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should come unto us; searching what, or | love to God, to call forth such love in return; what manner of time the Spirit of Christ no desire to seek him, that he should condewhich was in them did

signify, when it testi- scend to seek us. It was “ while we were yet fied beforehand the sufferings of Christ, and sinners that Christ died for us ;” that, in due the glory that should follow.” It forms a time, he bowed his head upon Calvary. It prominent article of that faith for which the was while there was nothing in man to claim Christian is to contend. It is that doctrine the divine favour-for there was nothing but which can alone administer comfort to the obstinate perverseness and wilful rebellionweary and heavy-laden mourner, convinced that the counsel of peace was revealed, and of his guilt and wretchedness; for, while he that the Lord laid upon Jesus the iniquity of is led to acknowledge his own unworthiness, us all. While we were yet sinners! What the impossibility of cancelling the heavy bond a humiliating picture of the human race ! that is against him, the convinced sinner re- “Sinners ;” sinners, without one solitary exjoices to find that there is redemption through ception ; sinners, all gone out of the way, the blood of Jesus, even the forgivene

eness of alienated from God, devising only evil consins. It is that doctrine which most power- tinuaily; sinners, not one of whom could fully manifests the glory of the divine Being, stand the secret searching of that God who is while it calls forth the most lively feelings of “ of purer eyes than to behold iniquity." gratitude on the part of man. And there can As, on the one hand, it is necessary that be no view of scripture truth more dero- we should believe that the Saviour who died gatory to the Saviour's dignity, more para for us was indeed divine, so, on the other, is lyzing in its effects on the heart of man, than it essential to our forming any thing apthat which reduces the Lord to the level of a proaching to adequate notions of God's love created being, and which leads us to regard that we should admit the fact here insisted his death as in no way meritorious further on, a fact not stated in one or two isolated than it was indeed praiseworthy as setting passages, but interwoven throughout the forth an example of the most perfect obedi- whole texture of scripture. And yet, perhaps, ence. There can be no view of scripture there is none more unwillingly admitted; for doctrine more pernicious in its consequences there is none which militates more against than that which, so far from humbling the man's natural pride, self-righteousness, and sinner and exalting the Saviour, teaches man self-sufficiency. We may be assured, howto build his hope of acceptance on the sandy ever, brethren, that it is essentially requisite, foundation of his own deservings; which for our own cordial reception of the offers of leads him to regard the gospel in any other mercy so freely made in the gospel, that we light than as a message of unmerited com- should be led to the humiliating conviction of passion, the revelation of the divine purpose our sinfulness, that we should feel that we of mercy, through the Lord Jesus, are wholly unworthy of the interposition of ruined and undone, and totally destitute of God in our behalf. If there be any selfany right to heaven's glories.

justification, any unwillingness to admit the II. But we may remark, secondly, that fact that we deserve nothing but the displeathe apostle, in the text, argues the extent of sure of the divine Being, any vain supposithe love of God, in sending his Son to die for tion that, when weighed in the balances, we us, from the consideration that it was while shall not be found wanting, that we have we were yet sinners that this love was testi- many claims, as having done all that we fied towards us. “Scarcely,” says he, “ for were required, to the divine favour and rea righteous man will one die; yet peradven- gard, then there will be no cordial reception ture for a good man some would even dare of the great doctrine of the atonement. to die.” Human affection generally springs There may be a decent and laudable obfrom some admiration of the object for whom servance of the ceremonials of religion, a it is felt, some admiration of the good quali- spurious profession of faith on the lips, and ties possessed by that object; and any wil there may be a cold acknowledgment of the lingness which has ever been testified by one divinity of the Son of God, and there may be man to lay down his life for another must a formal assent to the doctrines of the goshave arisen from some feeling of the most pel; but the stupendous love of the Lord devoted attachment, of the most ardent gra- Jesus will not act as an operative principle, titude, the deepest affection, the greatest love. leading to the performance of all Christian And even such are of rare occurrence: the duties. There may be the form of godliness, apostle speaks of them as such-“scarcely," without one atom of its power. There may "peradventure.” But reflect, with profound be the name to live, while the soul is dead in est humiliation, that there were no such trespasses and in sins. There may be the amiable qualities on the part of man, to re- outward show of churchmanship, whilst quire such a merciful interposition; no such there is the most lamentable ignorance of


the church's doctrines. There may be a through eternity. “He that liveth and beclear orthodoxy of the head, and dark he- lieveth on him shall never die.” And surely terodoxy of the heart. There may be a you would not barter these for all that the zealous energy for the scrupulous adherence world can bestow. to ritual observances, and a total paralysis But it may be that this subject, in all its of spiritual activity. There may be a formal important bearings, may not hitherto have observance of such holy seasons as the pre- affected your hearts. Immersed in the busisent, while, in fact, they are felt to be a wea- ness or pleasures of the world, other subjects riness. And there is no error from which than that of “Jesus Christ and him cruciwe should more earnestly pray to be deli- fied” may have engaged your attention; and vered than that of resting contented with a you may be fast hastening to an eternal mere speculative knowledge of divine truth, world, without one solemn thought as to the a mere partisanship in religious profession, medium by which you are to be presented, wbile our natures are unchanged, our souls without spot or wrinkle, before the throne of unenlightened, our hearts unsanctified, our that Jehovah in whose sight the very wills and affections not brought under entire heavens are not clean. Some vague 10submission to the gospel of Christ. There tion of the divine mercy, some delusive can be no delusion more pernicious in its hope that, on the whole, you are not justly effects than that which leads a man to regard amenable to the divine displeasure, some inhimself as sure of heaven, while there is no definite purpose of giving more earnest heed rational evidence that, being spiritually born to subjects connected with salvation before again, he is savingly united to that Saviour you die; these have a tendency to whisper through whom alone an admission to heaven a soul-destroying peace, to suffer you to reis to be obtained, and who regards as his main at ease in a state of spiritual insentrue disciples those alone who implicitly look sibility. But, if there be one way alone of to him for salvation, and testify that they are obtaining admission to glory, one fountain his by being transformed into his image, im- only where the stain of guilt can be washed bued with his spirit, and following his ex- away, if there be none other foundation on ample.

which the sinner can build with safety As a subject at all times deeply interest- than that which is laid for us in Zion, none ing, I have thus imperfectly directed your other name given among men whereby we thoughts to that most stupendous event, must be saved, but the name of Jesus, can wherein God did chiefly commend his love there be folly to be compared to that which towards us. Reflect on the intenseness of the may justly be laid to their charge whose Saviour's sufferings, the death, even the lot has been cast in a Christian land, to death of the cross; on the character of those whom the saving truths of the gospel are for whom he suffered, "sinners;" on the bles- preached in all their freeness and all their sings resulting from this sacrifice-present fulness, and who yet will not come 10 the peace and future glory. Reflect with hu- Saviour, that they may have life, to whom mility, gratitude, and earnest anxiety to im- the volume of God's inspired word is a prove for your spiritual and eternal benefit sealed book? If such there be present here the truths which have been advanced. The to-day, O let me expostulate with them, with more thoroughly you admire the greatness of all the earnestness which the most affectionthe Saviour's compassion in giving his life a ate desire for the welfare of their souls can ransom for your souls, the more powerfully impart. Let me beg of them to read with will you feel yourselves constrained to glorify bumility and prayer the volume of God's rehim “ in your bodies and

your spirits, / vealed word. ' Le me assure them that salwhich are his,” and the more thoroughly vation is a matter of far too great importance will you deplore your atter inability to ren- to be neglected or to be bartered for the der any adequate return for that wondrous fleeting objects of earth, and that it is only love which led him to pour out his soul an to be secured by the cordial reception of that offering for sin, the more fully will you ad- Saviour whose glory shall be the song of the mit that, as his professed disciples, you are unceasing adoration of the redeemed, when bound to make an entire surrender of your they shall “cast their crowns before the selves, your souls and bodies, to his service. throne, saying, Thou art worthy, O Lord, to And reflect, moreover, on the unspeakable receive glory and honour and power; for privileges of those who believe on the Lord thou hast created all things, and for thy pleaJesus Christ, and receive him as their only sure they are and were created," and by Saviour; the privileges of present peace and whose meritorious death upon the cross, of future glory; the privilege of viewing God "even while we were yet sinners, God comas a reconciled Father in time, and the sure mended his love towards us.” and certain hope of dwelling with God

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(Weeping Willow.) TREES AND SHRUBS.

smooth, and serrated. From the pendulous nature
No. XV.

of its branches it derives its name ; which also
makes it an excellent ornament to a still, retired
piece of water. Drops of water distil from the

extremities of its branches in misty weather, and

justify its appellation. It is of comparatively reThe varieties of this tree amount to upwards of cent introduction into this country. It grows to thirty, or, according to some writers, to seventy. a large size, and attains a considerable age. Pope The principal are the common white, the crack, with his own hand planted one in his

garden at the weeping, the sallow, and the common osier, Twickenham ; but it was cut down some years &c. It grows with great rapidity, and it is on ago: it is said to have been the first planted in this account that of true believers it is said, “And this country. “This, however, cannot be corthey shall spring up among the grass, as willows rect,” says Mr. London, “as it is included in a by the water courses.” It may be observed, also, catalogue of British trees, published in 1692." that at the feast of tabernacles they were carried Pope is said to have been with lady Suffolk, with other branches, while the people sang, when she received a present from Spain, or Tur“Hosannah, save, I beseech thee.”

key, and, observing some of the oziers bound The common white willow (Salix alba), has round it about to vegetate, planted them with the leaves lance-shaped and serrated; both sides success. covered with silky hairs, imparting a whitish Napoleon's weeping willow has obtained some colour. It is considered the finest of the species, celebrity. It was not indigenous to St. Helena, and grows large. It is met with in moist woods but introduced there among other trees, when and hedges, and on the sides of brooks and rivers, general Beatson was governor. Under one of the marking out their course. The wood is very species he had a seat placed, where he often sat. white, though not durable ; but its cleanly ap- A storm, in 1821, about the time of his death, pearance adapts it for milk pails and similar shattered it ; when madame Bertrand planted articles, where peculiar cleanliness is desirable. several cuttings of it around his grave. It is readily propagated by cuttings. The best Another is the duke of Bedford's willow (Salix are the shoots of one or two years old, from one Russelliana). The foliage resembles that of the to two feet long, though older wood will root. crack willow. It grows to a great size. The Branches from six to eight feet long, and from wood is equal, if not superior, to that of any of the two to three inches in diameter, will root readily; willow species : it is tough, and possesses strong but the smaller cuttings produce the finest trees. lateral adhesion. At Woburn abbey are five

This species is often found as a hedge-row tree, noble specimens. Dr. Johnson's, at Litchfield, particularly in low and sheltered districts. While was a special favourite, which he invariably young, or growing as coppice-wood, it is formed visited when in that city. It was blown down in into hoops, light handles for hay-rakes, &c. 1829, but a small branch of it was planted with

The crack willow (Salix fragilis) has the leaves great ceremony, and has become a fine tree. oval and smooth, with toothed glandular foot- The goat willow, or large-leaved sallow (Salix stalks. The leaves are wider than the last- caprea) may be distinguished from all others by mentioned variety, but it is in many respects its large ovate or orbicular leaves, which are pointed similar : it becomes a tolerably tall tree, and as well as serrated : underneath they are of a pale called “ crack," from the brittleness of its small glaucous colour, but are dark green above. It branches, which, if struck sharply, break off at has numerous and nearly sessile catkins, which the year's shoot. Its leaves are long, and of a expand much earlier than the foliage. It someshining green on each side. The wood is of a times attains the height of thirty or forty feet. It pink or salmon colour, and it is sometimes called will grow in almost any soil, but prefers dry the red-wood willow.

loam. Its boughs are still used on the Sunday The weeping willow (Salir Babylonica) is the before Easter, à remnant of popish superstition, most elegant and ornamental of the whole willow in lieu of palm branches, as commemorative of tribe. The leaves are narrow, spear-shaped, our Lord's entry into Jerusalem ; hence that day

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is termed Palm Sunday. On this Sunday there of willow branches in full leaf, one of which he still is, in popish countries, a procession to the strikes against some part of the house, so as to church, with tapers and palm branches. Stowe shake off the leaves." If they all, or nearly all, says, that in the week before Easter “had ye fall at once, he augurs that his sins are forgiven: great shows made for the fetching in of a twisted if not, he lives in fear of misfortunes, or even death, tree, or withe, as they termed it, out of the woods until another year brings a fresh divining season. into the king's house, and the like into every Some use the willows to inquire whether such or man's house of honour and worship.”

such an event as they wish shall come to pass ; The following are lady Calçott's remarks on and some preserve them carefully, and by the the willow :

falling off of the leaves divine concerning the “The white willow is pre-eminently the willow of duration of the lives of those who are dear to the brook; and its large branches are well adapted them. In the preface to Sale's Koran some cufor the purpose enjoined in Leviticus, where, along rious facts are stated concerning the customs of with the boughs of other thick trees, the Israelites the Arabs, who, like the Jews, cut willows with are commanded to make of them tabernacles, in which they divined, and which they kept for a which they were to celebrate one of their most year, drawing various prognostics from the state solemn feasts,

in which the rods continued. This practice is “ The children of Israel still present willows spoken of in the apocryphal gospels; where we annually in their synagogues, bound up with are told that, when the virgins brought up in the palm and myrtle, and accompanied with a citron. temple were marriagcable, the unmarried men of And it is a curious fact that, during the common- the tribe they belonged to were commanded to wealth of England*, when Cromwell, like a wise bring their willows to the high priest, and lay politician, allowed them to settle in London and them on the altar, where a prayer of consecration to have synagogues, the Jews came hither in suffi- was said over them, and the rod which appeared cient numbers to celebrate the feast of tabernacles freshest after the prayer entitled the owner to the in booths among the willows on the borders of the principal virgin. Now, when the Virgin Mary Thames. The disturbance of their comfort, from was of age, and the rods of the young men of the innumerable spectators, chiefly London ap- the tribe of Judah had been offered, that of Joseph, prentices, called for some protection from the local the most advanced in years, appeared to have magistrates. Not that any insult was offered to budded and broken into leaf, upon which the their persons; but a natural curiosity, excited by priest performed the ceremony of marriage; and so new and extraordinary a spectacle, induced Joseph received Mary, while the other men of the many to press too closely round their camp, and tribe broke their rods for spite and envy *. perhaps intrude upon their privacy. This public “The salix viminalis, or osier, is most probably celebration of the feast of tabernacles has never the willow of the book of Job, wherewith he says been renewed ; and, in our time, the London Jews Behemoth is compassed about. The osier, as well of rank and education content themselves with

as the white willow, is common on the banks of their own houses; while the Jews who hold more Jordan ; and it must have been of considerable to the letter of the law construct a tabernacle importance, while the offerings of first-fruits were either in a garden or court-yard, or on a house- yearly carried to the temple, because the lawful top, with planks covered with trellis, so as not to vessels for such offerings were baskets (Deut. xvi. shut out the stars, and decorated with boughs of 2), which the people generally wove of peeled willows of the brook and other thick trees, to osiers, while the rich and ostentatious conveyed which are hung citrons, apples, pears, and other their offerings in baskets of silver. dried fruits, gilt

over and intermixed with artificial “ The beautiful salir Babylonica, or weeping flowers. Those who have no space to erect a willow, was surely that on which the people of tabernacle are generally invited by some hospi- the captivity hanged their harps, as the psalmist table neighbour to eat, at least once during the sings in the most touching elegy that was ever feast, in an open dwelling.

inditedt. “ Of the willows on the banks of the Jordan a 66 As to the safsafi, it is mentioned as common singular use has been, and still is, wade. A di- in Syria and Palestine, by Bruce and other travelvining rod was in ancient times a necessary imple- lers, particularly Hasselquist, who says that, like ment of both priest and physician, nay, of every our sallows, it grows in dry and sandy places, as head of a house; and these rods were generally of well as by the water. willow.

“ Maundrel says that the flat ground on both “ It is difficult to say at what period the custom sides of Jordan, which probably formed the ancient began among the Jews; whether they carried it bed of the river, is so covered with thickets of with them from the land of Canaan, or whether oleander, tamarisk, and willow, that you do not they adopted it in Egypt f. The present customs discover the river itself until close upon it. Pocock of those Jews who profess to adhere the most and Hasselquist also talk of the willows of Jordan, closely to their ancient traditions show the willow- and mention that, at the annual pilgrimage made staff to have been a divining-wand in truth. At to the banks of the Jordan, the pilgrims cut staffs the feast of tabernacles each person has a bundle of them.

“ Two places on the river are yearly visited, • The old act of banishment passed in the reign of Elward I. was still in force, though it would be easy to show that there were Jews in England under both Tudors and Stuarts.

• Christian painters, down to the time of Ratt el, attended to + The rods of Moses and Aaron, and of the Egyptian sooth- this point of what we may call costume. In his beautiful early sayers, were certainly divining-rods; and, as traditional customs picture of the marriage of the Virgin, a young man is breaking are apt to ohtlive even written history, the diviniog-rods wherewith the miners of France and Cornwall detect the existence of metals under ground, and the German adept finds out the water. springs in the barren field, are indisputably descended from the Salix caprea. The modern English Jews prefer the sallow divining-rods of Egypt and Arabia.

to all other willows, for their cerimonies.

his staff over his knee.
+ We believe there is no foundation for this idea.-ED.

Ezekiel xvii. 5. The word translated willow is tzafzafa.

of the savage;

one by the Latin, the other by the Greek, Chris- | the excitement. Who, that watches the course of tians; both caravans being protected by Mahom- events, perceives not, among other signs, that the medan soldiers. The Latin Christians bave pitched thinking faculties of a large class of people, formerly upon a spot as being that where St. John baptized not much given to thought, are aroused? They are, Christ, where the river is so rapid that those who bathe in it are obliged to hold fast by the willows, by, they never knew ; desires engendered by compari

moreover, tormented by desires which, in time gone that they may not be carried away ; while the weaker sort content themselves with standing on

son of their own lot with the lot of the great and the bank, and procuring pitchers of water to be opulent, so ostentatiously paraded before their eyes, poured over their heads.

and in which they partake not now, even reflectively, “ The Greeks have chosen a place four or five as did the retainers of the great of old. All classes miles nearer the Dead Sea, where the river is less are alike seeking eagerly, though, in most instances, rapid, and a good deal wider. Both parties are vainly, that undefined good which is to render happiaccompanied by numbers of Jews, who gladly ness complete. With some, it is riches; with others, avail themselves of the opportunity to visit Jordan rank or fame; with almost all, it is something in safety ; and it is curious that Jews, Christians, worldly. The restless spirit of the present age maniand Mahommedans, are alike eager to provide themselves with staffs from the willows of the fests itself too distinctly to escape the notice of any holy river.

but the most unobservant. “ There is no peace, no “ The willow, in all countries and in all times, repose.” Society, as has already been stated, is has been most useful to man. Its tough yet broken into separate parts, acknowledging no common pliable nature renders it fit for wattling the hut interest: political factions prevail with violence.

Baskets to carry and contain his Religious sects are not less hostile, less bitter towards food and other possessions were indispensable. each other; disputing about immaterial points of The ancient people on the banks of the Tigris and faith and practice ; losing, as it were, the substance, Euphrates framed wicker boats, and covered them while grasping at the shadow. Were any great poliwith skins. Such are even now occasionally found at the ferries on those rivers ; and such were the tical convulsion to ensue, it is to be feared that such

would exhibit a virulence unprecedented in English first boats employed by our own ancestors, whose coracles (for so these boats were named) are now

history. Religion then, the religion of Christ, is our and then occasionally dug up from the mud at the sole hope. Like oil poured upon the troubled waters, bottoms of our rivers, and show one of the inge- religion has power to give peace in the most distracted nious uses to which our forefathers applied the times. Let those who have the care of youth labour willow.

incessantly to instil into the yet unformed mind the 6. The bark of the willow contains a good deal pure precepts contained in the bible ; and not merely of tannin, and is used in dressing some kinds of instil, but enforce them by their own example, taking leather. The delicate white wood is invaluable to occasion continually to make application of them to the cabinet-maker, not only in its natural state, the concerns of life. but dyed. It takes any artificial colouring; and is much used, where ebony would be too ex- The CHRISTIAN MORE THAN CONQUEROR.—“It pensive, for inlaying. The charcoal of willow is is appointed unto men once to die:" there is no escaping said to be the best to employ in making gun- it; but then, thank God, it is but once. powder ; and the whole plant yields a salt called child in Christ's redeemed and pardoned family salicine, which is said to be equally efficacious second death hath no power.” Once pass the narrow with quinine for the cure of fevers and agues.

“But it is not only for its domestic uses that valley, and it shall open into a wide expanse of neverthis beautiful tree has been celebrated. The poets ending glory. Fear not, then, the approach of man's in all times and nations have done it honour. It last enemy; but O, see that you be ready for himappeared among the coronals of the heathen dei- see that you have not to conflict with him alone. ties ; and with us it garlands the despairing lover. “ None but Christ, none but Christ" can help you So Shakspeare's Desdemona died singing of it; then: without him the best-spent life will make a and so the willow growing “ across the brook” shield that will drop into powder before the assault. helped on poor Ophelia's fate.

You must be clothed in celestial armour, to meet uninjured the unearthly attack. You must be one with

Christ and Christ with you, to pass unharmed through The Cabinet.

the dark valley," to stem“ the swellings of Jordan, to

enter within the gates into the city.” But, if you are CHRISTIANITY, THE HOPE OF THE WORLD*. Christianity is the “ hope of the world,” the only weakest man or the most timid woman or the feeblest

thus “one with Christ,” though you may be the anchorage on which we can rely for safety, amidst the child, you shall be made more than conqueror over political storms by which the world is shaken. There never was an epoch when its saving, its tranquillizing Satan, sin, and death, and over every enemy between influence was more needed. Various causes have,

time and eternity.-Blunt's Life of Elisha.

INFANT-SCHOOL TEACHER.-Let him be some during the last century, worked together to produce an impulse, an excitement which is likely to continue

man of God, whose heart, warm with the consciousness to agitate mankind; whether for good or evil, time of God's forgiving love, delights to dwell on his Rewill show. This, our own country, partakes fully in deemer's goodness, and prompts him, with the genuine

warmth of actual experience, to be telling of his salva• From “ Hints towards the formation of Character, with reference chiefly to Social Duties; by a plain-spoken English tire of that theme, because it is the truth he lives on

tion from day to day. Let him be one who will not Woman." 12mo.

Over every

16 the


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