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Pennant also observes of the seal-catchers of Scot- | but something might perhaps be done, on particular land that, when the seals are devouring a very oily occasions, to modify the violence of waves when in fish, which they always do under water, the waves the midst of them, so as to prevent their breaking. above are observed to be remarkably smooth ; and by He also thought it might be of use on those shores this mark the fishermen know where to look for them. where the force of the surf prevented persons from Franklin also says that, in 1757, being at sea in a fleet landing. His idea was that, by sailing to and fro at of ninety-six sail, he observed the wakes of two of some distance from a lee shore, and continually pourthe ships to be remarkably smooth, while all the ing oil into the sea, the waves might be so much diothers were ruffled by the wind, which blew fresh. minished before they reached the shore, as to dimi“ Being puzzled with the differing appearance,” he nish the violence of the surf, and thus permit an easy continues, “ I at last pointed it out to our captain, landing. and asked him the meaning of it. “The cooks,' To test these practical views, Dr. Franklin, in comsaid he, “have, I suppose, been just emptying their pany with captain Bentinck, sir Joseph Banks, Drs. greasy water through the scuppers, which has greased Solander, Blagden, and others, visited a part of the the sides of those ships a little.' And this answer he English coast between Haslar hospital and the point gave me with an air of some little contempt, as to a near Tillhecker, on a windy day, when the wind made person ignorant of what everybody else knew. In a lee shore. They proceeded from his majesty's ship my own mind, I at first slighted his solution, though “ Centaur," with the long-boat and barge towards I was not able to think of another.”

the shore. The long-boat was anchored about a quarFranklin was also informed, by a gentleman from ter of a mile from the shore : some of the company Rhode Island, that it was a common remark in the were landed behind the point, and placed themselves harbour of Newport, that the sea was always smooth opposite the long-boat, where they might observe the while any whaling vessels were in it. Also, that a surf, and notice whether any change occurred in it Dutch vessel near the islands of Paul and Ainsterdam upon using the oil. Another party in the barge plied met with a storm, in which the captain, for greater to windward of the long-boat, as far from her as she safety in wearing the ship, poured oil into the sea, was from the shore, making trips of about half a which 'prevented the waves breaking over her; and mile each, and pouring oil continually out of a large to this he attributed the preservation of his vessel. stone bottle, through a hole in the cork. The ex

With all these testimonies in favour of the tran- periment had not all the desired effect, for no material quillizing action of oil upon rough water, Franklin difference was observed in the height or force of the tried a variety of experiments, two or three of which surf upon the shore; but those who were in the longmay be noticed here.

boat observed a tract of smoothed water, the whole On one occasion, while in company with sir John of the distance in which the barge poured the oil, Pringle and others, in a boat on the Derwent lake, it gradually spreading in breadth towards the long-boat. was found that, by pouring a very small quantity of “I call it smoothed,” says Franklin, “not that it was oil upon the surface of the water, the waves, which laid level, but because, though the swell continued, were in great agitation, were instantly calmed, and its surface was uot roughened by the wrinkles or that to so great a distance round the boat as seemed smaller waves ; and none, or very few “white caps incredible.

(or waves whose tops turn over in foam) appeared in The next'experiment was tried on Clapham Com- that whole space, though to windward and Jeeward mon, on a pond, the surface of which was very rough of it there were plenty.” from the action of the wind. On dropping a little oil upon the water, it spread with surprising swiftness

MISSIONARY RECORDS. upon the surface; but the effect of smoothing the

No. V. waves was not produced, because he had applied it on the leeward side of the pond, where the waves

“ Awake, and shine! Your light is come,

Pair islands of the west : were largest, and the wind drove the oil back upon Awake, and sing ! once deaf and dumb, the shore. He then went to the windward side,

Shine! for the glory of the Lord where they began to form ; and there the oil, though not exceeding a tea-spoonful in quantity, produced

Sing! for the triumph of his word

O'er all your ocean sounds. an instant calm over the space of several yards square,

Poor Africa! through thy waste of sands, which spread amazingly till it reached the lee side,

Where Calvary's fountain flows,

Deserts become Immannel's lands, making all that portion of the pond, to the extent of

And blossom like the rose. perhaps half an acre, as smooth as a looking-glass.

« India ! beneath the chariot wheels Franklin explained this phenomenon, by supposing

Of Juggernaut o'erthrown,

Thy heart a quickening spirit feels, that wind, passing over the surface of water, raises it

A pulse beats through thy stone.

China! behold thy quaking wall; into wrinkles, which, if the wind continue, are the ele

Foredoomed by heaven's decree; ments of future waves; but that, when water is

A hand is writing on it-"Fall!”

A voice goes forth-“ Be free !" covered with a film of oil, the wind slides over it, and

Ye pagan tribes of every race, leaves it as smooth as it finds it. He thought that

Clime, country, language, hue!

Believe, obey, be saved by grace; advantage might be taken of the fact, to suppress the

The gospel speaks to you," waves in any required place, provided we could come

MONTGOMERY. at the windward of the spot where they take their THE PORT OP LONDON.—“In this port,” says the rise. This can seldom, if ever, be done in the ocean ; report of the Prayer-book and Homily Society,“ dur

Now islands of the blest:

Your coral reef surrounds:

sea,

ing the year, there have been 4,359 ships and other which had been thus created, united in forming the vessels visited or revisited. On board these vessels Church Education Society for Ireland. The imme1,127 prayer-books, 6 family prayer-books, 8 books diate and chief object of this society is to afford the of homilies, and 503 homily tracts, have been pur- means of religious education to the poorer children of chased by seamen : 649 copies of a book of select our own communion. But an earnest desire being homilies, and 1,250 homily tracts, have been supplied felt to extend the benefit of the schools to other comto the ships gratuitously.” Since the year 1824, munions also, not only is the freest access given to 45,904 vessels have been visited or revisited in the all, but every thing is done, which can be done conport of London only; and 23,065 books of common sistently with principle, to take away every hindrance prayer, 273 books of homilies, and 500 homily tracts, to their availing themselves of the advantages which have been sold to seamen, besides 17,112 books and they afford. While the reading of the bible forms a tracts supplied to the ships gratuitously.

portion of the business of the schools-in which all SEAMEN REPORMED.—The society's usefulness has children, when qualified, are expected to take a part not only been manifested in the case of individuals, the formularies of the church are required to be bat whole ships' companies have reaped benefit from learned by none except the children of its own memits labours. A clergyman thus addressed the visiting bers. And, although the attendance of Roman catholic secretary of the society : “Can you tell me where we children at the schools of the Church Education Solast met ? Do you remember what part of the coun. ciety fluctuates considerably, as ecclesiastical authotry you were visiting in the month of June, 1827? Irity is more or less actively exerted to restrain it, yet will tell you,” he said. “ You were at Gravesend, on on the whole there appears no room to doubt that board a large ship, bound to Calcutta. I was then united education has been effected in a much higher going out as a chaplain to India. The captain of that degree in the schools of this society than in those of ship was a pious churchman : you supplied him with the National Board." The prelates having stated that more than 100 prayer-books, and a large number of appeals to the legislature and the government had books of select homilies. We had on board tbat ves- been urged in vain, add justly—“ We cannot bring sel a ship's company of seamen and troops, number- ourselves to think it possible that the striking ining altogether about 500. When we got well out to equality of the measure which has been dealt towards

I was called upon to perform the regular church | the established church of this country, in the imservice. We immediately sold, at your reduced prices, portant concern of education, and the great hardship all the prayer-books with which you supplied us; and of the position in which it has thereby been placed, the homilies were divided to portions of the crew and can fail ultimately to attract towards it such fair conto the troops. The effect was most gratifying. The sideration as may procure for it due sympathy and men regularly came to church, and, with the help of redress.” And they conclude—“We cannot believe their books, joined in divine service with the most that our brethren in the faith in England will look on devout attention ; and some of them, after a while, with apathy, while the church in this country, faithful were evidently very deeply impressed with the im- to its high office as “ a witness and keeper of holy writ,' portant truths which they learned under the means is struggling, unaided, to discharge its most pressing of grace" (Prayer-book and Homily Society's Re- duties.” Let it be the aim of those who are engaged port).

in this sacred cause, by God's help, to do his will, IRELAND.-We, of the purified church of Christ, leaving the issue of these labour3—the time and truly live in days of evil omen. In proportion as the measure of their success-altogether to his wisdom. sky of protestant truth is brightening in France and " And let us not be weary in well doing; for in due Germany, it is growing dark and overcast in our dear season we shall reap, if we faint not.” To this appeal native land. 'Under the sceptre of a former queen, I fervently add, may God speedily give our rulers England was blessed of God as the stay and bulwark the heart to render truer “justice to Ireland.” of the true faith, “once delivered to the saints.” But The CAFFRARIAN CONVERT.-A Caffre-a fine, the time, the fearful time is come, when its rulers, tall, athletic, young man--addicted to all the debasing ruling in the name of a sovereign who is indebted to and demoralizing customs of his nation-one night rethe blood of protestant martyrs and the wisdom of solved to go into the colony (of Chumie) for the purprotestant statesmen for the crown she wears, hold pose of stealing a horse; which is a common practice our the right-hand of their patronage to a system of with them. He immediately left home came into the education which employs a bible adulterated by priest- colony, and watched for an opportunity of accom. craft as a means of religious training, while they plishing his purpose ; which soon presented itself. withdraw their aid altogether from a society, the He found two horses, grazing in a sheltered situation corner-stone of whose teaching is that gospel which near a bush ; and he instantly seized one of them, alone is the wisdom of God unto salvation! That in and made off with it as fast as he could. Elated with this sad comment we have no ways over-stepped the his success, and rejoicing in the prospect of securing truth, will indeed appear from the subjoined extract his prize without being detected, he proceeded towards from the “ Address of the Irish Prelates,” in behalf Caffreland ; when all at once the thought struck him, of the Church Education Society for Ireland :-" The “Thou shalt not steal.” He could go no further, but exclusive appropriation of the parliamentary grants immediately drew up the horse, and said to himself, for education having left the church destitute of its ac- “What is this? I have heard these words before, in customed aids for the instruction of the children of the church; but I never felt as I do now. This must the poor, the clergy and laity, to supply the want be the word of God.” He dismounted, and held the bridle in his hand, hesitating whether to go forward and they will see and judge for themselves with the horse, or to return back with it and restore it Such is the demand for the word of God, that we have to the owner. In this state he continued for upwards even been obliged to give away our own bibles and of an hour. At last he resolved to take the horse testaments, retaining only one each. Could the back again ; which he accordingly did, and returned society send us a small supply? In fact, so far as home a true penitent, determined to serve God. When books are concerned, our wants are great; and a large he reached his dwelling, he could not rest : sleep had supply is needed" (Letter from a clergyman to the departed from him: the sting of conviction abided S. R. Society). deep in his conscience, and he could not shake it off. INDIA.—A Hindoo scholar, of the first caste, conThe next day he took an ox out of his kraal (cattle cluded his essay on “ The Influence of sound general place), and went to the nearest village to sell it, in Knowledge upon Hindoostan" with the following order that he might buy European clothing with the words :-" The resplendent sun of revelation hath money, and attend the house of God like a Christian. darted forth to the eyes of benighted India. But, When he returned with his clothes, he went to the alas, alas! our countrymen are still asleep-still minister's house, told him all that had taken place, sleeping the sleep of death. Rise up, ye sons of and requested to be admitted on probation as a church India ! arise; see the glory of the Sun of Righteousmember. The minister, cheered with his statement, ness. Beauty is around you : life blooms before you. received him; and, after keeping him on trial the ap- Why, why will ye sleep the sleep of death? And pointed time, and finding him consistent in his con- shall we, who have drunk in that beauty we, who duct, a short time ago baptized him; and he is now have seen that life, shall we not bid our poor fellowa full member of the Christian church, and adorning countrymen awake? Come what will, ours will be his Christian profession (Glasgow African Missionary the part, the happy part, of arousing India, slumberSociety's report).

ing, from her slumber” (Orlick's “ Travels in India"). MATERNAL SOCIETIES.-I must not omit, among the means which there is reason to believe that God

THE RUIN OF A RELAPSED STATE: has greatly blessed to the advancing of his kingdom in the United States, the maternal societies-institutions

a Sermon, that have not been of many years' standing among us, but which have existed long enough to produce inuch

By the Right Rev.John KAYE, D.D., good. These societies are composed of pious mothers,

Lord Bishop of Lincoln. who meet, in parties not inconveniently numerous,

ST. MATT. xii. 45. once in the week, fortnight, or month, for the pur

" And the last state of that man is worse than the pose of conversing on the bringing up of their chil

first. Even so shall it be also unto this wicked dren for the Lord, listening to the reading of valuable

generation." remarks or hints on the best means of discharging this great duty, and mingling their prayers before the In order clearly to understand the meaning throne of grace in behalf of themselves and their be- of these words, it is necessary to consider the loved offspring. These little meetings prove very circumstances which gave occasion to them. useful seasons to many an anxious, perplexed, and In the twenty-second verse of this chapter the disheartened mother, by communicating grace and evangelist tells us, that Christ had healed one strength and support and light, for enabling her to possessed with a devil, and deprived of the fulfil her awfully responsible part. God has greatly faculties both of sight and speech. This exblessed them. The subject is one of vast moment. ercise of supernatural power produced, as The world has never yet seen the full results of the might be expected, a strong impression upon Christian education of children (rev. R. Baird's “ Re- the bystanders; and, as a persuasion was ligion in the United States").

generally prevalent among the Jews, at that IRELAND.-Scripture Readers.--"I take the oppor- period, that the time appointed for the aptunity of earnestly soliciting the society's attention to pearance of the Messiah who was to spring from this locality (Cork). Nowhere is there greater the seed of David was at hand, they conopening for the dissemmination of religious truth, cluded that he who was invested with such the neighbouring parish having been the scene of Mr. extraordinary power could be no other than Brasbie's labours as a Roman catholic priest before the promised Saviour, and asked, " Is not his conversion. This event has made a great impres- this the Son of David ?" The Pharisees, the sion on the Roman catholics of this part of the hollowness of whose pretensions to piety Jecountry; and a great and increasing desire for the word of God and religious instruction is daily mani

sus had exposed with the keenest severity, felt fested. I hear the reader is of the greatest possible that

, if it once came to be generally received service to us, and his time is fully occupied. The among the people that he was the Son of DaLord is preparing his work amongst us : some are

vid, there would quickly be an end of their prepared publicly to abjure the errors of Rome; and authority. They endeavoured, therefore, to many, I trust, will be led to follow their example. counteract the effect produced by the miracle Violent denunciations against the bible, its readers, upon the minds of the multitude, by repreand teachers, are of every day occurrence; but the senting it as wrought, not through the divine confidence of the people in their priests is shaken, aid, but through the agency of evil spirits : “ This fellow doth not cast out devils, but by understood as speaking of an absolute imposBeelzebub, the prince of the devils.” In re- sibility, but as describing the condition of such ply to this blasphemous assertion, Christ first offenders to be one of most imminent danger, appealed to their common sense, and in- one affording no ground on which, judging quired whether it was likely that Beelzebub according to the ordinary course of God's would weaken his own cause by acting in op- dealing with man, we can build a hope of position to the spirits whom he himself em- their return to the truth. ployed? Ought they not rather to conclude But neither the reasons urged by our blessed that one endowed with greater power than Lord, nor his awful denunciations, were suffiBeelzebub, und destined to overthrow his cient to overcome the prejudices or silence the kingdom, had come unto them? Ought they cavils of the Jews. They required further evinot to recognize, in the wonderful work which dence of his divine mission, evidence like that had been performed, the finger of God? which had been given in the case of their own

Having thus exposed the weakness of the lawgivers and prophets. They asked for a sign attempt made by the Pharisees to evade the from heaven; that is, as we collect from the inference to be drawn from the miracle in fa- corresponding passage in St. Luke, some such vour of his title to be received as the Mes- display of the divine glory as their fathers siah, our blessed Lord goes on to denounce had witnessed when the law was delivered on its wickedness. He describes the offence of Mount Sinai, some exercise of extraordinary speaking against the Holy Ghost—which can, power, like that exhibited by Joshua when as is evident from the whole connexion of he commanded the sun to stand still, or by the passage, mean nothing else than the of- Elijah when fire fell from heaven at his cali, fence of ascribing to the agency of evil spirits and destroyed the companies of soldiers sent miracles wrought by the Spirit of God—as an to seize him. Thus, with the arrogant preoffence of so heinous a nature, that he who sumption always attendant upon unbelief, committeil it must not hope for pardon. Not they ventured to prescribe to God the evithat there is any guilt of so deep a dye that the dence which he must furnish, in order to precious blood of the Lamb of God will not satisfy their doubts and exercise their underwash away the stain, any crime so heinous standings. Our Saviour, knowing that exas to leave the criminal no place for repent- postulation and argument would avail noance, to remove him beyond the range of that thing with men so stubborn and self-willed, mercy which God is pleased to exercise to- contents himself with replying that their unwards man in consideration of the obedience reasonable demand would not be granted, and sufferings of his beloved Son. But the that no sign would be given. Then, having meaning of Christ's denunciation is this, that contrasted their obstinate impenitence with the to ascribe the wonderful works which he had conduct of the Ninevites, who had repented wrought to the power of Beelzebub bespoke at the preaching of Jonas, and their perverse an obstinate resistance to the will of God, a rejection of his preaching with the docility deliberate determination to reject the truth, a and desire of instruction displayed by the callousness and obduracy of heart which were queen of the south, who came from a remote proof against the ordinary influences of God's country to hear the wisdom of Solomon, he Holy Spirit, and which nothirg but the ex- introduces the parable, of which the words of ercise of a miraculous power, greater even the text form the conclusion, a parable evithan that which had been exercised in the dently suggested by the case of the man posexpulsion of the evil spirit from the blind and sessed with a devil, which had given rise to dumb man, could subdue. There was, con his conversation with the Jews: “When the sequently, no hope that one, who had so en- unclean spirit is gone out of a man, he walketh tirely abandoned himself to the dominion of through dry places, seeking rest, and findeth his passions and prejudices, so wilfully har- none. Then he saith, I will return into my dened himself in unbelief, could ever be house from whence I came out; and, when he brought to that humble and penitent and con- is come, he findeth it empty, swept, and gartrite frame of mind which alone could render nished. Then goeth he, and taketh with him. him meet for forgiveness and restoration to self seven other spirits more wicked than God's favour.

himself; and they enter in and dwell there; The language

of the author of the epistle to and the last state of that man is worse than the Hebrews is equally strong on this point. the first. Even so shall it be also unto this He

says that “it is impossible to renew unto wicked generation.” repentance” those who, having been“ enlight- We have only to review the history of the ened, and having tasted of the heavenly gift, Jewish people, in order to recognize the corand been made partakers of the Holy Ghost," rectness of the application which Christ afterwards "fall away;" when he must not be makes of the parable to their case: “Even so shall it be also unto this wicked genera- vilings : so aptly did the parable illustrate tion.” That history is litile else than an ac- the spiritual condition of the Jewish people. count of their rebellions against the Most The carnal and malignant passions, which had High. Scarcely had they escaped from the been repressed for a while by the preaching bondage under which they groaned in the of our blessed Lord and his forerunner, land of Egypt, than they began to murmur quickly burst forth with increased violence, against those whom God had commissioned and raged with greater fury. Thus was the to be their leaders; and during the whole of prediction in the text exactly verified with their journey through the wilderness they respect to the Jews : their last state was incontinued to exhibit the same marks of a per- deed worse than the first. verse and discontented temper. Sometimes, Never did human nature exhibit itself under indeed, when either in his goodness he had a more awful or disgusting form than among delivered them from some imminent danger, that unhappy people during the interval beor in his displeasure he had visited them with tween the crucifixion of Christ and the capture some heavy chastisement, they acknowledged of Jerusalem by the Romans. They seemed to his power, and humbled themselves in the yield themselves up to the dominion of the language of penitence. But the deliverance prince of darkness, and to be prepared to comand the visitation were alike speedily for- mit the most atrocious crimes without besitagotten, and they relapsed into disobedience. tion or remorse. Such was their guilty infatuaUnder the government of their judges and tion, that, even when the Roman armies were their kings, up to the time when they were encompassing their walls, instead of uniting carried away captives to Babylon, they con- their efforts to repel the common enemy, they tinued to present the same alternations of re- were torn by internal divisions, and sepaformation and transgression, now deprecating rated into parties and factions, inflamed with the wrath of God, now renouncing his wor- the bitterest enmity against each other, and ship, and joining in the idolatrous practices of restrained from the use of no means which their heathen neighbours. If the evil spirit could lead to the accomplishment of their selwas for a time expelled, it was only that he fish purposes. But, great as was their guilt, might return to re-occupy his throne, and to it was almost surpassed by the severity of the exercise a more absolute and uncontrolled do- calamities which fell on their devoted heads. minion.

The account, which has been handed down to At the time of our Saviour's appearance us of the sufferings experienced by the Jews on earth, their character had undergone no during the siege, and after the capture of their change : it was still marked by the same in- city, has scarcely a parallel in the history of consistency, the same inability or disinclina- mankind. There was, according to our Sation to persevere steadily in the path of obe- viour's prediction, a great tribulation, such as dience. When John the Baptist began to had not been since the beginning of the world, preach, they seem to have awakened to a no, nor ever should be; and thus was the last sense of their danger, and to have been loud state of the Jews, whether regarded in a spiin their professions of repentance and pro- ritual or temporal point of view, worse than mises of amendment: they flocked eagerly to the first

— than any previous state during the receive his baptism, and were willing for a whole of their national existence. while to rejoice in his light. But the effect We have now considered the parable in the upon them was transient. It produced no sense in which Christ intended to apply it, as permanent alteration in their practice : they descriptive of the state of the Jewish people. quickly relapsed into their worldly and sin- For a while the dominion of the prince of ful habits; and, at last, as if to show how darkness over them had been shaken by the utterly unprofitable to them had been his preaching of the gospel : he had been compreaching, they rejected his testimony on the pelled to depart from them; but it was only very fact to which he declared himself espe- to return with greater power, and to fasten his cially sent to bear witness, the fact that Jesus chains upon them more firmly than ever. But was the Christ. Nor was their treatment of does the description apply to the Jews alone ? our blessed Lord himself different. If at one Is it not equally applicable to many Christime they listened to his preaching, and con- tians? What was the peculiar feature in the fessed that the works which he performed character of the Jews which drew forth our testified of him that he was sent by God, and blessed Lord's awful denunciation against even hailed him as the Son of David, as their them? Was it not their inconstancy of purlong-expected King, we shortly after find pose, their want of fixed and stedfast deterthem rejoicing in the unjust sentence by mination to adhere to the worship and to walk which he was condemned to death, and em- in the commandments of God? When his bittering his last moments by insults and re- displeasure was heavy upon them, they hum

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