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two CODFORDS were stuck up within a few hundred yards of each other, if the whole of the population could then, as it can now, be crammed into the chancel of either of the two churches? Let them answer me this question, or shut up their mouths upon this subject, on which they have told so many lies.
why the large churches of the men; and particularly to reflect, that we are descended from those, amongst whom "beef, pork, mutton, and veal, were the food of the poorer sort of people." What! and is the "Emigration Committee" sitting, to invent the means of getting rid of some part of the thirty-nine families that are employed in raising the immense quantities of food in each As to the produce of this valley, of these twenty-one parishes? it must be at least ten times as Are there schemers to go before great as its consumption, even if this conjuration Committee; Wiltwe include the three towns that shire schemers, to tell the Cómbelong to it. I am sure I saw mittee how they can get rid of a produce enough in five or six of part of these one hundred and the farm-yards, or rick-yards, to ninety-eight persons to every pafeed the whole of the population rish? Are there schemers of this of the 21 parishes. But the in- sort of work still, while no man, fernal system causes it all to be no man at all, not a single man, carried away. Not a bit of good says a word about getting rid of beef, or mutton, or veal, and the dead-weight, or the supernuscarcely a bit of bacon is left for merary parsons, both of whom those who raise all this food and have actually a premium given wool. The labourers here look them for breeding, and are filling as if they were half-starved. They the country with idlers? We are answer extremely well to the pic-reversing the maxim of the Scripture that FORTESQUE gave of the ture: our laws almost say, that French in his day. Talk of those that work shall not eat, and liberty," indeed; "civil and that those that do not work shall religious liberty": the Inquisition, have the food. I repeat, that the with a belly full, is far preferable baseness of the English landto a state of things like this. owners surpasses that of any other For my own part, I really am men that ever lived in the world. ashamed to ride a fat horse, to The cowards know well that the have a full belly, and to have a labourers that give value to their clean shirt upon my back, while I land are skin and bone. They look at these wretched country- are not such brutes as not to know men of mine; while I actually that this starvation is produced by see them reeling with weakness; taxation. They know well, how unjust it is to treat their labourers in this way. They know well, that there goes down the common foot soldier's single throat more food than is allowed by them to a labourer, his wife, and three children. They know well, that the present standing army in time of
when I see their poor faces present me nothing but skin and bone, while they are toiling to get the wheat and the meat ready to be carried away to be devoured by the tax-eaters. I am ashamed to look at these poor souls, and to reflect that they are my country
peace consumes more food and | vain. It was their duty to stand raiment than a million of the forward and prevent Power-oflabourers consume; aye, than two Imprisonment Bills, Six Acts, millions of them consume; if you Ellenborough's Act, Poaching include the women and the chil-Transportation Act, New Tresdren; they well know these things; pass Act, Sunday Tolls, and the they know that their poor labour-hundreds of other things that ers are taxed to keep this army in could be named. On the confatness and in splendour. They trary, they were the cause of know that the dead-weight, which, them all. They were the cause of in the opinion of most men of all the taxes, and all the debts; sense, ought not to receive a single and now let them take the consefarthing of the public money,quences! swallow more of good food than a SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 2d.third or a fourth part of the real After I got to Warminster yesterlabourers of England swallow. day, it began to rain, which stopThey know that a million and a ped me in my way to FROME in half of pounds sterling was taken Somersetshire, which lies about out of the taxes, partly raised upon seven or eight miles from this the labourers, to enable the poor place; but, as I meant to be quite Clergy of the Church of Eng- in the northern part of the county land to marry and to breed. They by to-morrow noon, or thereknow that a regulation has been abouts, I took a post-chaise in the recently adopted, by which an afternoon of yesterday, and went old dead-weight man is enabled to to FROME, where I saw, upon my sell his dead-weight to a young entrance into the town, between man; and that, thus, this burden two and three hundred weavers, would, if the system were to be men and boys, cracking stones, continued, be rendered perpetual. moving earth, and doing other They know that a good slice of the sorts of work, towards making a dead-weight money goes to Han- fine road into the town. I drove over; and that even these Han- into the town, and through the overians can sell their dead-principal streets, and then I put weight claim upon us. The my chaise up a little at one of the country gentlemen fellows" know inns. This appears to be a sort of all this: they know that the poor little Manchester. A very small labourers, including all the poor Manchester, indeed; for it does manufacturers, pay one-half of not contain above ten or twelve their wages in taxes to support all thousand people, but, it has all the these things; and yet not a word flash of a Manchester, and the about these things is ever said, or innkeepers and their people look even hinted, by these mean, these and behave like the Manchester cruel, these cowardly, these car- fellows. I was, I must confess, rion, these dastardly reptiles. Sir glad to find proofs of the irretrievJAMES GRAHAM, of Netherby, able decay of the place. I rewho, I understand, is a young fel-membered how ready the bluff low instead of an old one, may in- manufacturers had been to call in voke our pity upon these "ancient the troops of various descriptions, families;" but he will invoke in" Let them," said I to myself.
"call the troops in now, to make clothing, fuel, candle, soap, and "their trade revive. Let them house-rent, over and above what now resort to their friends of the is allowed to this miserable family! 66 yeomanry and of the army; let And yet the base reptiles, who, "them now threaten their poor are called "country gentlemen," "workmen with the gaol, when and whom SIR JAMES GRAHAM "they dare to ask for the means calls upon us to commit all sorts "of preventing starvation in their of acts of injustice in order to "families. Let them, who have, preserve, never utter a whisper "in fact, lived and thriven by the about the expenses of keeping the 66 sword, now call upon the par-soldiers, while they are everlast"son-magistrate to bring out the ingly railing against the working "soldiers to compel me, for in- people of every description, and "stance, to give thirty shillings a representing them, and them only, "yard for the superfine black as the cause of the loss of their "broad cloth (made at Frome), estates!
"which Mr. RoE, at Kensington, These poor creatures at Frome "OFFERED ME AT SEVEN have pawned all their things, or "SHILLINGS AND SIX nearly all. All their best clothes; "PENCE A YARD just before their blankets and sheets; their "I left home! Yes, these men looms; any little piece of furni"have ground down into powder ture that they had, and that was "those who were earning them good for any thing. Mothers have "their fortunes: let the grinders been compelled to pawn all the "themselves now be ground, and tolerably good clothes that their 66 according to the usual wise and children had. In case of a man "just course of Providence, let having two or three shirts, he is "them be crushed by the system, left with only one, and sometimes "which they have delighted in, without any shirt; and, though this "because it made others crouch is a sort of manufacture that cannot "beneath them." Their poor very well come to a complete end; work-people cannot be worse off still it has received a blow from than they long have been. The which it cannot possibly recover. parish pay, which they now get The population of this Frome has upon the roads, is 2s. 6d. a week been augmented to the degree of for a man, 2s. for his wife, 1s. 3d. one-third within the last six or for each child under eight years seven years. There are here all of age, 3d. a week, in addition, to the usual signs of accommodation each child above eight, who can bills and all false paper stuff, go to work; and, if the children called money: new houses, in above eight years old, whether abundance, half finished; new girls or boys, do not go to work gingerbread "places of worship," upon the road, they have nothing! as they are called; great swagThus, a family of five people have gering inns; parcels of swaggering just as much, and eight pence fellows going about, with vulgarity over, as goes down the throat of imprinted upon their counteone single foot soldier; but, ob- nances, but with good clothes serve, the standing soldier; that upon their backs. I found the truly English institution," has working people at Frome very
intelligent; very well informed as them something; and I was told to the cause of their misery; not that they did the same at Salisat all humbugged by the canters, bury. The landlord at HEYTESwhether about religion or loyalty. BURY told me, that every one of When I got to the inn, I sent my them had a license to beg, given post-chaise boy back to the road, them, he said, "by the Governto tell one or two of the weavers ment.' I suppose it was some to come to me at the inn. The pass from a Magistrate; though I landlord did not at first like to let know of no law that allows of such such ragged fellows up stairs. I passes; and a pretty thing it would insisted, however, upon their com- be, to grant such licenses, or such ing up, and I had a long talk with passes, when the law so positively them. They were very intelligent commands, that the poor of every men; had much clearer views of parish, shall be maintained in and what is likely to happen than the by every such parish. Howpretty gentlemen of Whitehall ever, all law of this sort, all saseem to have; and, it is curious lutary and humane law, really enough, that they, these common seems to be drawing towards an weavers, should tell me, that they end in this now miserable country, thought that the trade never would where the thousands are caused come back again to what it was be- to wallow in luxury, to be surfeitfore; or, rather, to what it has been ed with food and drink, while for some years past. This is the the millions are continually on impression every where; that the the point of famishing. In orpuffing is over; that we must der to form an idea of the decome back again to something gradation of the people of this. like reality. The first factories country, and of the abandonment that I met with were at a village of every English principle, what called UPTON LOVELL, just before need we of more than this one I came to HEYTESBURY. There disgraceful and truly horrible they were a doing not more than fact, namely, that the common a quarter work. There is only soldiers of the standing army in one factory, I believe, here at time of peace subscribe, in order Warminster, and that has been to furnish the meanest of diet to suspended, during the harvest at keep from starving the indusany rate. At FROME they are all trious people who are taxed to the upon about a quarter work. It is amount of one half of their
the same at BRADFORD and TROW-wages, and out of which taxes the BRIDGE; and, as curious a thing as very pay of these soldiers comes! ever was heard of in the world is, Is not this one fact; this disgracethat here are, through all these ful, this damning fact; is not this towns, and throughout this coun- enough to convince us, that there try, weavers from the North, sing-must be a change; that there ing about the towns ballads of must be a complete and radical Distress! They had been doing change; or that England must it at SALISBURY, just before I was become a country of the basest there. The landlord at HEYTES-slavery that ever disgraced the BURY told me that people, that earth? could afford it, generally gave DEVIZES, (WILTS.) SUNDAY
MORNING, 3d SEPT.-I left War-favours that monopoly, which minster yesterday at about one makes the corn change hands o'clock. It is contrary to my many times, perhaps, before it practice to set out at all, unless I reaches the mouth, leaving a procan do it early in the morning; fit in each pair of hands, and but, at WARMINSTER I was at the which monopoly is, for the greater South-West corner of this county, part, carried on by the villanous and I had made a sort of promise tribe of Quakers, none of whom to be to-day at HIGHWORTH, ever work, and all of whom prey which is at the North-East corner, upon the rest of the community, and which parish, indeed, joins as those infernal devils, the wasps, up to Berkshire. The distance, prey upon the bees. Talking of including my little intended de- the Devil puts one in mind of his viations, was more than fifty imps; and, talking of Quakers, miles; and, not liking to attempt puts one in mind of JEMMY CROPit in one day, I set off in the middle PER of Liverpool. I should like of the day, and got here in the to know precisely (I know pretty evening, just before a pretty heavy nearly) what effect "late parain came on. Before I speak of nic" has had, and is having, my ride from Warminster to this on Jemmy! Perhaps the readplace, I must once more observe, er will recollect, that Jemmy that Warminster is a very nice told the public, through the cotown every thing belonging to it lumns of base BOTT SMITH, that is solid and good. There are no Cobbett's prophecies were falsivillanous gingerbread houses fied as soon as spawned." JEMMY, running up, and no nasty, shabby-canting Jemmy, has now had time genteel people; no women traps- to ruminate on that! But, does ing about with showy gowns and the reader remember James's prodirty necks; no jew looking ject for "making Ireland as happy fellows with dandy coats, dirty as England"? It was simply by shirts and half-heels to their shoes. introducing cotton - factories, A really nice and good town. It steam-engines, and power-looms! is a great corn-market: one of That was all; and there was the greatest in this part of Eng- Jemmy in Ireland, speech-making land; and here things are still before such Lords and such Bishops conducted in the good, old, honest and such 'Squires as God never fashion. The corn is brought and suffered to exist in the world bepitched in the market before it is fore: there was Jemmy, showing, sold; and, when sold, it is paid proving, demonstrating, that to for on the nail; and all is over, make the Irish cotton-workers and the farmers and millers gone would infallibly make them happy! home by day-light. Almost every If it had been now, instead of being where else the corn is sold by two years ago, he might have prosample; it is sold by juggling in duced the reports of the starvationa corner; the parties meet and committees of Manchester to condrink first; it is night work; there firm his opinions. One would is no fair and open market; the think, that this instance of the mass of the people do not know folly and impudence of this cant what the prices are; and all this ing son of the monopolizing sect,