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It may be in the recollection of many that, to my favourite studies; and, with the little aid when the proposal was first suggested of sending my allowance afforded, I contrived to make myself out a bishop to the east, it met with po little oppo- master of the French language, and to prosecute sition. There was, in fact, not only an apathy inquiries into some of the branches of literature concerning the spiritual well-being of our country- and science. This was, however, in stolen momen in foreign parts, but a dread lest the pro- ments, either before the office hours, in the fession of a high tone of religious principles might, morning, or after them, in the evening.' in some way or other, militate against the tem- affection to his mother," says Lady Raffles, “was poral prosperity of our colonies; and, as for the always one of the strongest feelings of his heart. conversion of the heathen, it was derided as im- | At this time, with that self-denying devotion to practicable, and opposed as absolutely dangerous. the happiness of others which was his distinguishIt was maintained, gravely, that every heathen ing quality through life, he deprived himself of who professed himself a Christian was a hypocrite ; every indulgence, that he might devote to her his that, however much he might be trusted in his hard-earned pittance; and, in after days of comheathen state, no confidence was to be placed in parative affluence, he delighted in surrounding him or his pretended Christianity; and, therefore, her with every comfort *.” The India House did that the colonies might flourish in a temporal point not suit his health. His unremitting diligence of view, those who were resident there—nominal excited attention ; a situation was procured for Christians or avowed heathens-might perish him by the kindness of sir Hugh "Inglis. He “ for lack of knowledge.”

joyfully accepted the offer of going, as assistant In the good providence of God, an important secretary, to Prince of Wales Island, or Penang, change has taken place. The abominable system situated on the coast of the peninsula of Malacca, of slavery—that crying sin which, of itself, might lying between China and the East Indiest. Here bring the wrath of God upon a nation-has at he arrived in September, 1805, with general Dunlength, with some difficulty, been abolished. The das, and the rest of the civil establishment. Having importance of the diffusion of Christian knowledge made considerable progress in the Malayan on is felt; and means have been adopted, and are his passage (for he possessed an extraordinary now adopting more extensively, for its further facility in acquiring a knowledge of languages), dissemination. The portioning out of the colonies he acquired great influence, conversing frecly into dioceses, to be under the superintendence of a with the natives. On the elevation of Mr. Pearbishop, has been adopted—surely the plan son, in 1806, to the council, he was appointed most likely to secure permanent success. That secretary, and, about the same time, registrar vast good was done by devoted missionaries, in to the Court of Judicature. years long gone by, there can be no rational ques- The health of Mr. Raffles being materially tion; still, the establishment of diocesan episco- impaired by the arduous duties of his new situapacy is the true and legitimate way, under the sion, he proceeded to Malacca, for change of divine blessing, to secure success.

air, where he had opportunity of mingling with However zealous a bishop and his clergy may persons from various quarters, and thus becoming be, however calculated and fitted for their work — acquainted with their opinions and habits. Orders and a work of no little labour is theirs—their suc- had been issued for demolishing the fortifications cess will, in no small degree, depend on the ready and destroying the public buildings, with a view co-operation of those possessed of civil authority of carrying the trade to Penang; by his repreUnless the officials under government co-operate sentations, however, of the cruelty of this measure with the bishop and clergy, comparatively little towards the inhabitants, as well as its impulicy, good will be done.

the orders were rescinded. How much the spiritual welfare and moral im- Shortly after his arrival at Penang, he had provement of a foreign population depends on the formed an acquaintance with Dr. Leyden f, who character of the governor and those around him, is fully exemplified by the change produced in

This circumstance, so honourable to young Raffles, naturally

leads us to the consideration of the vast importance, in every important possessions in the east, in the case of point of view, of furnishing young men (in London especially) the subject of the present memoir ; whose name

with the means and opportunities of cullivating their intellec

tual powers; which is, in not a few cases, absolutely prevented will be held in grateful remembrance by vast mul- by what is properly denominated the late-hour system;" the titudes over whom he at one period exercised evils of which are attempted to be lessened, if not wholly reauthority.

moved, by many philanthropic individuals, and especially by

the metropolitan arapers' association. Thomas Stamford Raffles, the son of Benjamin tigre, the intellect may be compared to the soil of the earth, Raftles, an old captain in the West India trade, which is capable of producing wholesome corn. delicinus fruits, was born at sea, off the harbour of Port Morant, it be cultivated. So the mind, when properly cultivated, attains in Jamaica, in 1781. At the age of fourteen hé to practical wisdom, hecomes the storehouse of varied knowwas appointed to a situation in the India House, ledge, and the source of high and beautiful thoughts : but, when where, although hard-worked, he contrived, by tive waste, and too often it is a hotbed of folly and vice. Whatextra hours, to increase his salary; which he gave intelleci, is chargeable with all the incapacity, folly, and crime, to his parents, then in very poor circumstances, which result from such neglect. It is chargeable with casting and also to add to his stock of knowledge. “The down the noblest work of the Creator, and opposing his most deficiency of my early education,” says he, in a

manifest designs. Such is the case with this late-hour system"

(Prize essay, Drapers' Association). letter to his cousin, Dr. Raffles, “has never been + “ This settlement was first obtained from the king of Quefully supplied. I had hardly bcen two years at a

der, who governs the opposite coast. He gave his daughter

to captain Light in 1786, together with the island as her d wer, boarding-school (at Hammersmith) when I was

which the captain afterwards delivered to the East India Comwithdrawn, and forced to enter on the busy scenes pany. The scenery of this little island is beautiful; it is exof public life, then a mere boy. My leisure hours,

tremely fertile, producing herbs and fruits in the greatest abun

dance" (Gent. Mag., A, ril 1806, p. 305). however,” he says, “still continued to be devoted

John Leyden, son of poor cottagers, was & remarkable in

“ To use a common

was residing there, having left Madras for the threw himself into the surf, that he might be the recovery of his health ; and on whose going to first Briton who landed at Java. In his eager Calcutta, being in the establishment of lord Minto, anxiety for knowledge, he went to examine a the governor-general, a correspondence was kept library, had a fit of shivering, and declared the up. The letters were shown to the governor ; place was enough to produce a fever. He was who was so much pleased with them, that he too right in the supposition, and he fell a victim to spoke of appointing Mr. Raffles governor of the it on the night previous to the cession of the island. Moluccas, which had fallen under British do- of his friend, Mr. Raffles thus expressed himself: minion. Mr. Raffles went to Calcutta, and was “ Most sincerely and deeply do I regret that this received with kindness. Holland had now been task did not fall into hands more able to do it annexed to France, and consequently all the justice. Here was one, dear to me in private Dutch possessions in the eastern seas, of which friendship and esteem, who, bad he lived, was of the most valuable was Java. Mr. Rattles imme- all men the best calculated to have supplied those diately directed the attention of the governor to deficiencies which will be apparent in the very the vast importance of its being wrested from the imperfect work now presented to the public. hands of the enemy. The suggestion was imme- From his profound acquaintance with eastern diately acted upon, and Mr. Raffles proceeded to languages and Indian history, from the unceasing Malacca as agent to the governor, to make neces, activity of his great talents, his other prodigious sary arrangements for the speedy capture. Lord acquirements, his extensive views, and his confiMinto arrived there on the 9th of May, and re- dent hope of illustrating national migrations from ceived from Mr. Raffles a vast number of most the scenes which be was approaching, much might important documents, testifying great research on have been expected ; but, just as be reached those his part.

The route which should be followed shores on which he hoped to slake his ardent thirst was also stated; and, though adverse to the for knowledge, he fell a victim to excessive exeropinion of old practical seamen, who apprehended tiont, deeply deplored by all, and by none more much danger and loss, this route was determined truly than myself.” on, and the fleet, of above ninety ships, in less The governor did not find his new situation a than six weeks arrived in sight of Batavia, the very easy one. The bostilities of tbe treacherous capital of Java, without damage to a single vessel.chief of Palembang and the sultan of Djoejocarta The British troops soon landed, and, after some gave him much annoyance. These powers, howhard fighting, gained the victory; and, as a ever, were speedily suppressed by a force comreward for his most important services, Mr. manded by colonel Gillespie. The seas were as Raffles was appointed lieutenant-governor of Java much as possible cleared of pirates. The revenues and its dependencies; the island itself being in under the Dutch government had fallen very length upwards of 660 miles, and its width vary- short, and were to be restored to a better state. from 133 to 56, and with a population of about A new system of collecting them was to be com5,000,000*

menced ; and many other changes were required, At this period Mr. Raffles suffered great grief which fully occupied bis time and thoughts. of mind, from the death of his friend Dr. Leyden, The British government succeeded at Java at a who was seized with a fever, and died a few days moment of the greatest public distress, when the after landing in Java. He had accompanied the Dutch had been unable to pay even their lowest expedition for the purpose of investigating the establishments, when the funds of the public charicustoms of the island, and, with another volunteer, ties had been appropriated to the necessities of the

state, and the finances of the colony were in a stance of the pursuit of knowledge under difficulties. He was complete state of bankruptcy. The governor born 8th Sept., 1775, at the village of Dewbaum, in the vale of succeeded in producing a change of system, which we e rare: but his mind seemed to overpuss every difficulıy. was universally felt as a blessing. The change He made rapid progress in the acquisition of languages, acquir- was effected prudently and cautiously, and hailed ing French, Spanish, German, and the ancient Icelandic. also studied Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian. He was enabled to with gratitude by persons of all classes. The attend the university of Edinburgh and St. Andrews, and in native chiefs were permitted still to exercise au1800 was admitted a licentiate of the chureh of Scotland ; but he seemed to have no relish for ministerial duties, and he de

thority; and with these the governor endeavoured voted himself chietly to literature. Professor Dugald Stewart to live on the most friendly terms. They were and Dalzell of Edinburgh, and Dr. Hunter, of st. Andrew's frequent guests at his table. It was owing to

With sir Walter, then Mr. Scott, he formed, from congeniality of tastes,

such a conciliatory mode of conduct that he was ship: An event took place which shews his assiduity and enabled to obtain and to retain his authority. readiness of acquiring knowledge. Being anxious to travel,

As to the national character of the people, they ation was vacant but that of surgeon's assistant, which re- are described as generous and warm-hearted, afquired a sury ical degree. He expressed his willingness to till fectionate, gentle, and contented. Hospitality is the si uation, and, incredible as it may appear, in six months universal among them; and on the other hand they qualified himsell, at Edinburgh, for his examination, and received from another university the degree of M.D. He was ap- are passionately fond of gambling and opium. pointed to Madras, but suffering much from the climate, he was

As to the religious profession of the inhabitants, compelled to go to Penang: there his acquaintance with Mr.

Mr. Raffles represented it as like that of the other • The first arrival of the Portuguese in the eastern islands islands in the vicinity-Mahometanism mingled was in A. v. 1510, when Alphonso da Albuquerque visiied Sumatra. Haying conquered the city of Molucca, he sent Antonio

with paganism, and, in some districts, Chrisde Abrew to gain other islands ; who obtained Java, anong tianity. The Dutch, as a principle of policy, en

command of Hout couraged the propagation of the latter in the man, arrived at Bartan, ihe king of whieh was at war with the Porruguese ; to him they offered as.istance, and in return ob- islands. The Portuguese had done so before to Jäkatsa, whieh obtained the name of Batavia 4th March, missionaries, in attempting to procure money for tained pernission to establish a factory ; subse. uently removed them ; but, by the grasping behaviour of their 1621, and became the capital of the Dutch possessions in the

the embellishment of churches and other trickeries,



valuable patrons.


sincere friend

his case

was stated to the Board of Control, but no situ

Rattles commenced.


In 1996 the Dutch fleet, under th


failed to a great extent. In captain Daniel Besch- a great effect upon his spirits. This, added to his man's “ Voyage to Borneo," printed at London in numerous avocations, was too much for his health 1718, it is stated : “ Even the Mahometans there and strength. A voyage to England was conseretain some pagan customs: some of the wisest of quently now strongly recommended as the only them have not such an aversion to Christianity as likely method of restoring him at once. He the Mahometans in other places, who are professed took his passage home direct from Java. On enemies to Jesus Christ. But here they speak very leaving Batavia the utmost regret was expressed respectfully of Jesus Christ, and say he was a by all classes. Addresses and plate were presented great prophet.” With reference to Batavia, at to him. On the morning of his embarkation the the close of the last century it was stated to have roads of Batavia were filled with boats, crowded in it four Calvanistic churches, besides other with people of various nations, all anxious to pay places of worship for all sorts of religions. the last tribute of respect within their power to

Some time elapsed, during which Mr. Raffles was one for whom they entertained the most lively engaged in his various arrangements; not, how- affection. On reaching the vessel, he found the ever, without great anxiety. It was long doubted decks filled with offerings of every description whether, after the overthrow of Buonaparte and fruits, flowers, poultry, and whatever they thought the restoration of Holland, Java should be restored would promote his comfort on the voyage. It is to the Dutch. It was his principle to do as much impossible to describe the scene that took place good as he could ; and, among other most im- when the order was given to weigh the anchor : portant ini provements, be was successfully endea- the people felt they had lost the greatest friend vouring to abolish slavery throughout the Dutch whom Java ever possessed, and, perhaps, they possessions. He found that the leading inhabi- anticipated as too near their re-delivery to the tants entirely concurred with bis views; but the Dutch power, and the consequently too probable Bengal authorities refused their sanction, under revival of the scenes of misgovernment, from the plea of its not being known whether the go- which, under the administration of Mr. Raffles, vernment was permanently to be administered by they had been relieved for five years, and onght the king or the company (see Quarterly Review, to have been relieved for ever. The effects of the xlii. 414). These slaves were not natives, but sea air were very favourable. They landed at St. procured chiefly from Bàli and Celebes. They Helena, and were allowed to have an interview were in number about thirty thousand. The with Buonaparte. horrid traffic was put a stop to, as soon as it was A remarkable occurrence took place in the latter known that it was declared felony by the British portion of the voyage. The night of June 17 government.

being very bright, those on board the Ganges The following anecdote is worthy of record : continued late on deck; the Auspicious, another " When it was proposed that all the slaves on vessel, being in company. About three o'clock the island should be registered, a native chief, the they were alarmed by a signal of distress from the penanbaham of Samunah, proudly declared, I Auspicious; and, on looking towards her, found will not register my slaves ! hitherto they have she had lost her three topmasts, and seemed a been kept such because it was the custom, and the perfect wreck. The Ganges, though only a few Dutch liked to be attended by slaves when we hundred yards distant, was uninjured. visited the palace; but, as that is not the case While in England, Mr. Raffles published his with the English, they shall cease to be slaves ; “ History of Java ;' and, on presenting it, refor long have I felt shame, and my blood has run ceived the honour of knighthood from the prince cold, when I reflected on what I once saw at Ba- regent. He also made many acquaintances and tavia and Samarang, where buman beings were friends; and was a frequent guest at Claremont, exposed for public sale, placed on a table, and the residence of the princess Charlotte and of examined like sheep and oxen.' When Mr. prince Leopold. His last dinner before he reRaffles mentioned this noble trait to Mr. Wilber- turned to the east was there ; and the ring which force on his first return to England, he was on that day the princess gave to him (a short time commissioned to carry out a seal to be presented before her lamented death) was the gift which, to tbis chief, as an acknowledgment of his liberal above all other such gifts, he most highly prized. act; and the latter, in return, requested Mr. Wil- In the summer of 1817, he went to the conberforce's acceptance of a handsome creese” (Quar- tinent, among other reasons "to demand an terly Review, lxxxiv. 414).

audience of the king of the Netherlands, to lay The efforts of Mr. Raffles, however, wer before him some representations in behalf of the rendered useless by his departure from the island native inhabitants of Java, and some of the Dutch in 1816, and the restoration of Java to the whom he conceived to have claims on his attention. Dutch ; a restoration which led to melancholy The king, whose personal character all who know results. “ So oppressive, unjust, and tyrannical any thing must venerate, received him with marked bas the conduct of the Dutch been towards the civility, and invited him to dine with him ; but he Javanese, since the restoration of the island, that found that, though the leading ministers seemed to if at any future period hostilities should unfor

mean well, they had too great a hankering after tunately be resorted to against that nation, the profit, and immediate profit, for any liberal system first English man of war that shows her colours to thrive under them. The king himself promised before Batavia or Suribayer, will be the signal that the new system should be continued, but for a general rising of the natives to drive out kings are not always permitted to make good their their oppressors” (Quarterly Review).

promises” (Quarterly Review). Having returned During the previous year, the death of his wife, to England, Mr. Raffles spent much of his time in whom he had married in 1805, with the loss of travelling.

T. other friends, among whom was lord Minto, had

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To live in him, my living head,

Who died and rose again for me :
No. XLI.

“ This be my joy and comfort here,

The pledge of future glory mine : APRIL 6.-SECOND SUNDAY APTER EASTER.

Jesus, in spirit now appear, Morning Lessons : Numb, xxiii. xxiv.; Acts iii.

And break the bread and pour the wine. Evening Lessons : Numb. xxv.; H. b. viii.

“ Prom thy dear hand may I receive “Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may

The tokens of thy dying love ; be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from

And, while I fast on earth, believe

That I shall feast with thee above." the presence of the Lord."- ACTS iil. 19.


1 (Before the communion.) Meditation.-" Pully we cannot say, 'What shall we redder unto the Lord?' but we must answer,

Poetry. will take the cup of salvation, and, with it in our

CHANGE. hands, give thanks unto him, render him our true eucharist, our real thanksgiving indeed” (Bp. An

(For the Church of England Magazine). drews). “Necessary it is, if we love life and would eschew death, to try and examine ourselves before we

« CHANGE is of life a part.” Its power eat of this bread and drink of this cap. For, as none As a shadow marks each passing hour. is meet to receive natural food except he be born and

It silvers the wave with sparkling light, live before, so no man can feed of the food of eternal

With rainbow beauty, intensely bright. life except he be regenerated and born of God before" (Bp. Ridley).

In the clouds and tempests that roll on high Prayer.-O King of glory, Lord and Maker It reigos, in gorgeous revelry. of the world, thou art a God that knoweth all

Change is of life a part." Its spell things, yea, even our most secret thoughts. Be

Has thrilled the hero's heart as a knell; thou present with us at the blessed feast to wbich thou hast been graciously pleased to invite us this

Clouding his hopes in their hour of pride, day. Have mercy upon us thy people, who,

Till the haughty spirit within him died : with hungry and thirsty souls, desire to be re

It came where earthly triumph had been, freshed and comforted by thy word and the divine

Shading with sadness the gorgeous scene. pourishment thou offerest unto the faithful, who

“ Change is of life a part.” E'en where spiritually eat and drink thy body and blood. Pity our infirmities : despise not our unwortbi

Soft music falls on the perfumed air, ness. Take not from thy servants thy grace and

In banquets brilliant as those of old, the light of thy countenance; but, according to

When the red wine sparkled in sculptured gold, the multitude of thy tender mercies, do away all

'T will come ; like a cloud o'er a summer sky, our offences, and cleanse us from all our iniquities; Like a phantom whose presence we cannot fly. that we may appear before thy glory covered with the veil of Jesus, adorned with the robe of his

Change is of life a part.” The flow righteousness, and enlightened with the brightness

Of time reveals its power, below, of his divine Spirit.

In memory's visions, as on they sweep, Thou, Lord, hast commanded us to communicate Breathing a truth sacred and deep, in the power of the Holy Ghost and the obe- That in heaven alone change cannot be, dience of the Lord Jesus. Be thou well pleased Where the sunlight of bliss shines eternally. with this our bounden duty and service; and grant

M. C. L. that, with holy fear and a pure conscience, we Liangynroyd Vicarage. may in this sacrament show forth thy dear Son's love in dying for us, and present our souls and bodies a living sacrifice unto thee, such as thou wilt deign to accept in thy heaven of heavens.

Alliscellaneous. God of mercy, thine only-begotten Son came THE HIERARCHY IN FRANCE consists of into the world that he might bring back the fifteen archbishops and sixty-five bishops. Three wandering sheep into thy fold. O, grant that we only of the former date their appointments from the who are about to celebrate the wonders of his exceeding love at thy holy table, may not be cast

time of the restored Bourbons (1815 to 1830): twelve away and shut out. And we humbly beseech of them have been raised to be archbishops since Louis thee that this our remembrance of his precious Philippe has oecupied the throne. One of the sixtydeath, which thou hast ordained to be a means of five bishops, cardinal Latour d'Auvergne, received the salvation to us, may not become to any one of us mitre in the days of Napoleon's consulship ; seven an occasion of condemnation and destruction, but teen, between the years 1815 and 1830; and the reof pardon of our sins, of newness of life and reno- maining forty-seven since Charles X. was deprived of vation to our souls, and of grace and strength his sceptre. against the spirit of darkness.

Vouchsafe, O God, to finish and perfect this our oblation, that it may be sanctified by thy Holy

London : Published for the Proprietors by EDWARDS and Spirit, and accepted in the Lord Jesus, to whom with thee, O Father of mercies, be all praise, HUGHES, 12, Ave Maria Lane, si. Paal’s; J. Burns, 17, honour, majesty, and glory, for ever and ever.

Portruan Strett: and to be procured, by order, of all Booksellers Amen. (Bp. Taylor, in part).

in Towr and Country.
“To feed by faith on Christ, my head-
His body broken on the tree;



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(Petersburgh, the Residence of the Emperor of Russia.] “ Just eighteen months after her first departure from Siberia, Prasca Loupouloff entered Petersburgh, that great city, so long the object of her desire" (p. 235).

house, and a large party assembled round the PRASCA LOUPOULOFF.

stove. All joined in pitying the forlorn condition

of a poor young girl, in a strange place, without CHAPTER III.

friends or money, where she was likely to remain

all the winter months; for it was quite impossible EKATHERINEMBURGH.

to think of travelling again before the spring. EKATHERINEMBURGH is a Siberian town near The hostess said she wished madame Milin knew the frontiers ; in fact, it is situated at the foot of the case ; a wish in which all present joined. the Oural mountains, which divide the Asiatic and

" Who is madame Milin ?" inquired Prasca; European territories of the Russian empire. In and a dozen voices at once informed her that comparison of the little towns and villages Prasca madame Milin was the kindest, the most charihad hitherto seen, it is a place of some importance; table and excellent lady that ever lived. and its size, and the number of its inhabitants, “ I am quite certain," added the hostess, “ that, filled her with surprise and admiration. The if she knew your history, she would be a friend to sledge-drivers took her with them to the postoïa- you." leroi door (for so are the large inns called), and, The next day was Sunday ; and Prasca went to wishing to excite an interest in her favour, they church. Here again every thing was new to her ; related her story to the master and mistress of the land she felt terrified and bewildered at the size of



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