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(Australia.- Convering Cattle over the Murray.)
sons as should make the examination as effective as SOUTH AUSTRALIA.
possible. The results of this journey were of the No. II.
most satisfactory nature; and it was ascertained that,
by keeping near the sea coast instead of pursuing the At the meeting of the Geographical Society, Feb. 10, line usually adopted, there is an almost uninterrupted 1845, the secretary read an account of an exploratory tract of good country between the rivers Murray and journey along the south-east sea-board of South Glenelg. In some places this line of fine country Australia, performed by governor Grey, accompanied thins off to a narrow belt : in other portions of the by Mr. Bonney, the commissioner of public lands, Mr. route it widens out to a very considerable extent; and, Burr, the deputy surveyor-general, Mr. G. F. Angas, on approaching the boundaries of New South Wales, &c. The south-east portion of South Australia was it forms one of the most extensive and continuous little known, it having been only traversed in one tracts of good country which is known to exist within direction by overland parties, who passed through a the limits of South Australia. The south-east extrecountry for the most part of a very unpromising cha- mity seems to have been the scene of recent volcanic racter ; which induced the belief that the south-east action : some of the craters are filled with good fresh portion of the province afforded little inducement to water, and are very deep. A great advantage of this settlers, and that there was little probability of any fine tract of country is its proximity to the sea. continuous line of settlements being established be- Along its coasts are three bays, one of which has been tween South Australia and New South Wales. It found to afford good anchorage for small vessels, even was in order, therefore, to effect a more minute in the winter season ; and there is reason to believe examination of the country that the governor under that the others will also be found good for small took to explore it himself, accompanied by such per- vessels, particularly Laccpede Bay; thus affording
great facility for a coasting trade, when the tract forest; and, the climate being fine and dry, they an-
that fashion. I had read, a few days ago, of the various The act for constituting the portion of New Holland,
names of the streets; such high-sounding namescalled South Australia, into a British province was
this square and that square, such a terrace and such passed in August, 1834, and, according to the com
a street—that I could not but fancy my sight was missioners' reports, printed. “The colonization of suddenly failing me, when I strained my eyes in vain southern Australia will be an advent of mercy to the to see either square, terrace, street, house, or even any native tribes. They are now exposed to every species of thing to lead to the conclusion of there ever having outrage, and treated like cattle of the field : they wil, been any. Two or three people were jogging along in future, be placed under the protection of British laws, together, talking calmly of bullocks, when one would and invested with the right of British subjects. They have expected to behold them at a public thanksgiving are now standing on the verge of famine: they will ob
for their own preservation from the mighty earthtain a constant and an ample supply of subsistence. quake which had doubtless suddenly swallowed up They are not attached to the soil as cultivators : they
the once noble city of Adelaidet." do not occupy the natural pastures, even as wandering
It is obvious that the last of these statements, howshepherds : they are without the implements of the
ever true, is not wholly devoid of satire. Great imchase, which belong to hunting tribes; and, with provements have taken place since the period referred respect to industry and the possession of property, to; and there is no reason why, in course of time, they do not appear to manifest the instinctive appre
Adelaide should not become a populous and wellhensions of some of the inferior animals. They will built city. There are several places of worship connow be lifted up from this degradation : they will be
nected with the church, as well as others. It is to be gradually reconciled to labour, for the sake of certain hoped, however, that, in due season, a regular estareward: they will be instructed in the several blishment will be formed, under episcopal superinbranches of useful industry; and they will possess, in tendence, aud that the bishop of Australia will be their reserves, property increasing in value as the relieved from a portion of his diocese, far too large. colony expands. Colonization, thus extended to
The following remarks forcibly illustrate the above South Australia, though it should do nothing for the statements with reference to the stability of missionary colonists and nothing for the mother country, would exertion :yet deserve, in its influence upon the aborigines, lord
“In every society intended for permanence there Bacon's character of a blessed work.”
must be regimen and order. The Christian system
can no more prosper or continue without them, than The first vessel which sailed for it, then without a
the frame of this visible world without the controlling single colonist, left London in Feb., 1836, and be
care of its great Maker. fore the 1st of May was succeeded by two or three others, which conveyed the staff for surveying the missions, under God, we are bound to adopt the rule
“ In providing for the success and stability of our coast and selecting a site for the principal settlement, which his warning word supplies, sanctioned as it was besides persons to make preparations for the convenient reception of emigrants. The site of the first by the practice of its first teachers, and by the church town was chosen on the eastern side of the gulf of St. afterwards. Episcopacy is that rule; and all expe
catholic, without exception, for many hundred years Vincent; which is described as without an island, rience proves that it cannot be departed from without rock, reef, or sand bank, and affording at all seasons good and safe anchorage. Here the city of Adelaide, taken in the right direction, because in the line of
risk and imminent peril. Steps have been at length the capital, situated on the river Torrens, has arisen scriptural practice and example. And, bearing in with amazing rapidity. In less than five years the mind the divine blessing hitherto seemingly vouchental of the houses in Adelaide amounted to 20,0001. safed, we should rejoice with lively and thankful joy year.
at the addition made to our colonial bishoprics, and at Its earlier progress is thus described :—“There the provision thus secured for the discipline as well are sprinkled up and down the place a few sub
as for the worship of the church. Henceforth that stantial buildings; one belonging to the company on church will stand forth in her perfect character, and an enormous scale, another good brick house to Mr. in all her completeness and integrity, exhibiting the Hack, another to the enterprising Mr. Giles, one to beauty, and, as we trust, the blessed influence and Mr. Thomas, aud a couple of new taverns. The rest effect, of apostolic order combined with apostolic docof the dwellings are made of very slight materials ; trine; thus affording the best safeguard and assurand the number of canvass tents and marquees give ance for the transmission and perpetuation of both t.” some parts of the settlement the appearance of a
The site of Adelaide is well chosen as to the healthicamp. Most of the new comers settle down on what is called the park lands, where they are handy to the little rivulet; and they run up a Robinson Crusoe sort Serinon preached by the bishop of Hereford, at St. Paul's
cathedral, at the 143rd anniversary of the Society for the Propaof hut, with twigs and branches from the adjoining gation of the Gospel.
* James's “ Six Months in South Australia."
ness of the situation, but it labours under the disad- through the whole exten the plains round the vantage of being six miles from the harbour, betwixt settlement, gives evidence o having been, at no very which and the town the carriage of goods is very remote period, covered by the sea; every stone you expensive. The harbour is perfectly safe for shipping ; pick up being a part of the rock, and exhibiting a but the bar at the entrance prevents very large ships congeries of little shells. Over the hills the soil and from entering. The great objection to the site of the vegetation are still finer; and the author visited a town is the want of good water, which can only be ob- tract of country between the mountains and the tained by boring to the depth of about forty feet, or mouth of the Murray, that seemed to contain nearly taking it from the Torrens, which resembles stagnant 100,000 acres of excellent rich soil, in many places pools in the dry season.
ready for the plough. Spencer's Gulf is very much larger than Gulf St. “ The only thing that it requires is ready money to Vincent. It runs nearly 300 miles into the interior. begin with, and the strictest attention afterwards to It abounds with flat fish. Near the top of it stands the sheep, with personal superintendence and constant Port Lincoln, which was overlooked at the first dressing when diseased. With this, and a good looksurvey ; bat the site soon began to excite attention, as out after the wild native dogs*, there is a fortune to peculiarly well suited for agriculture.
be made in any part of South Australia by sheep" Abundance of the purest water was found at farming. When deaths are heard of, it is generally, depths varying from two to eight feet, and, in in nine cases out of ten, traceable to some neglectsome instances, flowing in a stream over the beach. either allowing the sheep to feed on improper pasture, The district is watered by two rivers, the Tod and the
not shifting the folds, or a general system of bad Hindmarsh. Besides the above advantages, there management. Under such inattention, sheep property were discovered beds of excellent oolite or freestone, is the very worst property a careless settler could not inferior to that found at Bath, which is ex- possibly dabble in; and they ought not, in that case, pected to become an article of export to other parts to be meddled with. of Australia. Lime was very easily obtained ; and “If the settler will be satisfied to follow his own ibe red gum tree, which is well adapted for building sheep, they will give him a good return ; and he need purposes, grew in abundance in the vicinity. With have nothing to buy but his stock. There is plenty the exception of iron, materials of the best quality for of grass at, present in the interior; and grass costs nobuilding were all found on the spot; and the houses at thing. With care and attention, and living the life of Port Lincoln are the best and most substantial in a hermit for five or six years, following, dressing, and South Australia.
shearing his sheep himself, buying nothing, building “In May, 1841, upwards of thirty houses had been nothing, owning not a brick nor an acre of land in erected ; and in March, 1840, there were nearly sixty any part of the colony, such a young man will do. inhabited houses, besides others that were not com- With a resolution of this kind, and never coming into pleted. Generally speaking, the settler in a new coun
the miserable town, or mixing in its miserable purtry is glad at first to obtain the shelter of a log- suits, success will be certain, though slow at first." house. The population of Port Lincoln, in May, 1840, Above all let him beware of Australia's curse was about 270; but it has no doubt since increased drunkenness. in an equal proportion with the increase of houses, The great want of the colony is rirers. The largest and probably at the present time may contain five is the Murray, described by Mr. James as being, for hundred inhabitants. A church has been built, an
the last two hundred miles of its course, nearly us infant school established, and a newspaper is published broad as the Thames at London bridge. On the banks weekly. Agricultural and pastoral pursuits are car
are several fine alluvial flats, at present covered with ried on in the bush,' that is, in the unsettled parts reeds, but capable of being made to yield abundant of the district, where there is a tract of fertile soil of crops. These are nearly on a level with the river, and considerable extent, quite sufficient to support a large could be irrigated at any season. The Murray detown at Port Lincoln; and there are besides some
livers its waters into lake Alexandrina, which also reexcellent sheep-walks and rich and beautiful tracts
ceives the waters of the Hindmarsh; and from thence adapted for pastoral pursuits. Besides these resources,
to the sea the river is broad and deep. The next river the town of Port Lincoln will derive the means of is the 'Torrens; on the banks of which stands Adelaide, prosperity and wealth from the whale fishery, as it is the capital of the colony. well adapted for becoming an outfitting port for this
The accounts of the actual state of the colony are . species of enterprise; and there are good nautical so very contradictory, that it is almost impossible to reasons for its claims as the best shipping-port for oil / form any just conclusion on the subject. to Europe for the whole of the western coasts of South
• This dog is called dingo. It inhabits Australia, though not Australia, which abound in stations favourable for found in Van Diemen's Land. They are very like to, and are carrying on the fishery*.”
often mistaken for, wolves. They are sometimes domesticated
by the natives; but they exist wild in the remoter districts, On the subject of the productiveness of the soil, hunt in packs, and are sadly ruinous to tlocks of sheep. It TRINITY COLLEGE, PERTHSHIRE. not only gave their consent and approbation to
nerer barks, but growls loudly, and will not associate with other Mr. James says : “ There is more good soil than will dogs. It is generally of a sandy red colour. be required for many years to come. It is generally composed of a rich loam, averaging about nine inches thick, on a substratum of coarse calcareous rock, and,
Penny Mag., Jan. I.
the institution, but also recommended its zealous A SEMINARY of “religious and useful learning,” promotion and support ; declaring at the same time, in which the rising generation of the members of solemnly and explicitly, that we are moved by the Scottish episcopal communion might receive no feelings of rivalry towards any religious comthe advantages of sound education in connexion munity, but by a desire to supply the wants of our with the principles and in accordance with the own communion, and thereby to fulfil a duty imdoctrines of that church, had been long an im- plied in the first principles of the Christian church.” portant desideratum. Schools, under the super- The committee also properly and wisely deemed intendence of eminent teachers, from which have it right to publish a statement, from which the emanated men of no mean account, are indeed following is an important extract:not wanting ; and that the universities afford 66 The committee desire to take the present opopportunities of a first-rate education, the high portunity of saying that their object is perfectly standing and, in not a few cases, the widely plain and straightforward. They utterly disclaim extended fame of the professors, are a sufficient any peculiar or party views: they have no purguarantee ; an education, too, cheap as well as ex- pose beyond that which is plainly set forth in the cellent, and placed within the reach of a class of printed statement. They have received the sanction persons which could scarcely be enabled to obtain of, and are acting in concert with, their bishops; it in other countries. Still there lacked one thing, and they have the utmost gratificaion in stating that the education should be in accordance with that, having submitted their proposals to the archthe doctrine and discipline of the episcopal church. bishops of Canterbury and York, they have been The ground was taken—the only safe one-that favoured with the approbation and encourageno real knowledge can exist apart from religious, ment of those prelates. The committee believe that no system of education can be complete that, taken in connexion with the synodal letter which does not comprehend instruction in the of the Scottish bishops, the names of these veneword of God.
rated prelates will afford the best guarantee that With these views, and acting on these prin- the individuals who now come forward earnestly ciples, between three and four years ago several entreating, on behalf of “Trinity college,' the influential members of the Scottish episcopal com- support of all who take an interest in the epismunion formed themselves into a committee for copal church of Scotland, have no object in view the furtherance of such an institution ; and the but that of promoting her best and dearest indesign they had in view will best be understood terests." from the prospectus issued :
Such are the objects in view in the foundation “It is proposed to found, in a central part of of Trinity college, and such the principles by Scotland, north of the Frith of Forth, and re- which the institution is to be governed.
No jeamoved from the immediate vicinity of any large lousy, therefore, can exist in any quarter ; least of town, a college, to be called “The College of the all, assuredly, on the part of the presbyterian esHoly and Undivided Trinity,' which may receive tablishment. and board a large number, say ultimately from Although upwards of 30,0001. will be required 150 to 200, of youths from eight to eighteen years for the erection of the college, still, more than of age; and also afford a sound clerical education 20,0001. having been raised, it was deemed adto young men destined for holy orders, of whom visable to commence the building. Accordingly, a considerable number, in addition to those re- a site having been granted by the kindness of Mr. quired in Scotland, may be usefully employed in George Patton, of Caimies, in the county of supplying the demands which are now made for | Perth, the committee adopted a design, and entered clergymen in the British colonies.
into contracts for the execution of such a portion "It is intended that the institution shall pro- of the plan as may be essentially requisite for vide exhibitions or bursaries, to be conferred prin- commencing the operations of the institution, cipally on boys likely to become divinity students. reserving to a future period its completion. The
« It is anticipated that, by the means proposed, buildings are now in progress*: parents would be enabled to secure all the advan- The whole mass (as the illustrative engraving tages of a liberal and scientific education, at a very shows) will enclose a quadrangle, with cloisters ; moderate rate, varying probably from 501. to 801. on the south side, presenting externally a blank per annum, according to the age of the scholar. and buttressed wall, with a gateway in the centre. They would also escape the great evil of separating on the west extends a range of picturesque specifically religious from general education, building, considerably varied in the details, and and would feel that, on leaving home, their child mediæval in character; with a main entrance dren would continue to enjoy some of its best and fine gateway tower. Buildings of similar blessings.
but subordinate character form the north side of “Such an institution must of course be placed the quadrangle. On the east are the hall and under a clergyman of very high character and library, the former, as the design seems to inattainments, together with assistants, who will dicate, surmounted by a louvre. At the souththoroughly comprehend the design, and imbue all eastern angle, and almost external to the general the details with a religious spirit. It is also con- arrangement, stands the chapel ; a beautiful buildtemplated to provide instruction in classical litera- ing, with a fine tower and spire at the northture, mathematics, and those branches of mental western angle, and in a line with the southern and natural philosophy usually comprehended in range of cloisters, and on the north with the academical courses.'
• Subscriptions are received by W. P. Dundas, esq., or W.8. To this proposal, by a synodal letter, dated Walker, esq., treasurers and secretaries ; or by Charles G. Reid, Edinburgh Sept. 2, 1841, the Scottish bishops nie, London.
esq., joint-secretary, Edinburgh, or Edward Badeley, esp, Tem
library. The whole is strikingly beautiful, con- many of them, we may hope, have learned to love ceived in good taste, and forming a new object of the Lord Jesus Christ.' Schoolmasters and native attraction in a part of the country abounding with teachers always live among them, and they are visited much rich and varied scenery, a visit to which periodically by the missionaries at Batticaloa" rarely fails to excite the admiration of the tourist (Rev. H. Van Dadelszen, late a Worsley scholar at The chapel, library, and hall, are early English; King's college, Lo on). but, with excellent judgment, the architect (J. Henderson, esq.) has designed the rest of the
NEED OP LARGER PASTORAL AID.-Notwithbuilding in a later and more domestic style, yet standing all the recent efforts made in England, a quite collegiate in its whole aspect.
vast amount of spiritual destitution still exists; and in The notice is purposely brief, as further re- every manufacturing and populous town there are ference will be made as the buildings increase thousands and tens of thousands who are living and the institution becomes more fully established. (amongst ourselves) without God in the world. That What is here stated is intended merely as descrip- a blessing from on high has attended those efforts tive of the accompanying sketch.
the following facts will attest. A grant from the “ Pastoral Aid Society' secured the residence of a
clergyman in a place of 1,400 inhabitants, with MISSIONARY RECORDS.
scarcely an exception poor miners and colliers, who No. IV.
had no pastor to care for their souls. He now states " Hark! what mean those lamentations,
in his report: “I cannot rightly estimate the blessings Rolling sadly through the sky?
that have resulted from your grant. Should "Tis the cry of heathen nations, * Come, and help us, or we die!
it please God, in his inscrutable wisdom, to allow Hear the heathens' sad complaining :
similar scenes of riot and blasphemy to be acted Christians, hear their dying cry; And, the love of Christ constraining,
over again in these parts, I trust your committee Join to help them ere they die."
will then see the result of their well-deserved aid in CEYLON.-"Neura Ellia, Nov. 19, 1844.—On the inclination of the people rather to assist the the 5th of October I went from bence to Badulla, authorities than to join the rebellious, and in the deaf and preached there on the next day, which was Sun
ear which I believe they would turn to all the designday. I then started with Mr. Fowler for Batticaloa, ing and artful advice of the infidel and the chartist. on the eastern coast of Ceylon, where we arrived on
Without your grant, there could not have been the following Friday. The distance from Badulla a resident minister ; and, consequently, all the children to Batticaloa is a hundred miles. We rode on horse- in the schools, who have left or are about leaving to back over the most dreadful roads; indeed, they were
enter service, would not have received the blessing of no roads at all, but rough bullock or elephant tracks, a sound religious education; nor (humanly speaking) leading over immense rocks, through beds of rivers would the good seed have been sown in their hearts, and thick jungles. At Mandoor, twenty as I trust and believe it has been in some of them; miles from Batticaloa, we came to a lake; on which neither would those who have departed this life have we sailed in small native canoes, called · dhonics,' to had their sick and dying beds cheered, as I trust they Batticaloa. Imagine a large sheet of water, extending have been, by the consoling words of the minister, some thirty or forty miles, surrounded by native pointing them to the “ Lamb of God, which taketh villages, with innumerable palm and cocoa nut trees, away the sins of the world.” Neither would those as well as cotton and cinnamon bushes, and encircled who have been sick and recovered have been able to at a distance with the conical mountains of Bintenne testify, as I think many can, that, through God's and other provinces in the interior. We were seven
blessing on his humble instrument, their sickness has hours on the water, and at last reached Batticaloa in been blessed to their soul's good, and that it has been safety. * * I stayed there till the following morning good indeed for them that they have been afflicted. with a Wesleyan missionary, Mr. Purgster. There
* A moral influence is being spread throughout are two Wesleyan missionaries at Batticaloa. The this scene of vice and desolation. The people think people there, as well as in the whole of the eastern more of their duty, and look on crime and sin in a and northern provinces, speak Tamil, and are in all different light to what they did. Doubtless, God, in respects similar to the natives of the opposite coast his own time, will give a more direct blessing on his of India ; and there is one particularly interesting word. I am sowing, I trust, good seed— Christ and tribe connected with the Batticaloa mission, namely, him crucified :' another, perhaps, may reap the fruit the Veddahs, in the wilds of Bintenne. Until of my labours." about twenty years ago, tbese people were as wild as LAY AGENCY.-The pastor of a flock of 16,000 the rocks and glens among which they dwell: they souls bears the following testimony to the value of lived in trees and the clefts of rocks, went perfectly lay agency :-" By means of your grant I have been naked, ate insects and raw vegetables, and ran away enabled to employ a second lay assistant, by whom I frightened and alarmed at the sight of an European ; am increasingly acquainted with the state and awful but, now, by the blessing of God on the exertions of wants of my immense parish. When they return and Mr. Stott (another missionary) and his fellow- give me the accounts of the people they have visited, labourers, they are civilized and Christianized.' my heart often sinks within me at their reports of Schools have been established among them : they the heathenish state of so many within the sound of now live in villages, and have neat houses to dwell the church-going bell. Forty only out of a hundred in: they are clothed, and in their right mind; and families are living and professing no religion, owning