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for the time is at hand."---REV. I. S.
the Tees. A good part of the religious house is neither left any trace of it. Erroneous instill in some degree habitable; but the church is terpreters, like false prophets, are confuted when in ruins. Egliston is dedicated to St. Mary and the events which they anticipated fail to come to St. John the
Baptist, and is supposed to have been pass at the time of their accomplishment pointed founded by Ralph de Multon, about the end of out by them. Shall we, then, fall into similar the reign of Henry II. Here were formerly the errors, and with them equally be put to shame? tombs of the families of Rokeby, Bowes, and The natural answer is, No, we will not intrude Fitzhugh (Note to Rokeby).
into that which we cannot understand. And the very fact of the obscurity of so great a proportion of prophecy yet unaccomplished appears to tell us
that it is the purpose of God that we should not UNFULFILLED PROPHECY.
comprehend it. He might have made every vi
sion so plain that he that runs might read it. Had No. I.
he intended to convey the intent of these proBy the Rev. RICHARD LYNCH Cotton, D.D., Clothed them in such language as would have
phecies to the mind of men, would he not have Provost of Worcester College, Oxford. been clearly apprehended by the human under
standing ? Shall the omniscient God have an “ Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear the words of object in view, and adopt ineffectual methods of this prophecy, and keep those things which are written therein:
accomplishing it? The obscure language, then,
in which the dark visions of these prophecies are EXTREME views and extravagant conduct have couched, appears to intimate to us that the divine inflicted upon religion many grievous wounds, Author of them did not intend to impart their have brought dishonour upon her system of doc- meaning to man. Wherefore, it may seem pretrine and practice, have harassed and perplexed sumptuous to seek in them that knowledge of her devoted subjects, have furnished cavilling things to come which it has pleased God to withpleas for the spirit of scepticism and infidelity, hold from us. and have supplied the indolent and indifferent On the other hand, we are strongly and diwith an excuse for their lukewarm inaction. Ex- vinely urged to the study of the Apocalypse, the cess in one direction is the sure precursor of ex- chief treasure-house of unfulfilled prophecy : cess in its contrary. And many, observing the “Blessed is he that readeth, and they that hear evils attendant upon both extremes, lull them- the words of this prophecy, and keep those things selves into an imaginary security in their freedom which are written therein ; for the time is at from excess on either side ; while perhaps culpable hand.” This passage stands at the threshold of indifference, represented in holy scripture as so this depository of divine oracles, inviting us to abominable in the sight of the Lord, is the term enter and thoroughly examine it. And whosowhich really characterizes their conduct, instead ever listens to and complies with the invitation, of sound discretion or wise moderation.
having completed his survey, finds himself at his The treatment of unfulfilled prophecy is a re- egress from it admonished to maintain a wakeful markable, but melancholy, exemplification of and influential remembrance of all that he had these positions. There is, perhaps, no branch of seen there, and encouraged to re-enter it, and invesdivine truth that has suffered more from the ab- tigate it again with increased attention, and more surd imaginations of men than this. And, while close and diligent inspection : “Behold, I come many have revelled in their fanciful interpretations quickly: blessed is he that keepeth the sayings of of the yet prospective predictions of the sacred the prophecy of this book.” Thus does this volume, many more allow themselves to sleep in holy book appear to be guarded at either end an entire neglect of them, while they feel a de- from neglectful treatment. Both admonishing ceptive pleasure in their freedom from such errors. passages are sentences of great strength, enforcing
Hence arises a great and important question : their injunction both by power of language and What is the right, the legitimate and healthful intimation of consequences.
The verb in the mode of treating unfulfilled prophecy ?
original used in both is a forcible and comprehenTo suggest an answer to this question in the sive expression, including watchfulness, and retenfirst place, and in the second to offer some prac- tion, and consequent action. And the expressions, tical application of it, is the object of this paper, “ the time is at hand,” in the one, and “behold, upon which I pray me that God's blessing may I come quickly," in the other, enforce the exdescend.
hortation imparted in the passage with the most The countless errors into which so many have constraining urgency of an overwhelming motive. fallen in their endeavours to develop the intent The admonition is given. The speedy approach of the prophecies in question appear to lie before of the Lord who gives it in the capacity of Judge us like the body of Asahel, warning us to stand is announced. The eternal results of his judgstill, and not persevere in the prosecution of such ment stand, therefore, as the awful sanction of the pursuits. How many theories of interpreters have admonition, urging obedience to it by the most been unequivocally and incontestibly overthrown stupendous consequences. Yet it appears to be a by time! They elicited their view of the purport of part of the very constitution of the natural man the prediction under their hand : they gloried in it: to refuse attention to such prophetic warnings. they boasted of it: they unhesitatingly confided in Such has been the case in parallel instances in it: they despised, they condemned those who would ancient times ; and such will be the case in the not admit it. But the time pointed out by their last and greatest instance: “For as in the days interpretation came, and passed on, and brought that were before the food they were eating and with it no such events as had been anticipated, drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark, and knew from Egypt, the inheritance of Canaan, the capnot until the flood came, and took them all away, tivities, the return of Judah, the perpetuation of so shall also the coming of the Son of man be” the ruling power in that tribe to the advent of the (Matt. xxiv. 38, 39). So it was in the typical great Messiah, the appalling occurrences of the coming of the Son of man; and so we may ex- siege and destruction of Jerusalem, the dispersion pect it will be in its great and awful antitý pe at and the final restoration and salvation of the Jews. the end of this world. In both the former in- These eminent points of prophecy stood forward stances, notwithstanding the prophetic warning in high relief, discharging their office, as it respecso amply given, the generations of their respective tively belonged to them, of encouragement or of ages had so entirely slighted it, that the judg. warning, inviting them to piety and holiness, and ment fell upon them as unexpectedly as if it had repelling them from idolatry and sin. never been predicted. And we may anticipate Those pious Israelities, who kept their eyes that similar neglect of prophecy will subject the fixed upon these bright and lucid spots in the dark last generation of this world to a judgment pa- area of prophecy, must have derived from them rallel in its relative character, but infinitely more invaluable guidance for the direction of their faith terrible in its nature and vast in its extent: "For and practice, though a vast body of predictions in yourselves know perfectly that the day of the detail lay between them and those grand objects Lord so cometh as a thief in the night. For when in the gloom of an unintelligible obscurity. Great they shall say, Peace and safety, then sudden was the loss of those who neglected the due condestruction cometh upon them, as travail upon a templation of those sure words of prophecy which woman with child; and they shall not escape" stood as “lights shining in a dark place, till the (1 Thess. v. 2, 3).
day dawned, and the day-spring from on high Here, then, is a dilemma. What is its solu- visited” mankind. And fatal were the errors of tion? It is found, I apprehend, in the line of those who indulged themselves in partial and duty resulting from its antagonist forces com- fanciful views of those portions of prophecy which bined. Let it be briefly represented. The in- lay beyond the sphere of their understanding. ferred duty is to study year by year continually Had they all, ever looking stedfastly upon the the volume of prophecy, fulfilled and unfulfilled, points clearly revealed for guidance, as they inwith the rest of holy scripture ; to fix our eye upon vited them in the shape of promise or repelled those portions of prophecy which are plainly in them as warnings, continued to study with a telligible and palpably unaccomplished, as eminent thoughtful and unprejudiced mind the whole body beacons for the direction of our path and practice; of prophecy, not presuming to make fanciful inand to permit the many things hard to be under- terpretations of them which could not be safely stood to remain laid up in our memory, though relied upon, but awaiting God's time for their dark objects to our mind. On every recurrence elucidation, then would they have been prepared to the study of these prophecies, we may dwell to recognise the fulfilment of the predictions as upon them with unmitigated thoughtfulness, and they occurred in their appointed place. One may enter as far into the intent of them as our reason, imagine a devout Israelite, familiar with the prowith all its ! mercifully-granted aids, will clearly phetic writings of Isaiah, but yet far from a full and safely guide us. And to this we must add a life apprehension of their intent, standing by the Bapof watchfulness and observation, contemplating tist when he said: “I am the voice of one crying the prominent features of the current phenomena in the wilderness, Make straight the way of the of the church and of the world.
Lord, as said the prophet Esaias” (John i. 23). I conceive that the student of prophecy, who One may reasonably suppose that, upon hearing pursues this course, will be secured from the maze this public announcement from John that he was of errors to which a rash interpretation of the de- fulfilling that prophecy in preparing the way for tail of unaccomplished prophecy would expose the great Lord whom they were at that time exhim, while he pays due obedience to the solemn pecting, he would find a bright light shed over injunctions of attention to it found in the sacred that portion of sacred writ to which he alluded, volume itself, and escapes the danger to which the and an apprehension of it entering his mind which neglect of it would subject him. And, should the he had never before experienced. With this key days of his life be appointed in times wherein the to the interpretation of the prophet's language, accomplishment of any portion of the prophecies one may imagine him hastening to his home, is taking place, he might hope to be enabled to opening the book of Isaiah, and, in a thoughtful recognise the passing events as their fulfilment, study of the passage cited by the Baptist, with the and thence in all circumstances draw strength portions of the book which are connected with it, to his faith, consolation, hope, guidance, and sup- finding rays of light proceeding from it which port.
dispelled the obscurity that previously lay over A system of prophecy thus palpable in certain those sacred writings. “Comfort ye, comfort prominent points, and obscure in its intermediate ye, my people” (Isa. xl. 1), now looked to the detail, appears to have been consistently main-consolation of Israel in the advent of the Messiah. tained from the beginning of the world to the “0, Zion, that bringest good tidings, get thee up close of the prophetic revelation. viour, the gift and testimony of God's love bringest good tidings, lift up thy voice with for us, the offspring and the medium of his strength : lift it up, be not afraid: say unto the mercy, stood in promise and prophecy before man cities of Judab, Behold your God” (Isa. xl. 9), from the fatal day of his fall, exciting and encou- this language conveyed to him the substance of raging him to obedience in hope and love. Pre- the angelic promulgation: “ Fear not; for, besented to the view of the race of Abraham, par- hold, I bring you good tidings of greatjoy, which ticularly, stood the bondage in and redemption shall be unto all people. For unto you is born
this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is yet to recognise their fulfilment, as they witnessed Christ the Lord” (Luke ii. 10, 11). And, as he the occurrence of events which corresponded with proceeded thence in his subsequent study of this them. Christ himself in his own predictions acted evangelical prophet to the end of his work, if he upon the principle here supposed : “Now I tell at the same time became a faithful disciple of the you before it come, that, when it is come to pass, Baptist and of Christ, he would find the veil taken ye may believe that I am he” (John xiii. 19). away which had previously concealed the intent And we find this principle brought to effect in of the prophetical language, and great things the instance of one of our Lord's most signal proopened to him, respecting the Messiah and his phecies : “Destroy this temple ; and in three days kingdom, which had hitherto been hidden from I will raise it up” (John ii. 19). “When, therehis vision.
fore, he was risen from the dead, his disciples reHow the mind of the venerable Zacharias ap- membered that he had said this unto them; and pears to be opened to the apprehension of the in- they believed the scripture, and the word which tent of prophecy during the interval which elapsed | Jesus had said”. (John ii. 22). between the vision in the temple and the circum- Natural religion in this, as in so many other cision of his son! The angel of the Lord directed points, is singularly analogous to revealed ; and bis attention to Malachi's prophecy of his highly the analogy here alluded to may serve to illustrate favoured son, the Messiah's forerunner. His the view of prophecy now inculcated. The antisuspended intercourse with man gave him time to cipation of futurity imparted to us in the natural ruminate on the word of God. And no sooner is system of God's moral government is remarkably his speech restored, than he uses it in glorifying parallel with that derived from the holy men of God for his divine mercy and truth in the fulfil- God, who spake as they were moved by the Holy ment of his word, displaying an enlightened view Ghost” (2 Peter i. 21). The knowledge of cerof evangelical promise and prophecy from the be- tain great and important events awaiting all men ginning of the world. “As he spake by the is offered to them, while the detailof the incidents mouth of his holy prophets, which have been of their life lies in obscurity, yet, at times and in since the world began ; that we should be saved various ways, partially opened to them, as the from our enemies, and from the hand of all that guidance of their conduct requires. Experience hate us; to perform the mercy promised to our furnishes us with a clear foreknowledge of that fathers, and to remember his holy covenant, the great denouncing truth, that we must die. Conoath which he sware to our father Abraham" science tells every man to expect judgment, judg(Luke i. 70-74). Simeon was “ waiting for the ment to be exercised upon him, in some manner consolation of Israel.” The great proinise was and at some time. But the peculiar circumstances before him ; and with patient faith he was looking of each man's death, its remote and immediate for its accomplishment. Upon its glorious occur- causes, the place and time at which it will occur, rence he recognises the fulfilment of prophecy: the persons who will surround the death-bed, all “Mine eyes have seen thy salvation, which thou remain unknown till the event itself reveals them. hast prepared before the face of all people; a
Parallel herewith is our call to judgment. And light to lighten the gentiles, and the glory of thy such is the case with the general incidents of our people Israel” (Luke ii. 30-32). His mind seems life. Yet the connexion and relation observed in to be full of Isaiah : “It is a light thing that thou the natural course of events, the order of causes shouldest be my servant to raise up the tribes of and consequences, enable the observant and pruJacob, and to restore the preserved of Israel: I dent to foresee many things, and prepare and prowill also give thee for a light to the gentiles, that vide for their occurrence so as to mitigate or arrest thou mayest be my salvation unto the end of the the evil or enhance the good attendant upon them. earth” (Isa. xlix. 6).
But the thoughtless and improvident, neglectBut the main body of the Jews, who had only ing to make a due and reasonable use of the means extracted from the prophet those points which of foresight placed in their hands, are taken by were congenial to their pride and prejudice, and surprise with evils which they might have anticinever were in the habit of studying with pious pated : “A prudent man foreseeth the evil, and and ingenuous minds the scriptures of the old hideth himself; but the simple pass on, and are Testament throughout with diligent perseverance, punished”(Prov. xxvii. 12). were not prepared to recognise in John and in
And the divine wisdom is eminently displayed the blessed" Jesus the forerunner and the Messiah in this mode of imparting foreknowledge to man, promised and foretold in the oracles of God com- both in the constitution of nature and of revelamitted to them. Instead of recognising in the tion, in its moral results upon the heart and life of lowly and afflicted Son of man, and the hum- man. For, while the great prominent events ble circumstances in which he appeared, the palpably foreshown act as beacon-lights directing “despised and rejected of men,” the “man of us to steer our life towards one point and far sorrows, and acquainted with grief,” they away from another, the intermediate obscurity found in his humiliation only an offence and calls into action all our powers of watchfulness stumbling-block, which prevented their receiv- and care and diligence and exertion, for which ing him and acknowledging him as their Sa- there would not be the same need if the whole viour. Our Lord reproved them for this igno- line of futurity were laid out with perfect clearrance: “O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the ness before us. face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times ?"' (Matt. xvi. 3). They ought to have been prepared by the study of the prophetic writings in their hands, though they could not clearly understand them previously,
ANCIENT STAINED GLASS IN CHURCHES. minuteness displayed in the earlier designs entirely “Storied windows, richly dight,
disappeared, and was replaced by a certain boldCasting a dim, religious light."
ness before unknown. Large figures were now MILTOX.
placed in the main lights, surmounted by highlyIt is very curious to mark how particular arts decorated canopies, and smaller ones in the lesser gradually decline, are sunk in oblivion, and then, lights of the heads of windows. These figures after a lapse of some years, suddenly are again were placed on a ground of one colour, richly brought into notice, and once more engage the diapered. The west window of the nave of York attention of persons of taste. Gothic architecture may be instanced as a beautiful example of large is a notable instance of the truth of this remark; figures. Heraldry now began to be profusely inand the art I have chosen as the subject of this troduced ; and the laws of heraldic colours cause paper, in connexion with that peculiar style, will fine contrasts in the colours on glass. serve as another striking instance. It is true that But by far the greatest part of the stained glass the art was never entirely lost, as has been as- now remaining belongs to the perpendicular period, serted by some; but it received but little support, including the fifteenth, sixteenth, and part of the and in most cases was executed in a most de- seventeenth centuries. Little change took place plorable style of design and colouring.
in the general arrangement of windows, though Stained glass was in early use in the decoration sometimes the artist took his design over the whole of churches ; but all the more ancient examples of the lights ; but the tints were more varied, the are now lost; and it is believed that the glass in shadows were better managed in the draperiesthe choir of Canterbury cathedral will be found sometimes even with quite a classical effect--and to be the earliest now existing in this country, and attempts were made at perspective. Saints were may be taken as a fair example of the state of the now generally accompanied by distinctive emart in the twelfth century. The design consists blems--such as the instrument of their martyrdom, of panels, illustrating scripture history, with ex- or some peculiar animal. Scrolls, with inscripplanatory incriptions: these are on grounds of tions, were now used in boundless profusion; and ruby or blue colour, and the spaces between the these inscriptions are almost always in black letter panels are decorated with very rich mosaic work; characters, whereas before they were in gothic the whole being surrounded by a broad border. capitals. Highly-decorated initial letters freThe centre window of Becket's crown, in the same quently occur.
Coats of arms were more used cathedral, is also of this period; and in this the than ever; and, when not accompanied by any pattern is formed of foliated scroll patterns, of figure of their owner, they were usually reprevarious colours, on a ruby ground. It may be sented as being carried by an angel. observed that in all the early examples the blue The ground-work stili reniained of one colour, colour is of a most intense deepness; and this cir- diapered, with some ornament in black ; the precumstance is a distinguishing characteristic of the vailing patterns being roses placed at intervals, or more ancient glass.
a very rich foliated design. Draperies were also In the thirteenth century the detached panels much ornamented with roses, &c., and occasionally still continued to be much used in windows; but a with initial letters. The robe of a figure of Annas, remarkable variation now took place : this was the in Thirsk church, is profusely covered, in this omission of mosaic work in the formation of manner, with small “a's.” There was also angrounds, and the substitution of a trailing pattern other and plainer plan of taking off from the of leaves in its stead. The panels were often com- monotonous appearance of grounds, principally posed of a figure of some saint or benefactor of used in small, ornamental panes : this was the the church; and, when this was the case, a plain dashing the colour with black dots, as if one kind of canopy was placed above them. Occa- was to take a brush of black, or any opaque sionally the panels were omitted, and the whole colour, and shake it on at random: this method design was composed of the foliated ground-work. was in very common use. The blues had now A most striking example of this style occurs in the become extremely light in tint, when compared magnificent window in York cathedral, popularly with more ancient examples; and altogether the called the “Five Sisters,” from a legendary his- glass, though more varied in design, had lost a tory asserting that it was erected by five maiden great deal of that intense richness characteristic sisters, and was copied from five pieces of em- of former periods ; for borderings, small crowns, broidery executed by them. Others name it the dragons, &c., became prevalent, and have a good “Jews window," "from the windows in their effect when well executed. The inscriptions were tabernacles being often decorated in this style. usually composed of the names of figures repreBut, at all events, this window is composed of five sented, prayers for the souls of the erectors, and splendid lancet lights, of equal beight, with five invocations to the saints. The windows of King's smaller ones above-of which the centre one is the college chapel, Cambridge, are most glorious tallest—and is nearly altogether composed of examples of stained glass of this period, and so is foliage in subdued colours, relieved by diagonal the great east window of York cathedral : these bands of richer hoe, forming multangular and star- consist of scripture subjects. like figures. At the close of this period, shields At the close of the perpendicular period, when of arms began to be introduced ; the spaces be- gothic architecture gave way to all kinds of bartween them being filled up by bands, foliage, &c. barisms, the glass partook of the debasement; and
As might be expected, the introduction of folia- the above remarks will not apply to it exactly. tion in the arches of buildings, and other orna- The chaste and elegant canopies were replaced by mental details of the decorated style, wrought a heavy, Italian architectural ornaments; and the corresponding improvement in the glass of the inscriptions were now composed of Roman capitals. fourteenth century. In this period, the excessive It is useless to say more on this part of the subject, as very little glass of this period exists in churches, creep in by its means, it would even be better to though common enough in halls, &c., of the Eli- allow ourselves to reject it altogether. zabethan style.
T. Q. J. V. Having now arrived at the close of the palmy days of the art, I shall pass over the dreary age that followed, with simply noticing that the glass THE PROMISE OF GOD'S GRACE A MOTIVE. now was perfectly worthless in design, except
FOR CHRISTIAN EXERTION: works of a very few brighter spirits, such as Peckitt, of York, and others; though I noticed,
A Sermon in a late visit to York cathedral, that some of that
(Preached before the University of Oxford, Jan. 12, 1845), artist's colours had already begun to fade. The art is now revived ; and Willement, Wailes, &c., By the Rev. ROBERT WILLIAM BROWNE, M.A., have given some brilliant examples to the world; Choplain to the Forces, and Professor of Classical but it is still too much in its infancy to justify any
Literature in King's College, London. lengthened remarks. I shall conclude with a few notes on the pre
Phil. ii. 12, 13. sent state of the remains of former ages. It must “Work out your own salvation with fear and trembe borne in mind that, not only were they sub- bling. For it is God which worketh in you both to jected to the violence of fanatics, at two periods, will and to do of his good pleasure. viz., by pseudo-reformers and by the puritans—but they have also since undergone a gradual destruc- AMONGST all the numerous characteristic feation by the neglect of those whose pride it ought tures of the gospel there are few more striking, to have been to preserve these ornaments to every none certainly more important, than this, that humble shrine. * Nearly every church bears evi- all the truths taught therein are of a strictly dence of the truth of this. In some no vestiges practical nature. There is no such thing to remain : in others relics exist, but in a most bar- be found in it as a mere intellectual, specubarious state of preservation. Local circumstances lative truth, leading to no moral results, nocent counties of Durham and Yorkshire. In the thing calculated to satisfy a barren, unprofitformer, which was subjected to border attacks, able curiosity, or to encourage a habit of very little coloured glass remains : in the latter, inquisitive investigation, which has no pracspecimens are numerous. I have seen them dis- tical object in view. Every doctrine is the figured by innumerable patchings with plain glass, parent of some precept, which derives from because the authorities were too lazy to pick up the doctrine, as its source, its influence upon and put together fragments which by accident had the heart and life. Every new fact, which unfallen out: I have seen them placed in most folds to us more completely the mysterious miserable confusion by careless and ignorant churchwardens: I have seen apertures actually relation which the creature bears to his Crefilled up with half bricks and pieces of slate; and, tor, the redeemed to his Redeemer, the sanclastly, I have seen them either smeared over with tified to his Sanctifier, brings with it, indiswhitewash, or else covered over at both sides with solubly bound up, its corresponding duties, a thick covering of plaster. This last occurrence motives, and obligations. is very frequent in small angular openings in the
The end and object of the gospel dispensatracery of the windows.
I may add that plundering hands have been at work: I have tion is a lively faith, influencing the heart and seen quantities removed to gentlemen's private affections by the truths assented to by the houses*, or else sold by mercenary fingers to intellect; for the foundations of Christ's kingvisitors. Some churches are, however, exceptions dom are laid in the hearts of his people: “ with to these remarks, where the glass has been cleaned the heart man believeth unto righteousness.” and well arranged, or else exists in a perfect state, not having been meddled with. Let us hope, nay, church is labouring to accomplish—that work
The work which the great Head of the trust, that a happier period is now dawning, and which the Father hath given him to do—is to that'stained glass, in all its splendour, may again establish holiness in the fear of the Lord, and adorn our ecclesiastical_buildings, shedding, dim, religious light.” But, in our new designs, thus, finally, to present unto his Father a pelet all popish and superstitious allusions be carefully culiar people, zealous of good works ; a avoided, and when figures of saints are used at church without blemish, spot, or wrinkle, or all, they should be confined to the evangelists and any such thing, the counterpart of himself, apostles; though scriptural events are, in my opi- made in his own image, and after his own nion, best adapted to the purpose. The art is
likeness. beautiful in its purity: let it be used, therefore, but not be abused; and, rather than abuses should But we may assert more than this re
specting the union which subsists between “ Before we terminate this notice, we must take our read- knowledge and practice in the gospel. If it ers outside, and lead them to the little chapel which stands in be true, on the one hand, that no truth is retomb of Edward Audley, bishop of Salisbury, in that cathe- vealed which does not immediately become dral. Besides some fine painted glass brought from the church of Bexhill, in Sussex-whereon appear the portraits of Henry either an additional motive to obedience or 111., and his queen, Eleanor, of Provence-it contains a mag- the foundation of some new act of duty, so nificent shrine of mosaic," &c. (Account of Strawberry Hill, in Ainsworth's Magazine).
no precept is inculcated, no obligation en
the south-west corner of the wood, and was built after the