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have long been grown in Cuba and have played an important part in exports, but further expansion would probably require that this industry be reorganized from the present extensive methods of production used in the mountainous region in Oriente to more intensive methods.

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FIGURE 43.-Irrigation is needed in Cuba, particularly for rice and for other crops during the dry winter season. A, Diversion dam across a small river; B, irrigating a row crop.

These would involve plantings in other regions with more nearly level areas of fertile soils suitable for irrigation and spraying in order to control the sigatoka disease, which appears to threaten future banana production.

Cacao also has long been grown on an extensive basis in eastern Cuba, but production has been greatly reduced because of increased competition from other countries and from other crops in Cuba. It

is possible that new plantings of the best-quality criollo-type cacao may permit production again to reach a profitable export basis. Cacao in Cuba has not been subject to the witches'-broom disease, a serious factor in some other countries.

Production of cassava, or tapioca, starch for export also appears to offer possibilities if the present manufacturing processes are improved to provide more economical operation and to produce a higher-quality starch than that now customarily used in Cuba. The United States now imports large quantities of cassava starch from the Far East. Varieties of yuca used in the production of cassava starch should also be improved to increase yields and reduce the cost of the raw material. Kapok, and certain other fibers, in addition to tung oil and castorbeans, appears to offer future possibilities for production for export if further experimentation continues to give favorable results.

Some other products of which the United States is a heavy importer do not appear to be well adapted for production in Cuba. Among these are rubber, cinchona or quinine, abacá or manila hemp, and silk. Rubber production in Cuba does not appear to be economically feasible because Cuba does not have a sufficiently warm and moist climate for the commercial development of large plantations of Pará or Hevea rubber. Quinine production on a commercial scale requires that planting be made at a high elevation, and the preparation of the bark for market requires a large amount of cheap hand labor. In this respect Cuba, with its higher wage standards, would be at a disadvantage when compared with the countries where lower wages prevail. Similarly, the economical production of abacá, or manila hemp, requires a deep, rich, soil and a warm climate with frequent and heavy rainfall in order to produce high yields. Furthermore, the decortication also requires a great deal of cheap hand labor. The use of machinery for this purpose has not proven entirely satisfactory. Silk could be produced in Cuba, but not at a price comparable with that of silk from the Far East, where labor costs are very low.

The further development of Cuba's agriculture depends in large measure on diversifying production both for export and for domestic use. Not only can urban consumption be increased, thus providing a market for greater agricultural production, but Cuba's farmers should produce more of the food they themselves consume on the farm, such as milk, eggs, fruit, and vegetables. In order to accomplish this the agricultural education and extension services in Cuba should be greatly strengthened to reach farmers effectively in all parts of the island. This, in turn, would require not only increased Government expenditure for such work to provide trained personnel, adequate assistance, equipment, and means of transportation, but also the placing of the personnel of these services on a permanent merit basis with greater security of tenure.

Improved farm prices and marketing facilities should play an important part in the future development of agriculture. In most cases the anticipated financial return is the principal incentive for production, and when farmers do not have reasonable assurance of being able to sell their products they are not willing to venture the expense of production. In the case of most farm products in Cuba, except sugar and a few others, there is a very wide spread between prices received by the growers and prices at the central markets. Improved methods and facilities for marketing, such as improved roads, storage facilities,

price information, and extension of credit to facilitate harvesting and marketing, would do much to improve actual returns to growers. The need for agricultural credit was pointed out by the Foreign Policy Association in 1934 (12), which stated that credit facilities in Cuba were prohibitive and the cost ruinously high because the grower was usually forced to sell at unfavorable prices to local agencies that have advanced credit to him. The absence of year-round roads in many agricultural areas is in itself a severe handicap to the marketing of farm products.

As a whole, the possibilities of future development of Cuban agriculture appear bright. The natural factors are favorable. The country has large areas of good soil and a good climate, with a continuous growing period although the rainfall is relatively low during the winter months. Cuba is not overpopulated its agricultural production could maintain a relatively high standard of domestic consumption in addition to a thriving export trade. It is centrally located, near markets in the United States and near the trade routes of interAmerican commerce. Furthermore, most of its products are of a semitropical nature either not produced in the United States or produced in insufficient quantities.

LITERATURE CITED

(1) ACUÑA, JULIAN, and ZAYAS, FERNANDO DE.

1940. FRUTA BOMBA O PAPAYA: CONSIDERACIONES ECONÓMICAS Y OBSERVACIONES SOBRE SUS ENFERMEDADES. Rev. de Agr. [Cuba] 23

(10-15): 49-80, illus.

(2) ADAMS, JOHN QUINCY.

1917. WRITINGS OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford.

V. 7.

(3) AGETE Y PIÑE[I]RO, FERNANDO.

(4)

1936. EL CAFÉ. 118 pp., illus. Habana.

1938. LA FRUTA BOMBA. Santiago de las Vegas Estac. Expt. Agron. Cir. 76 (ed. 2), 26 pp.,

illus.

(5) AMERICAN POULTRY ASSOCIATION.

1940. THE AMERICAN STANDARD OF PERFECTION. A COMPLETE DESCRIP-
TION OF ALL RECOGNIZED VARIETIES OF FOWLS, AS REVISED
492 pp., illus. Davenport, Iowa.

(6) BENNETT, HUGH H., and ALLISON, ROBERT V.

1928. THE SOILS OF CUBA. 410 pp., illus. Washington, D. C.

(7) BERNHARDT, Joshua.

...

1920. GOVERNMENT CONTROL OF THE SUGAR INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED
STATES. AN ACCOUNT OF THE WORK OF THE UNITED STATES
FOOD ADMINISTRATION AND THE UNITED STATES SUGAR EQUALI-
ZATION BOARD, INC.
272 pp.
New York.

(8) CUBA ECONÓMICA Y FINANCIERA.

1940. ANUARIO AZUCARERO DE CUBA 1940. CENSO DE LA INDUSTRIA AZUCARERA DE CUBA Y MANUAL ESTADÍSTICO INTERNACIONAL. 124 pp., illus. Habana.

(9) CUBA SECRETARÍA DE HACIENDA, ESTADÍSTICA GENERAL.

1907, 1932, 1939. INDUSTRIA AZUCARERA Y SUS DERIVADOS. Zafra de 1904-1905, 60 pp., illus.; Zafra de 1932, 75 pp., illus.; Zafra de 1939, 127 pp., illus.

(10) DAVIES, HOWELL, ed.

1941. CUBA. In The South American Handbook, ed. 18, pp. 347-361. London.

(11) DICKENS, Paul D.

1938. AMERICAN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES, 1936. U. S. Dept. Com. Econ. Ser., Finance Div., No. 1, 49 pp., illus. (12) FOREIGN POLICY ASSOCIATION, COMMISSION ON CUBAN AFFAIRS. 1935. PROBLEMS OF NEW CUBA. 523 pp., illus. New York.

(13) GUERRA Y SÁNCHEZ, RAMIRO.

1940. LA INDUSTRIA AZUCARERA DE CUBA, SU IMPORTANCIA NACIONAL, SU ORGANIZACIÓN, SUS MERCADOS, SU SITUACIÓN ACTUAL. 304 pp. Habana.

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(14) KENKEL, ANTHONY B., WALLACE, BENJAMIN B., et al.
1929. EFFECTS OF THE CUBAN RECIPROCITY TREATY OF 1902.
illus.

Com. 436 pp.,

(15) NIEVES, I. RESILLEZ.

1939. TIERRA Y HOMBRE COMO ELEMENTOS PRODUCTORES.
[Cuba] 5: [2031]-2032.

(16) UNITED STATES TARIFF COMMISSION.

(17)

U. S. Tariff

Rev. de Agr.

1940. CUBA. Foreign Trade of Latin Amer., pt. 2, sect. 18, 84 pp., illus.

1932. FRESH VEGETABLES.

REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT ON DIFFERENCES

IN THE COSTS OF PRODUCTION OF CERTAIN FRESH VEGETABLES
IN THE UNITED STATES AND IN THE PRINCIPAL COMPETING COUN-

TRIES
illus.

...

U. S. Tariff Com. Rpt., Ser. 2, No. 39, 175 pp.,

(18)

1934. SUGAR.

REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES

U. S. Tariff Com. Rpt., Ser. 2, No. 73, 256 pp., illus. 1938. LOS NÚMEROS ÍNDICES EN CUBA. Cuba Sec. de Agr., 43 pp.

(19) VIVÓ, HUGO.

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN

3 9015 03668 8870

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1943

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C.

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