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a conversation purely private. | and threw himself upon the parish. But, I never had any conversa- The overseers, who recollected tion with him: I never talked to what a swaggering blade it was, him at all about the things that he when it came here to teach the is now bringing forward: I heard moon-rakers "hoo to farm, mon,” the fellow's stories about Canada: did not see the sense of keeping I thought he told me lies; and, him like a gentleman; so, they besides, I did not care a straw set him to crack stones upon the whether his stories were true or highway; and that set him off not; I looked upon him as a sort again, pretty quickly. The farm of gambling adventurer; but I that he rented is a very fine farm, treated him as is the fashion of the with a fine large farm-house to it. country in which 1 was, with great It is looked upon as one of the civility and hospitality. There are best farms in the country: the two fellows of the name of JACOB present occupier is a farmer born and JOHNSON at WINCHESTER, in the neighbourhood; a man such and two fellows at Salisbury of the as ought to occupy it; and GoURname of BRODIE and DOWDING. LAY, who came here with his These reptiles publish, each Scotch impudence to teach others couple of them, a newspaper; how to farm, is much about where and in these newspapers they and how he ought to be. JACOB seem to take particular delight in and JOHNSON, of Winchester, calumniating me. The two Win- know perfectly well that all the chester fellows insert the letters fellow says about me is lies: they of this half crazy, half cunning, know also, that their parson Scotchman, GoURLAY; the other readers know that it is a mass of fellows insert still viler slanders; lies: they further know, that the and, if I had seen one of their parsons know that they know that papers, before I left Salisbury, it is a mass of lies; but they which I have seen since, I cer- know, that their paper will sell the tainly would have given Mr. BRO- better for that; they know that to DIE something to make him re- circulate lies about me will get member me. This fellow, who them money, and this is what was a little coal-merchant but a they do it for, and such is the chashort while ago, is now, it seems, racter of English newspapers, and a paper-money maker, as well as of a great part of the readers of a newspaper maker. Stop, Mas-those newspapers. Therefore, ter BRODIE, till I go to Salisbury when I hear of people sufferagain, and see whether I do not ing;" when I hear of people give you a check, even such as being ruined; when I hear you did not receive during the of "unfortunate families;" when late run!-GoURLAY, amongst I hear a talk of this kind, I stop, other whims, took it into his head before I either express or feel to write against the poor laws, compassion, to ascertain who and saying that they were a bad thing. what the sufferers are; and wheHe found, however, at last, that ther they have or have not partithey were necessary to keep him cipated in, or approved of, acts from starving; for he came down like those of JACOB and JOHNSON. to Wyly, three or four years ago, and BRODIE and DOWDING; for,

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if they have, if they have malig- of these nutters, and I am quite nantly calumniated those, who convinced, not that the cloth makhave been labouring to prevent ing is at an end; but that it never their ruin and misery, then a will be again what it has been. crushed ear wig, or spider, or Before last Christnias these maeft, or toad, is as much entitled to nufacturers had full work, at one the compassion of a just and sen- shilling and three-pence a yard, sible man. Let the reptiles pe- at broad-cloth weaving. They rish it would be injustice; it have now a quarter work, at one would be to fly in the face of shilling a yard! One and threemorality and religion to express pence a yard for this weaving has sorrow for their ruin. They them- been given at all times within the selves have felt for no man, and memory of man! Nothing can for the wife and children of no show more clearly than this, and man, if that man's public virtues in a stronger light, the great thwarted their own selfish views, change which has taken place in or even excited their groundless the remuneration for labour. fears. They have signed ad- There was a turn out last winter, dresses, applauding every thing when the price was reduced to a tyrannical and inhuman. They shilling a yard; but it was put an have seemed to glory in the shame end to in the usual way: the conof their country, to rejoice in its stable's staff, the bayonet, the degradation, and even to exult in gaol. These poor nutters were the shedding of innocent blood, extremely ragged. I saved my if these things did but tend, as supper, and I fasted instead of they thought, to give them per- breakfasting. manent security in the enjoyment of their unjust gains. Such has been their conduct; they are numerous they are to be found in all parts of the kingdom: therefore, again I say, when I hear of "ruin" or "misery," I must know what the conduct of the sufferers has been before I bestow my_compassion.

WARMINSTER (Wilts) FRIDAY, 1st SEPT.I set out from Heytesbury this morning about six o'clock. Last night, before I went to bed, I found that there were some men and boys in the house, who had come all the way from BRADFORD, about twelve miles, in order to get nuts. These people were men and boys that had been employed in the cloth factories at Bradford and about Bradford. I had some talk with some

That was three

shillings, which I had saved, and
I added five to them, with a reso-
lution to save them afterwards, in
order to give these chaps á break-
fast for once in their lives. There
were eight of them, six men and
two boys; and I gave them two
quartern loaves, two pounds of
cheese, and eight pints of strong
beer. The fellows were very
thankful, but the conduct of the
landlord and landlady pleased me
exceedingly. When I came to
pay my bill, they had said nothing.
about my bed, which had been a
very good one; and, when I asked
why they had not put the bed into
the bill, they said they would not
charge any thing for the bed since
I had been so good to the poor
men. Yes, said I, but I must not
throw the expense upon you. I
had no supper, and I have had

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their wives.

no breakfast; and, therefore, I (and of which returns I shall am not called upon to pay for speak more particularly by-andthem; but I have had the bed. by), stated to be such miserable It ended by my paying for the bed, dwellings, as to be unfit for a and coming off, leaving the nut-parson to reside in. Two of them, ters at their breakfast, and very however, are gone. There are no much delighted with the landlord parsonage-houses in those two and his wife; and I must here parishes: there are the scites; observe, that I have pretty ge- there are the glebes; but the nerally found a good deal of com- houses have been suffered to fall passion for the poor people to down and to be totally carried prevail amongst publicans and away. The tithes remain, indeed, and the parson sacks the From Heytesbury to Warmin-amount of them. A journeyman ster is a part of the country sin- parson comes and works in three gularly bright and beautiful. or four churches of a Sunday: From Salisbury up to very near but the master parson is not there. Heytesbury, you have the valley, He generally carries away the as before described by me. Mea-produce to spend it in London, at dows next the water; then arable Bath, or somewhere else, to show land; then the downs; but, when off his daughters; and the overyou come to Heytesbury, and in-seers, that is to say, the farmers, deed, a little before, in looking manage the poor in their own forward you see the vale stretch way, instead of having, according out, from about three miles wide to the ancient law, a third-part of to ten miles wide, from high land all the tithes to keep them with. to high land. From a hill before The falling down and the beggary. you come down to Heytesbury, of these parsonage-houses prove you see through this wide opening beyond all question the decayed into Somersetshire. You see a state of the population. And, round hill rising in the middle of indeed, the mansion-houses are the opening; but all the rest a gone, except in a very few inflat enclosed country, and appa-stances. There are but five left, rently full of wood. In looking that I could perceive, all the way back down this vale one cannot from Salisbury to Warminster, help being struck with the innu- though the country is the most merable proofs that there are of pleasant that can be imagined. a decline in point of population. Here is water, here are meadows; In the first place, there are twenty- plenty of fresh-water fish; hares four parishes, each of which takes and partridges in abundauce, and a little strip across the valley, and it is next to impossible to destroy runs up through the arable land them. Here are shooting, coursinto the down. There are twenty-ing, hunting; hills of every height, four parish churches, and there size, and form; valleys the same; ought to be as many parsonagehouses; but seven of these, out of the twenty-four, that is to say, nearly one-third of them, are, in the returns laid before Parliament

lofty trees and rookeries in every mile; roads always solid and good; always pleasant for exercise; and the air must be of the best in the world. Yet it is ma

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nifest, that four-fifths of the man-house and the yard and the trees, sions have been swept away. most completely, from every There is a parliamentary return, wind but the south. The arable to prove that nearly a third of the land goes down before the house, parsonage houses have become and spreads along the edge of the beggarly holes or have disap-down, going, with a gentle slope, peared. I have now been in down to the meadows. So that, nearly three score villages, and going along the turnpike road, in twenty or thirty or forty ham-which runs between the lower lets of Wiltshire; and I do not fields of the arable land, you see know that I have been in one, the large and beautiful flocks of however small, in which I did sheep upon the sides of the down, not see a house or two, and some- while the horn-cattle are up to times more, either tumbled down, their eyes in grass in the meaor beginning to tumble down. It dows. Just when I was coming is impossible for the eyes of man along here, the sun was about to be fixed on a finer country than half an hour high: it shined that between the village of CoD- through the trees most brilliantly; FORD and the town of WARMIN- and, to crown the whole, I met, STER; and it is not very easy for just as I was entering the village, - the eyes of man to discover la-a very pretty girl, who was, apbouring people more miserable. parently, going a gleaning in the There are two villages, one called fields. I asked her the name of NORTON BOVANT, and the other the place, and when she told me BISHOPSTROW, which I think form, it was Bishopstrow, she pointed to together, one of the prettiest spots the situation of the church, which, that my eyes ever beheld. The she said, was on the other side of former village belongs to BEN- the river. She really put me in NETT, the member for the county, mind of the pretty girls at Preswho has a mansion there, in which ton, who spat upon the “inditwo of his sisters live, I am told. vidual" of the Derby family, and There is a farm at Bishopstrow, I made her a bow accordingly. standing at the back of the arable The whole of the population of land, up in a vale, formed by two the twenty-four parishes down very lofty hills, upon each of this vale, amounts to only 11,195 which there was formerly a Ro-souls, according to the Official man Camp, in consideration of return to Parliament; and, mind, which farm, if the owner would I include, the parish-of FISHERgive it me, I would almost consent TON ANGER (a suburb of the city to let OTTIWELL Woon remain of Salisbury), which contains 893 quiet in his seat, and suffer the pretty gentlemen of Whitehall to go on without note or comment till they had fairly blowed up their concern. The farm-yard is surrounded by lofty and beautiful trees. In the rick-yard I counted twenty-two ricks of one sort and another. The hills shelter the

of the number. I include the town of HEYTESBURY, with its 1,023 souls; and I further include this very good and large markettown of WARMINSTER, with its population of 5,000! So that I leave, in the other twenty-one parishes, only 4,170 souls, men, women and children! That is to

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say, a hundred and ninety-eight sandth time I ask it; what were souls to each parish; or, reckon- these twenty churches built FOR? ing five to a family, thirty-nine Some of them stand within a families to each parish. Above quarter of a mile of each other. one half of the population never They are pretty nearly as close to could be expected to be in the each other as the churches in church at one time; so that, here London and Westminster are.are one-and-twenty churches What a monstrous thing, to supbuilt for the purpose of holding pose that they were built without two thousand and eighty people! there being people to go to them; There are several of these and built, too, without money and churches, any one of which would without hands! The whole of conveniently contain the whole of the population in these twentythese people, the two thousand one parishes, could stand, and and eighty! The church of without much erowding too, in the Bishopstrow would contain the bottoms of the towers of the sevewhole of the two thousand and ral churches. Nay, in three or four eighty very well indeed; and, it of the parishes, the whole of the is curious enough to observe, that people could stand in the church the churches of FISHERTON AN- porches. Then, the church-yards GER, HEYTESBURY, and WAR- show you how numerous the poMINSTER, though quite sufficient pulation must have been. You to contain the people that go to see, in some cases, only here and church, are none of them nearly there the mark of a grave, where so big as several of the village the church-yard contains from churches. All these churches are half an acre to an acre of land, built long and long before the and sometimes more. In short, reign of Richard the Second; that every thing shows, that here was is to say, they were founded long once a great and opulent populabefore that time, and if the first tion; that there was an abunchurches were gone, these others dance to eat, to wear, and to were built in their stead. There spare; that all the land that is is hardly one of them that is not as now under cultivation, and old as the reign of Richard the great deal that is not now under Second; and yet, that impudent cultivation, was under cultivation Scotchman, GEORGE CHALMERS, in former times. The Scotch begwould make us believe, that, in gars would make us believe that the reign of Richard the Second, we sprang from beggars. The the population of the country was impudent scribes would make us hardly any thing at all! He has believe, that England was forthe impudence, or the gross igno- merly nothing at all till they came rance, to state the population of to enlighten it and fatten upon it. England and, Wales at two mil- Let the beggars answer me this lions, which, as I have shown in question; let the impudent, the the last Number of the Protestant brazen scribes, that impose upon Reformation, would allow only the credulous and cowed-down twelve able men to every parish English; let them tell me why church throughout the kingdom. these twenty-one churches were What, I ask, for about the thou-built; what they were built FOR;


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