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and mistresses. Paul, however, speaks also to pressions, their lowliness its pains. Wherefore those who have received the Christian calling. has the Lord made such a separation between you But the Christian who has servants or subjects and them-on what account this difference? Inunder him, and knows the heart of man, par- quire of the Lord : listen, wonder, submit yourticularly his own heart, would exclaim to the selves in silence. Are you always right? Have man of God: “O Paul, think also of us who are they not sometimes cause to complain? Have called lords and rulers in the world ; remind us, they no well-grounded objections, no just remonexhort us, warn us, correct us, punish us; bow strances to make before God and beiore man ? down with the word of God our haughty arro- Have you fulfilled to them all righteousness, all gance; direct our walk and goings ; sanctify en justice, all love? Have you done all for them tirely our wills; humble us; make us meek and due from you for their faithful services, their good lowly in our own eyes, submissively obedient to intentions, their contentment in their station? Inour heavenly Lord and Master.” Yes, ruling, quire into yonr habits of life, the whole tenor of commanding, has its danger for all ranks: it leads your actions : inquire of God, and “forbear our humility, our patience, our benevolence, our threatening.” Remember that you also have a love, and even our justice and rectitude, the tran- Master in heaven; “for he that is called in the quil peace of our souls, into many dangerous and Lord, being a servant, is the Lord's freeman : likepressing temptations. O, my head, how high--my wise also he that is called, being free, is Christ's heart, how proud-my soul, how vain art thou, and servant (1 Cor. vii. 22). What this means, we how unquiet and unblessed in thyself. What un- see in John xij. 13. Here are earthly lords, settles, what agitates, what disturbs thee? Lord, bound by the same law, the same duty of service, forgive : I forgot what thou art, what I am, what of obedience, of fidelity, of humility and love: thou becamest. Have mercy upon me.

their Lord was the highest of all lords, wise, glo“ And, ye masters,” says the apostle, “ do the rious, almighty, and thought it not robbery to be same things unto them.” If they are obedient in equal with God: “Yet he came not to be minisall things, render to them a fair recompence in all stered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a things: if they do it with holy fear and trembling, ransom for many” (Phil. ii. 6 ; Matt. xx. 28); shew them the consideration, the kindness, which and he hung for them upon the cross, and bore for is due to them for the love of Christ: if they do them all their offences; and he bears them, masit in singleness of heart, as unto Christ, let them ters as well as servants, with all their sins, great richly experience that trust, that honest confidence mercy still. And he said, in the fulness of meekbecoming the followers of Christ, and also his ser- ness and humility, « With the same measure that vants : if they do it not with eye-service, as men- ye mete withal' it shall be measured to you pleasers, treat them with openness and love, as again” (Luke vi. 38). O Lord of all, great and the friends of Christ, acting towards them as souls glorious, if thou dealt with us as strict'y, as unentrusted to your care, for whom you must be re- mercifully as we often do with others, how many sponsible ; doing in all things the will of God from masters, how many mistresses could stand in thy the heart. If they serve you with willingness, sight? Thy reward is with thee, thy judgment is because they serve unto the Lord, and not unto sure (Rev. xxii. 12). man alone, then do not regard them according to The Israelites were, under the old covenant, the flesh (2 Cor. v. 16), but recognise in them the particularly commanded to shew justice and kindLord, and his dearly purchased souls, who are ness to the servants of their own people. This sacred and dear unto him, his friends, his brethren, we may see in many passages of the Old Testaalso his fellow-heirs. If they do not act thus, ment. “And if thy brother that dwelleth by point out to them as Christians in what they fail; thee be waxen poor, and be sold unto thee, thou that they should submit themselves because it is shalt not compel him to serve as a bond-servant; God's ordinance, be obedient because God has di- but as a hired servant and as a sojourner he shall be rected it. Let them feel that in their calling there with thee, and shall serve thee unto the year ot is something holy, in their station a certain dignity, jubilee” (Lev. xxv. 39, 40). “And when thou in their service a certain charm. Constrain them sendest him out free from thee, thou shalt not let to honour you, if they are not willing: oblige them him go away empty : thou shalt furnish him to be ashamed, and to love you, if they have de- liberally out of thy Hock, and out of thy flour, and nied you their love: “forbear threatening.” out of thy wine-press: of that wherewith the Lord

There was in former times occasion enough for thy God hath blessed thee thou shalt give unto threatening, and in our days good servants are not him. And thou shalt remember that thou wast a numerous. The ignorant, the ill-behaved, the de- bondman in the land of Egypt, and the Lord thy ceitful and unfaithful, are much more plentiful. God redeemed thee: therefore I command thee Yet should this surprise us? Is it as easy for this thing to-day” (Deut. xv. 13-15); and them in their days of youth, as for us, to become many others to the same purport. Now, however, refined, well-informed, gentle,and good Christians ? ye are not under the law, but under grace" You would see in your servants many virtues and (Rom. vi. 14). * Knowing that your Master is perfections ; but ask yourself, would you, in such also in heaven, neither is there respect of persons a condition, be useful and valuable without fault? with him” (Deut. x. 17; 1 Sam. xvi. 7 ; Job * Forbear threatening:" only love improves, only xxxiv. 19; Acts x. 34; Rom. ii. 11; Col. iii. forbearance reconciles. Endurance, patience un- | 25). How easily is this gotten! It is dander persecutions, tend to soften and reform the gerous to be high by birth, or celebrated for high souls under your care, and to lead them to God talents or actions. When a man is born and eleand heaven. Severity never does it: “ forbear vated in a high station, he hardly knows his own threatening.”

nature or that of others : he perceives not that he Their station is not without its difficulties: their demands too much, desires too much, carries himpoverty has its hardships, their subjection its op- self too high; that he often bears himself tou



haughtily, and mortifies and deeply wounds the 3. The next passage where hyssop is mentioned feelings of those about him, without knowing or in chronological order is in the beautiful psalm of intending it ; but nevertheless he is not without David, where the royal penitent says:

16 Wash blame- he has a monitor within. In a word, me thoroughly from mine iniquity, and cleanse servants and masters, maids and mistresses, should me from my sin :" “ Purge me with hyssop, live and serve one another in the fear of God; and I shall be clean: wash me, and I shall be for every believer, be he who he may, is loved whiter than snow” (Ps. li. 2,7). This expresand honoured by Jesus ; and, if I offend those sion is considered by bishop Horne (and also by whom Jesus loves and honours, then the fear of others), in his commentary on the Psalms, to refer God dwelleth not in me. This Christ taught when to the rite described in the above passages, as the on earth : “He that is greatest among you, let ceremony of sprinkling the unclean person with a him be as the younger; and he that is chief, as bunch of “ hyssop,” dipped in the " water of sehe that doth serve. For whether is greater, he paration." that sitteth at meat or he that serveth ? Is not But, though the passage no doubt has a figurahe that sitteth at meat? but I am among you as tive signification, yet, with all due deference to he that serveth” (Luke xxii. 26, 27).

such high authorities, the mode of expression is so direct, as to appear to me as if the hyssop itself did possess, or was supposed to have, some cleans

ing properties. If so, such might have led oriON THE HYSSOP OF SCRIPTURE:

ginally to its selection for the different ceremonies

of purification; or such properties may have been By J. FORBES ROYLE, M.D., F.R.S., &c., ascribed to it in later ages, in consequence of its

having been employed in such ceremonies. At Professor of Materin Medica and Therapeutics, all events, if the plant which we suppose to be the King's College, London.

hyssop of scripture can bear this signification, it

will not be less appropriate. The first mention of hyssop in the Old Testament 4. The next notice of hyssop is in 1 Kings iv. is immediately previous to the departure of the 33, where, in the account of the wisdom of SoloIsraelites out of Egypt, and at the first institution mon, it is said: “ And he spake of trees, from of the passover, when Moses called for all the the cedar tree that is in Lebanon even unto the elders of Israel, and said unto them: “And ye hyssop that springeth out of the wall: he spake shall take a bunch of hyssop, and dip it in the also of beasts, and of fowl, and of creeping things, blood that is in the bason, and strike the lintel and and of fishes.” In this passage we find that the the two side-posts with the blood that is in the plant which is alluded to by the name of esob, bason” (Exodus xii. 22). From this passage it must also have grown upon a wall, though not is evident that the plant must have been indige- necessarily so to the exclusion of all other situations. nous in Lower Egypt, and that it must have been some commentators have in ferred that the plant sufficiently large and leafy to be fit for sprinkling alluded to must have been one of the smallest, to the door-posts as directed.

contrast well with the cedar of Lebanon, and thus 2. The next notices of the hyssop are in Leviti- show the extent of the knowledge and wisdom of cus and in Numbers ; which books having been Solomon. But nothing of this kind appears in written by Moses, indicate that the substances the text. which he directs to be employed for sacrificial 5. The last passage which we have to adduce purposes must have been procurable in the situa- occurs in the New Testament, where, in the crucitions where the Israelites wandered, that is, in tixion of our Saviour, the evangelist John relates : the countries between Lower Egypt and Palestine. “ Now there was set a vessel full of vinegar: Thus, in the ceremony practised in declaring lepers and they filled a sponge with vinegar, and put it to be clean, the priest is directed to take for him upon hyssop, and put it to his mouth” (xix. 29). that is to be cleansed two birds alive and clean, This passage has elicited the remarks of various and cedar wood, and scarlet, and hyssop” (Levit. critics, and inferences have been drawn respecting xiv. 4). These are again all mentioned both in the nature of the plant, from the use to which it verse 6 and in verse 52. So in Numbers xix. 6, was applied. Others have observed, that the in the ceremony of burning the heifer and pre- evangelists Matthew and Mark, in relating the paring the water of separation, the directions are: same circumstance, make no mention of the “ And the priest shall take cedar wood, and hyssop, but state that the sponge was put upon a hyssop, and scarlet, and cast it into the midst of reed, and given him to drink. The deductions the burning of the heifer ;” and, in verse 18, which we may legitimately draw from the above that "a clean person shall take hyssop, and dip passage are, that the hyssop was a plant of Judea, it in the water, and sprinkle it upon the tent, and found, indeed, in the immediate neighbourhood upon all the vessels, and upon the persons that of Jerusalem, and that it seems to have been used were there,” &c. Here we again see that the as a stick, to which the sponge was fixed. If the hyssop must have been large enough to be suit- plant which I suppose to be hyssop, is calculated able for the purposes of sprinkling; that it must to answer this purpose, it will likewise answer for have been procurable on the outskirts of Pales- the elucidation of the parallel passages in the tine, probably in the plain of Moab. It is to this other evangelists. passage that the apostle alludes in Hebrews ix. The Hebrew name esobh, written also esob and 19 : - For when Moses had spoken every precept esof, also by some azub, Celsius derives from a to all the people according to the law, he took the Hebrew root. The Greek he also derives from blood of calves, and of goats, with water and the Hebrew name. But I cannot help thinking scarlet wool, and hyssop, and sprinkled both the that the similarity in the sound of the two names book and all the people.'

is accidental, and has distracted the attention from other plants, to one which does not answer to all | esob is translated by satur or zatur of the Arabs, that is required. But it is quite possible that the considered by them synonymous with origanum name hyssop may in later times have been ap- heracleoticum, L., of the Greeks; but several difplied to the same plant, which at a certain period ferent species or varieties are included under the was indicated by the term esob or esof.

Arabic name satur, which it is needless here to The several plants which have been considered inquire into, as they are all similar in nature and by different authors to be the hyssop of scripture, properties. are enumerated by Celsius under eighteen different Some other names, as, :6, hyssopus cochalienheads.

sis, and 17, marum a bum, are adduced by Celsius. 1. Adiantum capillus veneris, or maiden-hair; a The only plant which remains of those adduced native of south Europe and of the east.

by Celsius is, 18, the common or garden hyssop, 2. Asplenium ruta muraria, L., or wall-rue, hyssopus officinalis of botanists, which is supformerly called salva vite, or salvia vite, com- ported by Celsius himself. It has had the greatmon in the fissures of rocks in Europe. Both of est number of suffrages, apparently from the simithese are of the class of ferns.

larity of name. This may or may not be acci3. Tremellius considers polytrichum commune, dental. or common hair-moss, found both in Asia and The account given of the hyssop by Dioscorides Europe, to be the plant.

is so imperfect, that we have no points of compa4. Ovid. Montalbanus conceives that esob is the rison given in the article on this plant. But, in small plant called klosterhysops in German; the describing origanum heracleoticum, the leaves are alsine pusilla, graminea, flore tetrapetalo, of described as being similar to those of hyssop, but Tournefort, sagina procumbens, L., or procum- that its umbel is not rotate, as if he wished to inbent pearl-wort; a native of Europe in sterile and dicate that such was the inflorescence of the hysmoist fields, of the natural family of caryophyllee. sop. He also mentions that there are two kinds,

Of the tribe of composite, and genus artemisia, one mountain, and the other garden, hyssop, and two species have been thought to be hyssop. that the best is produced in Cilicia : Pliny adds,

5. Abreta or abrotonum. This is the artemisia in Pamphylia and Smyrna. The Arab authors abrotonum, L., or southern-wood ; a native of the also mention two kinds, the mountain and the south of Europe and of Asia Minor.

garden. In the Talmud authors, that which is 6. Artemisia pontica (including probably also found in the desert is distinguished from the garA. Judaica); a native of the south of Europe, den kind. Syria, and central Asia.

The modern hyssop (hyssopus officinalis, L.) The majority of plants which have been adduced belongs to a genus of which itself is the only speas the hyssop of scripture belong to the natural cies. It is a perennial plant, usually very smooth family of labiatæ, of which many species are (but a variety is described by De Candolle, which known for their uses in seasoning food, as thyme, he calls H. canescens, from its being covered with sage, savory, marjoram, and mint; while others, short rigid hairs). The root throws up several as lavender and rosemary, are more celebrated for leafy stems, which are woody at the base, diffuse, their uses as perfumes. The several plants of the and much branched. The branches are from one family of labiatæ which have been adduced by to two feet in length. The leaves are opposite, different authors, are as follow :

sessile, rather thick in texture, narrow, linear, 7. Prosper Alpinus figures a plant he describes lanceolate, in one variety elliptical; margins very as plantam nobillissimam, having grown it from entire, flat, or subrevolute ; green on both sides; seeds obtained from Crete, and origano oniti (pot- below, one-nerved; held up to the light and marjoram).

looked at with a magnifying glass, they seem to 8. Some of the Hebrews call a plant esob javan, be obscurely dotted. The flowers, of a bluish or of which the leaves resemble the plant called reddish colour, are arranged along one side of the zatar. The Arabic name is probably a corruption stem in closely approximated whorls in a terminal of stæchas, which is lavandula stechas, L.; a spike. The Horal leaves are similar to those of plant found in the Mediterranean region. the stem, but smaller. Bracts lanceolate, linear,

9. Rosmarinus officinalis, or common rosemary, acute. The calyx is tubular, fifteen-nerved, with a native of the Mediterranean region, and which five equal teeth, with the throat naked. The may perhaps be found in Palestine. Some of the corolla, of a reddish-purple colour, with its tube older authors have selected this plant because, equalling the calyx, is bilabiate, with its upper being a shrubby species, a stick might easily bé lip erect, fat, and emarginate ; the lower one obtained, to which the sponge dipped in vinegar spreading and trifid, middle lobe largest; stamens could have been tied. It is suitable also for four, exserted, didynamous, diverging; the lower sprinkling.

ones the longest; anthers two-celled; cells linear, 10. Origanum majorana. It is doubtful whe- divaricate; style nearly equally bifid at the apex; ther this be not origanum onites.

lobes subulate, with the stigmas at the apex. The 11. Mentha, or a species of mint, is adduced in four achenia (or seeds with their coverings) ovoid, the Ethiopic version.

three-cornered, compressed, and rather smooth. 12. Mentha pulegium, another species of the M. Bové mentions a hyssopus within three same genus.

leagues of Jerusalem, and the



my13. Teucrium polium, or teucrium pseudohysso- self have obtained it, and the specimens have been pum ; a native of the Mediterranean region, and examined by Mr. Bentham, from Kanum and the found by Bové in the desert of Sinai.

Ganthung Pass in Kunawur, a tract along the 14. Thymus serpyllum, or common thyme, Sutledge on the northern face of the Himalayan widely diffused in mountainous situations in Eu- mountains, and which may be considered a part rope and northern Asia.

of Tibet. 15. In the Arabic version of the books of Moses, The hyssop is remarkable for its fragrant and

and you

aromatic properties; hence its employment as a taste for scientific knowledge, and you diminish condiment and a sweet herb, and as a moderate their desire for the coarser pleasures of sense. excitant in medicine: to it, however, many other Bring the mechanic to the lecture-room, virtues were formerly ascribed.

keep him from the tavern. Teach him to exercise The plants adduced by the latest writers are his mind on chemistry, geology, or mathematics, phytolacca decandra, by Mr. Kitto in the “ Pic- and you open up to him a new world of pure and torial Bible” in Exod. xii. 22 : “ The hyssop of satisfying enjoyment, from which will look the sacred scriptures has opened a wide field for down on his former habits and pursuits with a conjecture; but in no instance bas any plant been sense of honest pride and honest self-gratulation. suggested, that, at the same time, had a sufficient and if, by diffusing knowledge amongst the peolength of stem to answer the purpose of a wand or ple, we shall every now and then remove the pole, and such detergent or cleansing properties scales from the mental eye of soine master-spirit, as to render it a fit emblem for purification." who, unconscions of his own powers, was letting Rosenmüller says, the Hebrew word esobh does his mind go to rust amidst sordid pleasures and not denote our hyssop, but an aromatic plant re- vulgar companionships; if we shall give him such sembling it, the wild marjoram, which the Ger- a glimpse of the world of science as shall stimumans call dosten or wohlgemuth, the Arabs zater, late his soul to pant after its attainments, and and the Greeks origanon.

shall show him that he possesses within his own Dr. Robinson, in the ascent of Jebel Musa by breast a mine of boundless wealth, which he has himself and Mr. Smith, says: “In all this part only to explore to become rich indeed ; and it of the mountains were great quantities of the tra- such a one shall come forth from his native obgrant plant ja’deh, which the monks call hyssop” scurity a Ferguson, to reveal the wonders of the

Bibl. Res. i. 157); and, on the ascent of St. firmament-a Murray, to give a new impulse to Catherine, “ The ja deh or hyssop was here in the study of languages - a Hogg, to break great plenty; and especially the fragrant za’ter, the slumbers of his country's lyre--a Davy, to a species of thymethymus serpyllum of Fors- raise chemistry from childhood to maturity-or a kaļ—(p. 162). Lady Calcott suggests that the Kemp, to build a matchless monument to native nyssop of aspersion was hyssop tied to a stick of genius, where is the man who would grudge him cedar. Winer admits the same plant as Rosen- his laurels, or conceive that they detracted one müller, but considers that several plants were in- leaf from his own ? Besides, by diffusing knowcluded under the name esobh ; and concludes his ledge through any grade of society, we shall observations on ysop by saying: “ We must, thereby constrain the other grades to acquire it however, wait for more accurate observations upon also. If the tradesman study science, so of nethe species of hyssop and origanum indigenous in cessity will the gentleman: if the labourer becomes Western Asia, before the meaning of the Hebrew enlightened, so of course must the squire. The esobh can be finally settled” (Biblisches Real lever, which we employ to raise a mass of rock, Wörterbuch, ii. 820).

touches only the lower stratum ; but, while it Having suspected the existence of a plant dis- lifts that, it lifts all above it too.' Education is a tinct from the hyssop, I was led to what appears moral lever, and a strong one. Apply it to the to me its discovery, by a passage from Burck- lower masses of society, and you elevate them ; hardt's Travels in Syria, quoted by Mr. Kitto, in and, by a process as unerring as it may at first his work entitled, " The Physical Geography and be imperceptible, it will impart its powerful and Natural History of the Holy Land," p. 232, irresistible momentum to every grade above them among trees and shrubs known only by native-to the highest in the scale. It is related of names and imperfect descriptions : “The aszef is Archimedes that, in descanting on the powers of spoken of this month by Burckhardt, while tra- the lever, he said, “Give me one long enough, velling in the Sinai Peninsula. On noticing its and a fulcrum to rest it on, and I will move the presence in Wady Kheysey, he describes it as a world." He knew not that the time was coming tree which he had already seen in several other when his idea would be realized. Knowledge is wadies. It springs from the fissures in the rocks, the lever the wise Syracusan desiderated, the and its crooked stem creeps up the mountain side human mind is its fulcrum: slowly but surely it like a parasitical plant. According to the Arabs, is now moving the world. Education has got an it produces a fruit of the size of the walnut, of a impulse which nothing can arrest; and it well blackish colour, and very sweet to the taste. The becomes the patriot, it well becomes the statesbark of the tree is white, and the branches are man, to see that it takes a safe and a virtuous thickly covered with small thorns : the leaves are direction. And here I trust that I shall be perheart-shaped, and of the same shade of green as mitted to allude to a fear which has sometimes those of the oak” (Syria, pp. 536, 537).

been expressed by very well-meaning persons, lest the teaching of certain branches of physical

science to the people should tend to shake their DIFFUSION OF KNOWLEDGE AMONGST THE belief in the great truths of revelation. As an PEOPLE.

individual very far from indifferent to such mat

ters, allow me to say that I have no such fear. The diffusion of knowledge amongst the people If the great Author of nature be (as I firmly bemust be eminently useful as a means of expanding lieve) the author of the bible too, if he be in his and elevating their minds; not rendering them own nature immutable and eternal truth, and if (as some have feared) dissatisfied with the lot truth can never be inconsistent with itself

, then which divine Providence has assigned them, but any discrepancy which we perceive between showing them that in every grade and portion of science and religion must arise, not from the society intellectual acquirements and mental plea- amount, but from the imperfection of our knowsures are within their reach. Give the people a ledge. If a science in its infancy exhibit certain disclosures which appear inconsistent with the powers unimpaired to the last, let him go on sacred records, as the science advances the incon- adding knowledge to knowledge all the while, gruity diminishes : as it approaches to perfection, and he will confess at the close that he has yet there is still less contrariety; and, when our know- much to learn. For myself, in looking forward ledge of it becomes complete, as in some cases it to that world of light to which I firmly believe has done, the discoveries which seemed at variance that I am hastening, one great cause of my joyful with our most cherished belief are found most anticipation is, that the knowledge which I have beautifully to correspond with, and to add new acquired here will still be on the increase; that, lustre to its page. As a Christian, then, as well in proportion as my capacity for acquirement as a patriot, I bid God-speed to the diffusion of shall expand, the sources of acquirement shall exknowledge. Enlighten the mind of man as far pand along with it ; that, as countless ages roll over you are capable of enlightening it. Knowledge me, I shall still be growing in intelligence, ever is a thing of which you can never give him too approaching but never reaching to the fulness of much. You may give him more food than he is him whose knowledge is as boundless as his able to levour: you may give him more raiment power, and whose wisdom and whose holiness are than he is able to put on : you may give him alike ineffable.-Speech of Dr. Huie, in the more wealth than he is able to enjoy ; but you Hopetoun Rooms, Edinburgh, Oct. 16, 1844". can never give him more knowledge than he is

• The above is not extracted from the public newspapers, but able to receive. Let him live to the utmost limit was transmitted to the editors by Dr. Hule. of human existence, let him preserve his mental

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ing temple, as in the rude carved block of the semi“ As in some drooping form and time-worn face

brutish savage. It matters not where we search Oft lingers yet the shade of youthful grace;

for evidence of the utter patural ignorance of So, Parthenon, thy benuty still appears

man—in Greece or in Australia, in Ceylon or Amid the wreck of thy forgotten years. Though rude barbarian mosques profane thy site,

Labrador. The idolatry is in one case perhaps And cells unveil'd now mingle with the light,

less hideously revolting ; but it is not the less humiThough but one lonely piliar lives to tell Where a long range of shapely columns fell,

liating to the pride of man that, professing themAnd, half suspended now, thy ruin noils

selves wise, they became fools, and changed the O'er mouldering fragments of its prostrate gods, glory of the incorruptible God into an image made Yet still Oblivion seems to toil in vain, For what she razes Fancy rears again."

like to corruptible man, and to birds and fourOXFORD PRIZE POEss, 1811. footed beasts and creeping things. “ Ye men of Athens, I perceive that in all things The Parthenon, or temple of Minerva, at Athens, ye are too superstitious,” was the declaration of erected B.c. 448, is situated on the Acropolis, and that faithful and fearless apostle, whose "spirit was has always been considered one of the most perstirred within him when he saw the city wholly fect specimens of Grecian Doric architecture. It given to idolatry.” And to a truly Christian mind was constructed of white marble, about 218 feet it is indeed most distressing to reflect, that those in length and 98 in breadth, having on every side nations which at one time ranked the highest in au ascent of five steps. The portico running civilization—the works of wbich are now extant round the whole building is supported by channelled as monuments of their taste, their intellectuality, Doric pillars. Historical figures of exquisite their greatness-were all living without God and workmanship adorned various portions of the exwithout hope in the world. Man by wisdom knows terior, but are all fallen down. Those on the pedinot God. This is a humiliating truth, manifested ment in front of the building, represented, accordas clearly in the magnificent ruins of the moulder- ing to Pausanias, the birth of Minerva ; those on

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