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use of machinery. The arguments without them this rich and beauI there made use of were general. tiful Valley becomes worth noI took the matter in the abstract. thing except to wild animals and The principles were all correct their pursuers. The labourers enough; but their application are men and boys. Women ́and cannot be universal; and, we girls occasionally; but the men have a case here before us, at and the boys are as necessary as this moment, which, in my opi- the light of day, or as the air and nion, shows, that the mechanic the water. Now, if beastly MALinventions, pushed to the extent THUS, or any of his nasty discithat they have been, have been ples, can discover a mode of havproductive of great calamity to ing men and boys without having this country, and that they will women and girls, then, certainly, be productive of still greater ca- the machine must be a good thing; lamity; unless, indeed, it be their but, if this Valley must absolutely brilliant destiny to be the imme- have the women and the girls, then diate cause of putting an end to the machine, by leaving them the present system. with nothing to do, is a mischievous thing; and a producer of most dreadful misery. What, with re
The greater part of manufactures consist of clothing and bedding. Now, if by using a ma-gard to the poor, is the great comchine, we can get our coat with plaint now? Why, that the sinless labour than we got it before, gle man does not receive the the machine is a desirable thing. same, or any thing like the same, But, then, mind, we must have wages as the married man. Aye, the machine at home and we our-it is the wife and girls that are selves must have the profit of it; the burden; and, to be sure, a for, if the machine be elsewhere; burden they must be, under a if it worked by other hands; system of taxation like the preif other persons have the profit of sent, and with no work to do. it; and if, in consequence of the Therefore, whatever may be saved existence of the machine, we in labour by the machine is no have hands at home, who have benefit, but an injury to the mass nothing to do, and whom we must of the people. For, in fact, all keep, then the machine is an in- that the women and children jury to us, however advantageous earned was so much clear addiit may be to those who use it, tion to what the family earns now. and whatever traffic it may occa- The greatest part of the clothing sion with foreign States. in the United States of America is made by the farm women and girls. They do almost the whole of it; and all that they do is done at home. To be sure, they might buy cheap; but they must buy for less than nothing, if it would not answer their purpose to make the things.
Such is the case with regard to this cloth-making. The machines are at Upton-Level, Warminster, Bradford, Westbury, and Trowbridge, and here are some of the hands in the Valley of Avon. This Valley raises food and clothing; but, in order to raise them, it must have labourers. These are absolutely necessary; for,
The survey of this Valley is, I think, the finest answer in the
world to the "EMIGRATION COM-rates ought to be called wages. MITTEE" fellows, and to JERRY But, at any rate, what has all this CURTEIS (one of the Members for to do with the necessity of emigraSussex), who has been giving tion? To make out such neces"evidence" before it. I shall find sity, you must make out that you out, when I can get to see the re- have more mouths than the proport, what this "EMIGRATION duce of the parish will feed? Do, COMMITTEE" would be after! I then, JERRY, tell us, another time, remember, that, last winter, a a little about the quantity of food young woman complained to one annually raised in four or five adof the Police Justices, that the joining parishes; for, is it not someOverseers of some parish were go-thing rather damnable, JERRY, ing to transport her orphan brother to talk of transporting Englishmen, to Canada, because he became on account of the excess of their chargeable to their parish! I re-numbers, when the fact is notorimember also, that the Justice said, ous, that their labour produces that the intention of the Overseers five or ten times as much food was “premature"; for that "the and raiment as they and their faBILL had not yet passed"! This milies consume! was rather an ugly story; and I However, to drop JERRY, for do think, that we shall find, that the present, the baseness, the foul, there have been, and are, some the stinking, the carrion baseness, pretty propositions before this of the fellows that call themselves COMMITTEE." We shall see all " country gentlemen," is, that the about the matter, however, by-wretches, while railing against the and-by; and, when we get the poor and the poor-rates; while transporting project fairly before affecting to believe, that the poor us, shall we not then loudly pro-are wicked and lazy; while comclaim" the envy of surrounding plaining that the poor, the working nations and admiration of the people, are too numerous, and that world"! the country villages are too popuBut, what ignorance, impudence lous: the carrion baseness of these and insolence must those base wretches, is, that, while they are wretches have, who propose to thus bold with regard to the worktransport the labouring people, as ing and poor people, they never being too numerous, while the even whisper a word against penproduce, which is obtained by sioners, placemen, soldiers, partheir labour, is more than sufficient sons, fundholders, tax-gatherers, for three, four, or five, or even ten or tax-eaters! They say not a times their numbers! JERRY CUR- word against the prolific deadTEIS, who has, it seems, been a weight, to whom they GIVE A famous witness on this occasion, PREMIUM FOR BREEDING, says that the poor-rates, in many while they want to check the pocases, amount to as much as the pulation of labourers! They never rent. Well; and what then, say a word about the too great JERRY? The rent may be high populousness of the WEN; nor enough too, and the farmer may about that of Liverpool, Manchesafford to pay them both; for, avery ter, Cheltenham, and the like! large part of what you call poor-Oh! they are the most cowardly,
This Netheravon was formerly a great lordship, and in the parish there were three considerable mansion-houses, besides the one In taking my leave of this beau- near the church. These mansions tiful vale I have to express my are all down now; and it is cudeep shame, as an Englishman, rious enough to see the former at beholding the general extreme walled gardens become orchards, poverty of those who cause this together with other changes, all vale to produce such quantities of tending to prove the gradual decay food and raiment. This is, I ve-in all except what appertains rily believe it, the worst used la-merely to the land as a thing of bouring people upon the face of production for the distant market. the earth. Dogs and hogs and But, indeed, the people and the horses are treated with more civi- means of enjoyment must go away. lity; and as to food and lodging, They are drawn away by the how gladly would the labourers taxes and the paper-money. How change with them! This state of are twenty thousand new houses things never can continue many to be, all at once, building in the years! By some means or other WEN, without people and food there must be an end to it; and and raiment going from this valley my firm belief is, that that end towards the WEN? It must be will be dreadful. In the mean so; and this unnatural, this dilawhile I see, and I see it with pidating, this ruining and debaspleasure, that the common people ing work must go on, until that. know that they are ill used; and which produces it be destroyed. that they cordially, most cordially, hate those who ill-treat them.
When I came down to STRATFORD DEAN (29 in map), I wanted During the day I crossed the to go across to LAVERSTOKE, river about fifteen or sixteen which lay to my left of Salisbury; times; and in such hot weather but just on the side of the road it was very pleasant to be so much here, at Stratford Dean, rises the amongst meadows and water. I ACCURSED HILL. It is very had been at NETHERAVON (18) lofty. It was originally a hill in about eighteen years ago, where an irregular sort of sugar-loaf I had seen a great quantity of shape: but, it was so altered by hares. It is a place belonging to the Romans, or by somebody, that Mr. HICKS BEACH, or BEECH, the upper three-quarter parts of who was once a member of par- the hill now, when seen from a liament. I found the place altered distance, somewhat resemble three a good deal; out of repair; the cheeses, laid one upon another; gates rather rotten; and (a very the bottom one a great deal broader bad sign!) the roof of the dog- than the next, and the top one like kennel falling in! There is a a Stilton cheese, in proportion to church, at this village of NETIER-a Gloucester one. I resolved to AVON, large enough to hold a ride over this ACCURSED thousand or two of people, and the HILL. As I was going up a field whole parish contains only 350 towards it, I met a man going. souls, men, women and children. home from work. I asked how he
the very basest, the most scandalously base, reptiles that ever were warmed into life by the rays of the sun!
got on. He said, very badly. I him here), the Judge, lives. I asked him what was the cause of have not heard much about "JEMit. He said the hard times. MY" since he tried and condemn"What times,” said I; "was there ed the two young men who had "ever a finer summer, a finer har- wounded the game-keepers of vest, and is there not an old ASHTON SMITH and LORD PAL"wheat-rick in every farm-yard?" MERSTON. His Lordship (Pal"Ah!" said he, they make merston) is, I see, making a toler"it bad for poor people, for all able figure in the newspapers as a "that." "6 They?" said I," who share-man! I got into Salisbury is they?" He was silent. Oh, about half-past seven o'clock, less "no! my friend," said I, "it is not tired than I recollect ever to have they it is that ACCURSED been after so long a ride; for, including my several crossings of the river and my deviations to look at churches and farm-yards, and rick-yards, I think I must have ridden nearly forty miles.
"HILL that has robbed you of "the supper that you ought to find "smoking on the table when you get home." I gave him the price of a pot of beer, and on I went, leaving the poor dejected assemblage of skin and bone to wonder at my words.
The hill is very steep, and I dismounted and led my horse up. Being as near to the top as I could conveniently get, I stood a little while reflecting, not so much on the changes which that hill had seen, as on the changes, the terri- Ir appears to me, that the Mible changes, which, in all human nisters have taken their part; probability, it had yet to see, and that they are resolved, that the which it would have greatly helped to produce. It was impossible to main body of the people shall not stand on this accursed spot, with- complain of them. They are out swelling with indignation right. They will now, at any rate, against the base and plundering,
and murderous sons of corruption. especially if they follow up their i have often wished, and I, speak-blow, have the people with them, ing out loud, expressed the wish As to the Landowners, they have now; 'May that man perish for
"ever and ever, who, having the a remedy always in their hands;
power, neglects to bring to jus- namely, NORFOLK PETI"tice the perjured, the suborn-TION; and, if they do not adopt "ing, the insolent and perfidious "miscreants, who openly sell their it, they must, and they ought, to lose their estates. Let them not hope to reduce the interest of the Debt without reform! They will not be able to do it. The de
country's rights and their own "souls."
From the ACCURSED HILL I went to LAVERSTOKE, where "JEMMY BOROUGH" (as they call
scendant of" John with the bright| sword" talks of the Landowners "winning back the people" by letting in wheat with 15s. duty. Indeed a pretty “winning way,” upon my word! The Ministers can do a great deal more than this. There is no saving the estates without reducing the interest of the Debt, or issuing Assignats. Either would overset the system completely. Neither can be done without total ruin to this present
I am told that "the system. French reduced their Debt." Yes; and so may you, my Lord Charleses; but, you mean to have the French sauce, I suppose; namely, an abolition of tithes, of titles, and of some other things that I need not name! That is the sauce that the French had to their reduction. In short, there is but one way out of this difficulty; and that is, BY REFORM, which must come before this affair be settled; and, if it come not in a peaceable manner, the fault will not be that of the Reformers, who have now nothing to do but to stand by, and be ready! It must be a beast indeed, who is impatient now!
UNDER THE BOROUGHREeve AND CONSTables.
[From the Morning Chronicle.]
as dull as ever. Gloomy feelings begin to prevail generally with regard to the future. A melancholy prospect lies before the people of this neighbourhood; food is no longer distributed among the necessitous poor; and 8000 families, whose weekly earnings do not exceed two shillings a head, are suddenly left destitute. Some of these, indeed, have claims upon the Poor's Rate: but the great majority have no refuge from hun
shallow and heartless men to be and misery. Yet there are found, who affect to doubt that there is much distress; and I fear that representations to this purport have been made in those quarters, in which it is of especial importance that the truth should be exactly known."
We are yet unable to announce will effect any improvement in the any such improvement of trade as circumstances of the working classes. The goods' market, for the last three or four weeks, has been more animated than it was during the summer months; but the demand has, a very few instances excepted, occasioned no advance of prices, nor has it encouraged the manufacturers to give out work to the unemployed weavers, who consequently continue in a state of melancholy destitution. Such as have a legal claim for pa