, offspring and relatives, but destroying their own souls wheelwrights, hucksters, in short, all the ordinary and bodies. Under such appalling facts there is a

suburban trades and occupations which usually locate loud call for an immediate interference on the part of full movement here. The labouring class in Florence

themselves in the outskirts of thriving cities, are in the proper authorities, or, rather, that legislative are well lodged; and, from the number and contents means be speedily adopted to grasp at and crush of the provision-stalls in the obscure third-rate effectually crimes so dreadful and increasing. In streets, the number of butchers' shops, grocers' shops, allusion to this it may not be improper to ad- eating houses, and coffee-houses for the middle and

lower classes, the traveller must conclude that they vert to a few remarks of Dr. Rae Wilson, in his

are generally well fed and at their ease. The labourer Journey through Poland and Russia," more espe- is whistling at his work, the weaver singing over his cially as to what had fallen under his immediate ob- loom. The number of book-stalls, small circulating servation at Moscow. “ In this city,” says the libraries, and the free access of all classes to the magauthor, no natives are permitted to act in the capa collection in the Pitti palace itself, and the frequent

nificent galleries of paintings and statues, even to the city of apothecaries, this being a profession exclu

use made by the lower class of this free access to the sively confined to Germans” (a pretty convincing highest works of art, show that intellectual enjoyproof, by the of the little confidence to be re- ments connected with taste in the fine arts—the only posed in Muscovites)," and the very utmost precau- intellectual enjoyments open to or generally cultition is observed." In order to prevent medicines yated by those classes on the continent whu do not being improperly made up, and mistakes prevented belong to the learned professions, and are by the

nature of their government debarred from political or on the part of the ignorant and careless, as to which, religious investigation and discussion-are widely difalas ! we often hear so many fatal instances occur from fused and generally cultivated. No town on the contime to time in England, particularly as to giving tinent shows so much of this kind of intellectuality, oxalic acid* for Epsom salts, also arsenic and other

or so much well-being and good conduct among the poisons, under the pretext of banishing vermin. “So people.-- Laing's Notes of a Traveller.

• Perhaps the most perfect security against all danger may be obtained by the entire exclusion of this article from shops; or,

London : Published for the Proprietors, by EDWARDS and that it might not deceive the eye by its resemblance to salts, HUGHES, 12, Ave-Maria Lane, St. Paul's; J. BURNS, 17, the acid should be kept in a state of solution; at all events, the

Portman Street; and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers word “ poison,” might be printed, in place of written, on the in Town and Country. article. “It is a remarkable fact, no accident from oxalic acid occurs on the continent.




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(Genater.) ABYSSINIA.

people, Abyssinia has alone preserved, in the

heart of Africa, its peculiar literature and its anIn the earlier numbers of the magazine were con- cient Christian church. What is still more retained several papers on Abyssinia. Within the markable, it has preserved existing remains of a last few years, however, since those papers ap- previously existing and wide-spread Judaism, peared, much information has been obtained, and and, with a language approaching more than any much most valuable missionary intelligence, re- living tongue to the Hebrew, a state of manners specting that interesting country; and it is deemed and a peculiar character of its people which readvisable to lay this before the notice of the present in these latter days the habits and cusreader. The 'illustration, furnished by the toms of the ancient Israelites in the times of GiChurch Missionary Society, is a view of Genater, deon and of Joshua. So striking is the resemthe capital of Agowma.

blance between the modern Abyssinians and the “There is no part of Africa, Egypt being ex- Hebrews of old, that we can hardly look upon cepted, the history of which is connected with so them but as branches of one nation; and, if we many objects of interest as Abyssinia. A region had not convincing evidence to the contrary, and of Alpine mountains, ever difficult of access by its knew not for certain that the Abrahamidæ oripature and peculiar situation, concealing in its ginated in Chaldea, and to the northward and bosom the long-sought sources of the Nile, and eastward of Palestine, we might frame a very the still more mysterious origin of its singular probable hypothesis, which should bring them



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