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struments apparently the least qualified for the

purpose to be accomplished. The blessing for The restoration of the royal family, at the disso- which we are to be grateful is a kingdom instead lution of the Commonwealth, used to be celebrated of a commonwealth ; an established episcopal with feelings of devout gratitude by the whole church being snatched from the hands of its plunchurch and nation, as commemorative of the inter- derers, and restored to its legitimate position. To position of the good providence of God. It is the loyal subject, therefore, as well as to the denow a mere state holiday, seldom, except when voted churchman, it ought and will be a day of it falls on a Sunday, thought of in a religious thanksgiving. Passages doubtless there are in the point of view by the great mass of the community ; appointed services which may not be quite suitable and it is by not a few maintained that it is little to all tastes, but which need, snrely, not offend an less than blasphemy to return thanks to the Al- enlightened conscience. mighty for placing on the throne a licentious The manifold persecutions to which the monarch, notorious for his career of the grossest clergy were exposed during the Commonwealth vice, and whose character and example were the were neither few in degree, nor insignificant in sources of monstrous evils. But it ought to be point of cruelty; a fact too much apt to be forborne in mind that practically, as far as we are gotten. It is delightful to reflect, however, that concerned, the character of the monarch is not the many of them found a kind welcome and a compoint in question. The Almighty, “ whose ways fortable refuge in the bosoms of loyalist families are not as man's ways,” frequently acts by in- 1 of distinction, where they were invariably treated VOL. XVIII.

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with the utmost respect, and regarded with the seem weak to some, but others will probably apprehighest esteem.

ciate their force. The form of baptism is by many Westwood Park, in Worcestershire, the seat of thought a convincing proof of the doctrine: “G9 sir John Pakington, bart., was one of these hospitable mansions. There many of the suffering in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the

ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them clergy found an asylum-Merley, Gunning, Fell, and more particularly Dr. Henry Hammond (see Holy Ghost;" as also the apostolic benediction : his Life, Church of England Magazine, Nos. 1. 275,

“ The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of lii. 306), who resided there for the last ten years God, and the fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with of his life ; and there, according to his own earnest you all. Amen." In the Old Testament are many prayer, he departed in peace, April 25th, A. D. intimations of the doctrine, though the full revelation 1660, just before the Restoration, and was buried was reserved for the New, as in the triple form of in the church of Hampton Lovel, the parish priestly benediction, in the use of the plural form, in church of Westwood. Lady Pakington was the daughter of Thomas singular verb. In Isa. xlviii. 16, appears something

the name often applied to God, conjoined with a lord Coventry, keeper of the great seal of England for the first sixteen years of the reign of more than an intimation of the doctrine: “ Now the Charles I.; a man, according to Clarendon, of Lord God and his Spirit hath sent me.” And who great abilities and the strictest integrity, whose is the speaker ? Evidently, from the context, a divine death, A. D. 1640, at the commencement of the Person, styled in the next verse, “ Jehovah, thy Relong parliament, was regarded as a serious loss to deemer, the Holy One of Israel.” At our blessed Lord's the loyal party. Her husband, sir John Paking- baptism, the three Persons of the Holy Trinity are diston, after having expended 40,0001. on behalf of tinctly brought before us. The Spirit is seen descendthe royal cause, and having been tried for his life, ing as a dove, and a voice heard saying, “ This is my was returned as one of the members for Worcester- beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.” In Rom. shire in the first parliament after the Restoration. It is needless to say that sir John was a devoted viii. 9, 1 Cor. xii.

4-6, Gal. iv. 4, Eph. iv. 4-6, express churchman ; after adverting to his kindness to the mention is made of the three Persons in the Godhead. clergy; and when Dr. George Morley, the new

St. Peter (1,i. 2) thus speaks of the saints: “Elect acbishop, came to tak possession of the see, “ the cording to the foreknowledge of God the Father, noble and loyal gentleman” rode out to meet him, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience two miles from the city, till he was joined nearer and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ.” Ande Worcester by the lord-lieutenant and a number lastly, St. Jude (20, 21) writes: “But ye, beloved, of other loyalists, of the magistracy, gentry, and building up yourselves in your most holy faith, praying clergy of the county.

in the Holy Ghost, keep yourselves in the love of God, Lady Pakington died a. D. 1679, and was looking for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ, unto buried near the grave of her friend Hammond.

eternal life.” A memorial, inscribed on the monument of her

These are grandson, speaks of her as exemplary for her piety

some of the principal passages in and goodness, and justly reputed the authoress of which the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost “ The Whole Duty of Man."

are named together. But such passages are not, to my It is a confident tradition in the family, and mind, the most convincing proofs of the doctrine in there is a small apartment at the top of the house at question : I am content rather to rest in this, that Westwood, which has always been pointed out as the we find the Father spoken of as God, the Son as God, room in which lady Pakington, with the assistance and the Holy Ghost as God; that there are some of Dr. Hammond and bishop Fell, arranged the things ascribed to them indiscriminately, so that what work referred to. Dr. Hickes, and Ballard in his is done by one is also said to be done by the others ; “ Memoirs of British Ladies," also bear testimony and also that there are actions ascribed carefully and to the fact. The MS. is said to have been some time in the possession of Mrs. Eyre, of Rampton, constantly only to the Father, to the Son, and to the a daughter of lady Pakington. It was interlined Holy Ghost respectively. Prove the unity of God, as with corrections by bishop Fell. Mrs. Eyre I think I have amply done already, rather than the dialways regarded her mother as the authoress of vinity of the three several Persons of the Trinity, and The Decay of Christian Piety;” and “ The the catholic doctrine seems at once settled in my Art of Contentment*” is generally admitted to have mind, so that we neither confound the Father with been hers also.

the Son or the Holy Ghost, nor divide the one God

head. The divinity of the Father is implied throughTHE TRINITY IN UNITY.

out scripture; and I am not aware that it has ever No. II.

been questioned, except by the atheist and utter dis

believer. The divinity of the Son is affirmed by the BY THE REV. CHARLES KEMBLE, M.A.,

apostles and himself: “I and the Father are one." Minister of St. Michael's, Stockwell, Surrey.

And he also distinguishes himself from the Father. In following up the remarks made in a former paper, Turn to John viii. 16-18:“ If I judge, my judgment is we may proceed to inquire-How then is the doctrine true; for I am not alone, but I and my Father that of the Trinity deduced from holy scripture? Diffe- sent me. It is also written in your law, that the rent minds find greater force in some arguments than testimony of two men is true. i am one that bear in others; therefore I mention one or two which may witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth • A new edition of this work, from the preface to which these

witness of me." In evidence of the deity of the Holy few remarks are chiefly taken, was edited by the rev. W. Pridden, M.A., vicar of Broxted, Kent. London: Burns. 1841. Ghost, I would only refer to the case of Ananias and

Sapphira, recorded in Acts 'v. 3 : Peter asks, “Why | worse than worthless. For instance, take the folhath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy lowing thus referred to by Dr. Burton: “When St. Ghost ?" and verse four says: “Thou hast not lied Paul says, ' He that spared not his own Son, but deunto men, but unto God.” The passages before ad. livered him up for us all, how shall he not with him duced prove the distinctness of the three Persons; and also freely give us all things?' The inference is not thus I feel satisfied in my own mind that the doc- true, that God will certainly give us all things, if we trine of the Holy Trinity is amply and clearly estab- understand by his own Son a mere human prophet or lished on the sole and solid ground of holy scripture, teacher, whom God sent into the world, and permitted without creeds, without tradition. Let men but be to be put to death. Though it was an act of mercy content to leave the matter here, and we incur no

on the part of God to send such a teacher, and we risk of heterodoxy, we need fear no scoff of the unbe- might perhaps infer from one such act of mercy that liever.

others might be expected, yet we should not be jusWhat then, it may be inquired, is the use of tified in arguing that God would therefore freely give creeds or confessions of faith? Whence did they us all things: the argument would then be from a less spring up in the Christian church? They arose from to a greater, and would not be consecutive. But, if the necessity of the times ; and their object is to cast God literally spared not his begotten Son, but deup a barrier against error, and elevate the standard livered him up for us all, we may then argne from the of truth. The ingenuity of perverted reason, and the greater to the less, that God will freely give us all subtilty of the great spirit of darkness, combined to things; for there is nothing which can be so dear to torture the simplicity of the gospel, and extenuate the God as his own begotten Son.” And this argument brevity of the scripture creed into all the varied and is yet more forcible if we render the words not “freely complicated shapes of those deadly heresies that dis- give us all things,” but“ freely forgive us every thing ; tracted the body of the primitive church, and wrought the word xapioedar having this sense in Rom. viii. 32, perdition on many of the professors of the first faith and Col. ii. 13, iii. 13. Or, take yet one other passage, of Christianity. First came the impugners of the instances from Dr. Waterland (46): “ There are no two humanity of the Saviour, then the impugners of his motives more affecting or more endearing, or more deity; one making his body a phantom, another ab- apt to work upon ingenuous minds, than the love of stracting the human soul, and letting deity supply its the Father in sending his beloved Son to redeem us, splace; so that the body of the faithful had to declare and the love and condescension of our blessed Lord in him perfect God and perfect man. The early church, submitting to be sent :' God so loved the world, that indeed, was driven by a special Providence, we may he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever besay, to prove the humanity rather than the divinity lieveth in him should not perish, but have everlasting of the Saviour. In the apostolic writings this is most life.' "In this was manifested the love of God towards remarkably manifest. They insist upon the truth us, because that God sent his only begotten Son into that, though he were a Son, yet learned he subjection the world, that we might live through him.' We see by the things that he suffered ; and that, though he here what a stress and emphasis is laid, not merely was equal with God, he took upon him our nature, upon this, that life, eternal life, is the benefit beand was in all things made like unto his brethren. stowed, but that it is conveyed in such a manner and Then, after the worse Gnosticism retired, Arianism by such endearing means by the only begotten Son, succeeded, and well nigh absorbed the catholic faith.

an emphasis not made out on the hypoUsing the language of orthodoxy, but veiling beneath thesis that Christ is a mere man. But suppose him it a deadly heresy, calling Christ God, they worship- a creature, and the very first and highest of all creaped him not as a God, but made him an inferior deity, tures, before he came down from heaven, yet neither a created God. Then that portion of the creed was does that supposition sufficiently answer the pur. required which asserted him equal to the Father as pose ; for, considering how honourable the service touching his godhead, inferior to the Father as touch- was, and how inconceivably vast and large the reing his manhood. One affirmed Christ to be so one ward for it, it might more properly be said that God with the Father, as that he would say the Father died so loved his Son, that he sent him into the world in to redeem. Another so severed them as to be a wor- order to prefer him to a kind of rivalship with him. shipper of two several Gods. Then it was necessarily self, to advance him to divine honours, to make the enunciated that, when we worship one God in Trinity whole creation bow before him, and pay him homage and Trinity in Unity, we neither may confound the and obeisance * so that, denying the divinity of persons nor divide the substance. So heresy after Christ robs us in part of one of the most endearing heresy arose, to be negatived by some decision of or- and affecting motives to Christian charity." thodox believers, which was thenceforward to be em- And here I would leave the doctrine in its scrip. bodied in the established creed. The Socinian, indeed, tural fulness and simplicity, avoiding all the sub. goes beyond the Arian, maintaining that Christ is no tilties of scholastic theology and the technicalities more than an exemplary man-a teacher, indeed, which heresy has compelled the orthodox to adopt. sent from God on a high and holy errand, who was so The language of our creeds is human, language called earnest in his work, that he scrupled not to die for forth by the necessity of the times; and, when we what he taught, and that God, to shew his approval, assert that they may be proved by most sure and raised him from the dead : a theory thus not certain warrants of holy scripture, we mean that the only at variance with many express statements doctrine they negative is proved from scripture to in scripture, but making many other passages be false: I allude more particularly to the Atha

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nasian creed. It has been well observed, that“ they should have no creed but God's word, if human nature surely entirely pervert the nature of dogmatic the- were perfect. But it is not so. Grace does not flow ology who reason on the terms of doctrines as if they in the flood : piety is not transmitted as an heritage were the proper ideas belonging to religion, or who from father to son; and hence we see the children insist on interpretations of expressions, whether as em- of the pious and orthodox carrying out the principles ployed by our reformers or the primitive believers, in of private judgment in matters of faith, while their a positive sense, without taking into their view the hearts are yet unenlightened by the Holy Spirit, and existing state of theology and philosophy at the dif- their lips intact by the live coal from off the altar of ferent periods of Christianity. Creeds and articles, the Lord. Hence they are intruders into holy myswithout such previous study, are as if they were written teries, and are left to forget the name of him who was in a strange language. The words indeed are signs of the God of their fathers, and lift up their hands to ideas to us, but not of those ideas which were pre- many a strange god. And so it is even in members sented to the minds of men when the formularies of our own church. The same natural corruption were written, or when they were adopted by the is propagated, the same want of grace discernible church.” I have not, therefore, thought it needful in the children of the godly. But we have formularies to enter upon any diecussion of any terms introduced to call us back to allegiance to our God, legal charters into our creeds, but endeavoured to confine myself and covenants to restore our loyalty to him who is to the lively oracles of God. There is no attack Sovereign of the universe. Let it be granted that now made on any of those expressions, no necessity creeds be an evil; but they are necessary to us in our therefore that time should be occupied by reading present state. Our option lies between what some their defence. But it is needful that men should be think voluntary bondage of the reason to human reminded of great fundamental truths, great practical chains, and the risk of apostacy into deadly heresy, doctrines, especially the one great distinguishing doc- if not in ourselves, at least in our children. God will trine of orthodox believers, the doctrine of the keep his own stedfast in the faith ; but their sins he blessed Trinity. Right views of God are necessary to

will visit upon their children to the third and fourth the right worship of God. Let our views of God be generation ; their sin being this, that they left the defective, ill-defined, or misproportioned, and our great truths they had been taught by the Spirit unviews of other doctrines will to a like degree become guarded from misconception and perversion by those tainted with error, our lives discoloured with sin. As means with which they were entrusted.

Evil as our understanding departs from the orthodox faith, metaphysical dogmas and cumbrous creeds may be, our affections will be misapplied, our feet will travel we cannot do without them. « Such a result" (the into the way of transgressors. Error in faith must be abolition of creeds), says Dr. Hampden, productive of some practical mischief either in heart rather to be wished and prayed for, by a sanguine or conduct. Heresy leads to an immoral life. In- piety, than reckoned upon in the humbling calculations deed, heresy is itself a transgression of God's law, as of human experience. In the mean time, it were well much as murder or idolatry. We forget the name of to retain, amidst all its confessed imperfections, a our God, and lift up our hands to strange gods. All system of technical theology, by which we are guarded, other doctrines are intertwined with and dependent in some measure, from the exorbitance of theoretic upon the doctrine of the Godhead. Our views of sin enthusiasm. It would be a rashness of pious feeling and righteousness, our corruption and condemnation, that should at once so confide in itself, as to throw Christ's atonement and the Spirit's sanctification, are down the walls and embankments; which the more all influenced by our conceptions of God. I do not vigilant fears of our predecessors have reared up say that, if we are right here, we may not branch around the city of God. In the present state of off into error from other points; but, if wrong here, things, such a zeal for the faith would look more like we cannot but err on other material and highly prac- the ostentatiousness of Spartan courage, than the tical points of doctrine. I would advocate a spirit of modest discipline of the soldiers of Christ, trusting free and candid inquiry, of the utmost tolerance of in his arm for success, and yet availing themselves of opinion and religious liberty. I would have freedom all natural means of strength which their reason points granted to every man to worship God as he believes out.” in his heart God can best be adored, the purity of the It only remains that I should adduce evidence, for faith best preserved, and himself best prepared for the comfort of the simple believer who is conscious glory. To his own Master he standeth or falleth: that the subtleties of the Athanasian creed are beyond why should I judge another man's servant? I would his understanding, that such an understanding is not cast no imputation on the conscientious dissenter: I necessary to everlasting salvation. If he is not pronounce no anathema on his principles; but I can-infected with the heresy contradicted in the creeds, not hide from myself the danger he incurs for his but believes the doctrine as simply stated in scripture, children if he rejects all human interpretations and he need be under no apprehension. I will quote a creeds. I cannot hide from myself the evil tendency passage from one whose orthodoxy is indisputable. of his system. I cannot but be thankful that my lot It is a passage from Sherlock, adopted by Dr. Wateris cast in a church where, by forms of sound words, land. Though it is necessary and essential to the and the bulwarks against heresy erected by the piety Christian faith to acknowledge Father, Son, and and care of former generations, we are but slightly Holy Ghost to be one eternal God, yet there are a exposed to temptations to deviate from the path of great many little subtleties started by over-curious orthodoxy. It would doubtless be better that we and busy heads, which are not fundamental doctrines,


and ought not to be thought so. God forbid that all | contained about one-third water and one-third oil : the nice distinctions and definitions of the schools, the rest was left empty, in order that the sides of the about essence, subsistence, personality, about eternal glass might protect the flame from the wind. A little generation and procession, the difference between wire hoop was used to contain the wick; and it was filiation and spiration, &c., should be reckoned among furnished with corks, to keep it afloat on the oil. The fundamentals of our faith. For, though we understand lamp diffused a good light all over the table. In the nothing of these matters (as, indeed, we do not, and evening, at supper time, happening to look at the it had been happy if the church had never heard of lamp, Franklin remarked that, though the surface of them), yet, if we believe the divinity of each Person, the oil was perfectly tranquil, and preserved its prowe believe enough to understand the doctrine of sal- per position and distance, with regard to the brim of vation.” And then Dr. Waterland (p. 73) goes on the glass, yet the water under the oil was in great to state how the doctrine of the Trinity was rather commotion, rising and falling in irregular waves, hurt than befriended by the schoolmen ; because they which continued during the whole evening. The invented difficulties,' overlaid a plain doctrine with lamp was kept burning as a watch-light all night. In subtleties and distinctions so as to obscure it; by di- the morning, Pranklin observed that, though the molating and perplexing they weakened it; “ for it is tion of the ship continued the same, the water was now much easier to oppose it as it stands, tricked up in quiet, and its surface as tranquil as that of the oil had that scholastic form, than as it stands in scripture and been the evening before. At night again, when the oil in the ancient fathers ;” and lastly, “ they brought a was put upon it, the water resunied its irregular mu. kind of scandal and disgrace upon the doctrine, as if it tions, rising in high waves almost to the surface of the subsisted chiefly upon scholastic subtleties."

oil, but without disturbing the smooth level of that “ God knoweth the secrets of the heart; and it is surface. far from improbable that God is even now searching This appearance may be produced anywhere by the as, because, amidst controversies on other matters, our following contrivance : Fasten a piece of string round faith has been led away from this great doctrine of a tumbler, with strings from each side meeting above Christianity, and, unawares, we have forgotten, or it in a knot at about a foot distance from the top of were at least in danger of forgetting, the name of our the tumbler. Pour in water, so that it may occupy God, and lifting up our hands to a strange god.” about one-third of the glass : then lift it by the knot,

“ The pressure of the times may recall us ere it be and swing it to and fro in the air, and the water will too late, not to a spirit of intolerance, but to one of remain steady. Pour in gently about as much oil, careful and humble inquiry into the grounds of our and then swing the glass as before ; when the water own faith, and cause us to be more firmly established in will become agitated, the surface of the oil remaining the doctrine wehave been now considering; so that more quite tranquil. simply and more stedfastly we shall adore the Unity Franklin showed this experiment to a number of in Trinity and the Trinity in Unity. God grant it persons. He says: “ Those who are but slightly acmay be so! Then, adoring one Father for his infinite quainted with the principles of hydrostatics, &c., are love in providing for our redemption, trusting in the apt to fancy immediately that they understand it, righteousness of one almighty Saviour for the blessings and readily attempt to explain it ; but their explanaof free and full justification, enlightened by and walk- tions have been different, and to me not very ining in one eternal Spirit along the way of holiness, we telligent. Others, more deeply skilled in those prinall advance from strength to strength until every one ciples, seem to wonder at it, and promise to consider appears before God in Zion. Then, fearing no forget it. And I think it is worth consideration ; for a new fulness of God, or apostacy from him, we shall join the appearance, if it cannot be explained by any old prineverlasting chant of adoration and praise, with all the ciples, may afford us new ones, of use perhaps in exa heavenly hosts of saints and angels, to the triune plaining some other obscure parts of natura knowJehovah. Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty, ledge.” which was, and is, and is to come.”

On his arrival in London, this subject excited the attention of Franklin's scientific friends; and, at length,

a paper on the subject was read before the Royal THE ACTION OF OIL UPON THE WAVES. Society, on the 2nd of June, 1774. It appears that

the action of oil in smoothing the surface of agitated ABOUT 70 years ago the peculiar smoothing action of water had long been the subject of popular remark. oil upon rough water was introduced by Dr. Franklin Pliny mentions this property of oil as known parto the notice of scientific men in this coantry. The ticularly to the divers ; who made use of it in his time, attention of that ingenious philosopher was first in order to bave a more steady light at the bottom attracted to the subject during his passage to Ma- of the water. It was stated, also, that on the Spanish deira, when, the weather being warm, and the cabin coast the fishermen were accustomed to pour a little windows constantly open for the benefit of the air, the oil on the sea, in order to still its motion, that they faring of the candles at night was a source of great might be able to see the oysters lying at the bottom, annoyance. He therefore formed a floating light in a which are very large, and which they take up with a common glass tumbler, and, by means of wire, sus- proper instrument. Our sailors also have remarked pended it from the ceiling of the cabin. The glass that the water is always much smoother in the wake

of a ship that has been newly tallowed than it is in • From " Chronicles of the Seasons." London: Parker. 1844.

one that is foul.

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