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week (7s. 7d.), exclusive of cloth- | hold all the inhabitants, even down ing, firing, candle, and lodging; to the bed-ridden and the babies. the base wretches know, that the What then, will any man believe common foot-soldier receives more that these churches were built for to go down his own single throat, such little knots of people? We than the overseers and magistrates are told about the great superstiallow to a working man, his wife, tion of our fathers, and of their and three children; the base readiness to gratify the priests by wretches know all this well; and building altars and other religious yet their railings are confined to edifices. But, we must think those the poor and the poor-rates; and priests to have been most devout it is expected, that they will, next creatures indeed, if we believe, session, urge the Parliament to that they chose to have the money pass a law to enable overseers laid out in useless churches, raand vestries and magistrates to ther than have it put into their own transport paupers beyond the pockets! At any rate, we all seas! They are base enough for know, that Protestant Priests this, or for any thing; but the have no whims of this sort; and whole system will go to the devil, that they never lay out upon long before they will get such an churches any money that they can, act passed; long before they will by any means, get hold of. see perfected this consummation of their infamous tyranny.
But, suppose that we were to believe that the Priests had, in old It is manifest enough, that the times, this unaccountable taste; population of this valley was, at and suppose we were to believe one time, many times over what it is that a knot of people, who might now; for, in the first place, what be crammed into a church-porch, were the twenty-nine churches were seized, and very frequently built for? The population of the too, with the desire of having a 29 parishes is now but little more big church to go to; we must, than one-half of that of the single after all this, believe that this parish of Kensington; and there knot of people were more than are several of the churches bigger giants, or, that they had surprising than the church at Kensington. riches, else we cannot believe that What, then, should all these they had the means of gratifying churches have been built FOR? the strange wishes of their Priests And, besides, where did the hands and their own not less strange come from? And where did piety and devotion. Even if we the money come from? These could believe that they thought twenty-nine churches would now that they were paving their way to not only hold all the inha- heaven, by building churches bitants, men, women, and chil-which were a hundred times too dren, but all the household goods, large for the population, still we and tools, and implements, of the cannot believe, that the building whole of them, farmers and all, if could have been effected without you bodily force; and, where was this force to come from, if the people were not more numerous than they now are? What, again, I
leave out the wagons and carts. In three instances, FIFIELD, MILSTON, and ROACH-FEN (17, 23, and 24), the church-porches will
ask, were these twenty-nine stead of remaining, as formerly, churches stuck up, not a mile to be, in great part, consumed in from each other; what were twen- these twenty-nine parishes. ty-nine churches made FOR, if the population had been no greater than it is now?
The stars, in my map, mark the spots where manor houses, or gentlemen's mansions, formerly stood, But, in fact, you plainly see all and stood, too, only about sixty the traces of a great ancient po-years ago. Every parish had its pulation. The churches are almost manor house, in the first place; all large, and built in the best and then there were, down this manner. Many of them are very Valley, twenty-one others; so fine edifices; very costly in the that, in this distance of about building; and, in the cases where thirty miles, there stood FIFTY the body of the church has been MANSION HOUSES. Where altered in the repairing of it, so as are they now? I believe, there to make it smaller, the tower, are but EIGHT, that are at all which every where defies the hos-worthy of the name of mansion tility of time, shows you what the houses; and even these are but church must formerly have been. poorly kept up, and, except in two This is the case in several in- or three instances, are of no benestances; and there are two or fit to the labouring people; they three of these villages which must employ but few persons; and, in formerly have been market-towns, short, do not half supply the place and particularly PEWSEY and UP-of any eight of the old mansions. AVON (4 and 13). There are now All these mansions, all these parno less than nine of the parishes, sonages, aye, and their goods and out of the twenty-nine, that have furniture, together with the clocks, either no parsonage-houses, or the brass-kettles, the brewing-véshave such as are in such a state sels, the good bedding and good that a Parson will not, or cannot, clothes and good furniture, and live in them. Three of them are the stock, in pigs, or in money, of without any parsonage-houses at the inferior classes, in this series all, and the rest are become poor, of once populous and gay villages mean, falling-down places. This and hamlets; all these have been, latter is the case at UPAVON, which by the accursed system of taxing` was formerly a very considerable and funding and paper-money, by place. Nothing can more clearly the well-known exactions of the show than this, that all, as far as state, and by the not less real, buildings and population are con-though less generally understood, cerned, has been long upon the extortions of the monopolies arising decline and decay. Dilapidation out of paper-money; all these after dilapidation have, at last, al- have been, by these accursed most effaced even the parsonage means, conveyed away, out of this houses, and that too in defiance of Valley, to the haunts of the taxthe law, ecclesiastical as well as eaters and the monopolizers. There civil. The land remains; and the are many of the mansion houses, crops and the sheep come as the ruins of which you yet behold. abundantly as ever; but they are At MILTON (3 in my map) there now sent almost wholly away, in-are two mansion houses, the walls
dilapidated, and, in some cases, wholly demolished, nine out of twenty-nine even of the parsonage houses. I told SNIP, at the time in my map) BENNETT, the Mem-(1821), that paper-money could ber for the county, had a large create no valuable thing. I begged mansion house, the stables of which SNIP to bear this in mind. I beare yet standing. In several sought all my readers, and particuplaces, I saw, still remaining, in- larly Mr. MATHIAS ATWOOD (one dubitable traces of an ancient ma- of the Members for Lowther-town), nor house, namely, a dove-cote, not to believe, that paper-money or pigeon-house. The poor pigeons ever did, or ever could, CREATE have kept possession of their heri- any thing of any value. I besought tage, from generation to genera-him to look well into the matter, tion, and so have the rooks, in and assured him, that he would their several rookeries, while the find, that, though paper-money paper-system has swept away, or, could CREATE nothing of value, rather, swallowed up, the owners it was able to TRANSFER every of the dove-cotes and of the lofty thing of value; able to strip a trees, about forty families of which little gentry; able to dilapidate owners have been ousted in this even parsonage houses; able to one Valley, and have become rob gentlemen oftheir estates, and dead-weight creatures, tax-gather- labourers of their Sunday-coats ers, barrack-fellows, thief-takers, and their barrels of beer; able to or, perhaps, paupers or thieves. snatch the dinner from the board Senator SNIP congratulated, of the reaper or the mower, and some years ago, that preciously to convey it to the barrack-table honourable "Collective Wisdom," of the Hessian or Hanoverian of which he is a most worthy grenadier; able to take away the Member; SNIP congratulated it wool, that ought to give warmth on the success of the late war in to the bodies of those who rear creating capital! SNIP is, you the sheep, and put it on the backs must know, a great feelosofer and of those who carry arms to keep a not less great feenanceer. SNIP the poor, half-famished shepherds cited, as a proof of the great and in order! glorious effects of paper-money, I have never been able clearly the new and fine houses in London, to comprehend what the beastly the new streets and squares, the Scotch feelosofers mean by their new roads, new canals and bridges. "national wealth;" but, as far SNIP was not, I dare say, aware, as I can understand them, this is that this same paper-money had their meaning : that national destroyed forty mansion houses in wealth means, that which is left this Vale of Avon, and had taken of the products of the country away all the goods, all the sub-over and above what is consumed, stance, of the little gentry and of or used, by those whose labour the labouring class. SNIP was causes the products to be. This not, I dare say, aware, that this being the notion, it fellows, of same paper-money had, in this course, that the fewer poor devils one Vale of only thirty miles long, you can screw the products out of,
and the roofs of which yet remain, but which are falling gradually to pieces, and the garden walls are crumbling down. At ENFORD (15
the richer the nation is. This is, too, the notion of BURDETT, as expressed in his silly and most nasty, musty aristocratic speech of last session. What, then, is to be done with this over-produce? Who is to have it? Is it to go to pensioners placemen, tax-gatherers, dead-weight people, soldiers, gendarmerie, police-people, and, in short, to whole millions who do no work at all? Is this a cause of “national wealth"? Is a nation made rich by taking the food and clothing from those who create them, and giving them to those who do nothing of any use? Aye, but, this over-produce may be given to manufacturers, and to those who supply the food-raisers with what they want besides food. Oh! but this is merely an exchange of one valuable thing for another valuable thing; it is an exchange of labour in Wiltshire for labour in Lancashire; and, upon the whole, here is no overproduction. If the produce be exported, it is the same thing: it is an exchange of one sort of labour for another. But, our course is, that there is not an exchange; that those who labour, no matter in what way, have a large part of the fruit of their labour taken away, and receive nothing in exchange. If the over-produce of this Valley of Avon were given, by the farmers, to the weavers in Lancashire, to the iron and steel chaps of Warwickshire, and to other makers or sellers of useful things, there would comé an abundance of all these useful things into this valley from Lancashire and other parts; but if, as is the case, the over-produce goes to the fund holders, the deadweight, the soldiers, the lord and
lady and master and miss pensioners and sinecure people; if the over-produce go to them, as a very great part of it does,. nothing, not even the parings of one's nails, can come back to the valley in exchange. And, can this operation, then, add to the "national wealth"? It adds to the wealth" of those who carry on the affairs of state; it fills their pockets, those of their relatives and dependants; it fattens all tax-eaters; but, it can give no wealth to the "nation," which means, the whole of the people. National Wealth means, the Commonwealth, or Commonweal; and these mean, the general good, or happiness, of the people, and the safety and honour of the state; and, these are not to be secured by robbing those who labour, in order to support a large part of the community in idleness. DEVIZES is the market-town to which the corn goes from the greater part of this Valley. If, when a wagon-load of wheat goes off in the morning, the wagon came back at night loaded with cloth, salt, or something or other, equal in value to the wheat, except what might be necessary to leave with the shopkeeper as his profit; then, indeed, the people might see the wagon go off without tears in their eyes. But, now, they see it go carry away, and to bring next to nothing in return.
What a twist a head must have before it can come to the conclusion, that the nation gains in wealth by the government being able to cause the work to be done by those who have hardly any share in the fruit of the labour! What a twist such a head must have! The Scotch feeloso
fers, who seem all to have been, put forth to teach labouring peoby nature, formed for negro- ple how to avoid having children. drivers, have an insuperable ob- Now, look at this Valley of Avon, jection to all those establishments Here the people raise nearly and customs, which occasion ho- twenty times as much food and lidays. They call them a great clothing as they consume. They hinderance, a great bar to indus- raise five times as much, even actry, a great drawback from "na-cording to my scale of living. tional wealth." I wish each of They have been doing this for these unfeeling fellows had a many, many years. They have spade put into his hand for ten been doing it for several genera days, only ten days, and that he tions. Where, then, is their NAwere compelled to dig only just TURAL TENDENCY to inas much as one of the common crease beyond the means of suslabourers at Fulham. The me- tenance for them? Beyond, intaphysical gentleman would, Ideed, the means of that sustenance believe, soon discover the use of which a system like this will leave holidays! But, why should men, them. Say that, Sawneys, and F why should any men, work hard? agree with you. Far beyond the Why, I ask, should they work in- means that the taxing and monocessantly, if working part of the polizing system will leave in their days of the week be sufficient! hands: that is very true; for it Why should the people at MIL-leaves them nothing but the scale of TON, for instance, work inces-the poor-book: they must cease to santly, when they now raise breed at all, or they must exceed, food and clothing and fuel and this mark; but, the earth, give every necessary to maintain well them their fair share of its profive times their number? Why ducts, will always give sustenance should they not have some holi-in sufficiency to those who apply days And, pray, say, thou con- to it by skilful and diligent labour. ceited Scotch feelosofer, how the "national wealth" can be increased, by making these people work incessantly, that they may raise food and clothing, to go to feed and clothe people who do not work at all.
The villages down this Valley of Avon, and, indeed, it was the same in almost every part of this county, and in the North and West of Hampshire also, used to have great employment for the women and children in the carding and spinning of wool for the making of broad-cloth. This was a very general employment for the women and girls; but, it is now wholly gone; and this has made a vast change in the condition of the people, and in the state of property and of manners and of morals. In 1816, I wrote and published a LETTER TO THE LUDDITES, the object of which was to combat their hostility to the
The state of this Valley seems to illustrate the infamous and really diabolical assertion of MALTHUS, which is, that the human kind have a NATURAL TENDENCY to increase beyond the means of sustenance for them. Hence all the schemes of this and the other Scotch writers for what they call checking population. Hence all the beastly, the nasty, the abominable writings,