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Photographs by Charles C. Breeve.
N days gone by, Detroit and Woodmere, Detroit enters upon a new had the reputation of epoch of its history and now is as large being “slow” and was as San Francisco was in 1900. Thirteenth frequently referred to on the list of American cities, it rivals as "an old French Milwaukee in size. Its area has been sudtown," that
denly expanded from 18,560 to 23,000 damned by its ultra acres and its population increased from
conservatism. Even 350,000 to 400,000. Delray, with its nine when the French régime, which was re- large factories, capitalized at $10,000,000, sponsible for this verdict of popular opin- has been a thriving manufacturing center ion, had long since passed away, the for many years. One of the greatest of reputation clung to the city and was these industries is devoted to the converhard to live down.
sion of an immense body of salt, that But of late the City of the Straits has underlies the whole village, into soda-ash made such rapid strides in the race of and other articles of commerce. But what progress and has advanced so greatly in renders the transfer of this suburb to the everything that stands for the highest City of the Straits of especial moment is civilization, that even its rivals have been the fact that its manufacturing district is compelled to acknowledge that it has sub- located on the banks of the Rouge River stantiated its claim to the title of a great and that it therefore enables the manumetropolis and industrial center. People facturing industries of Detroit to expand no longer look wise and say: “O yes, De- in the direction of good shipping facilitroit is a fine town to live in, but a mighty ties. poor place for business."
Founded by the Sieur de la Motte With the recent annexation of the ad- Cadillac, about two hundred years ago, joining villages of Delray, Springwells it was the first French colony established west of Montreal. In 1763, the British as- convention bureau. By means of this sumed possession. In 1783, by treaty, the excellent organization, the reputation of settlement became a part of the United Detroit as the leading convention city in States, but the British refused to give up the country has been well sustained. The possession until 1796, when the place was electrical "Welcome” sign on the front occupied by General Anthony Wayne. In of the city hall is emblematic of Detroit's 1805 the territory of Michigan was carved hospitality, which has become a proverb out of the old northwestern region, with among cities. In the past year eighty conDetroit for its first capital. In the same ventions were held in the City of the Straits year a disastrous fire totally destroyed the with fifty-three thousand delegates in atnew town, which was speedily rebuilt. In tendance, and another good list has al. the War of 1812 it was surrendered to ready been secured for the coming season.
the British, but retaken in 1813, since The total annual visiting list, or number when it has belonged to the United States. of callers Detroit entertains, has been estiIn 1824 it was incorporated as a city and mated at seven million two hundred and remained the capital of Michigan from fifty thousand. The permanent establish1837 to 1847.
ment of the Michigan State Fair will not As is well known, Detroit ranks as the only give an impetus to the growth of the first city in America in the percentage of agricultural society controlling it, but people owning their homes. In fact it is finally result in the creation of a creditlargely a city of homes and churches, able exhibition that will attract addithere being 204 of the latter.
tional hundreds of thousands of visitors. A great deal of the increased prosperity But the surest indication of a city's of the city is undoubtedly attributable to prosperity is its industrial growth. the thoroughly systematized work of its An estimate of the industrial output of
THE CAMPUS MARTIUS
Detroit, in its leading lines of activity, any other city in the world and boasts of for the year ending September 30, 1905, having the largest pharmaceutical laborathat was made by Mr. Thomas Neal, the tory on earth. It also claims preëminence chairman of the Detroit Board of Com- in other directions and is said to lead merce Committee on manufactures, and in the manufacture of milk-cans, slota conservative business man, gave the fol. machines, manure-spreaders, gelatine caplowing figures :
sules, parlor and library tables, gasoline Car building and repairing.... $23,000,000 and gas motors, and in the distribution Automobile construction and assem
of seeds. It has also long been known as bling
11,500,000 the center for the manufacture of freight Vessels and boats..
cars and is an important factor in the Total transportation agencies. $39,700,000
varnish and paint trade. It also contains Stoves, ranges, furnaces, etc.
9,300,000 immense shipyards, extensive carbon and Clothing of all kinds....
10,000,000 fertilizer works and several large brass Furniture and household articles. 5,500,000 and copper foundries. Drug preparations
There are several factors in the present
9,000,000 Vegetable food products.
10,000,000 rapid growth of Detroit industries that Meat products
5,500,000 insure its continuance. Not the least in Malt liquors
3,000,000 importance of these is the improved faciliTobacco products
4,500,000 ties for transportation by rail. Through Foundry and machine-shop products not otherwise specified..
the Michigan Central and its feeders DeIron and steel.....
3,500,000 troit reaches nearly every city and village Structural ironwork
2,500,000 in the southern and central portions of Printing and publishing..
5,000,000 Michigan, besides reaching out along the Adding and coin machines.
eastern border as far as the Straits of Detroit manufactures more stoves than Mackinaw. A line across Canada makes
this a part of one of the most direct trunk the Michigan Central between Chicago lines between Chicago, New York and and New York. Boston. The few towns of importance Her majestic river must ever remain that are not reached by the Flint & Pere the chief natural glory of Detroit from a Marquette or Michigan Central are acces- scenic standpoint. Detroit's shipping insible from Detroit by means of the Grand dustries have won her first place among Trunk or Lake Shore. There is hardly all the ports on the Great Lakes. Her any city of the Northwest that is in such close touch with the whole of its own state.
Recently Detroit has made some important additions to its railroad facilities. Improved connections of the Wabash Railroad eastward, the extension into the coalfields of Ohio and West Virginia of the system to which the Detroit Southern is attached, and the consolidation of the Pere Marquette and the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton, have all been of seryice to the manufacturers of Detroit.
Detroit's Belt Line system has also been a great aid to the shippers of the city. Teaming is expensive, and the manufacturer who can unload his raw material from a car standing at his back-door, and load the same car with the product of his factory possesses a great advantage.
Heretofore the City of the Straits has labored under the disadvantage of ice-blockades during severe winters. Lake
THE CADILLAC CHAIR Huron and Lake St. Clair
Erected to commemorate the two-hundredth anniversary of the founding of Detroit and Detroit River ice have coabined, at times, to make it extremely prominence in this respect may be judged difficult for the transfer barges to get from the fact that in 1903, according to their loads across the Detroit River; but official government reports, Detroit steamwhen the tunnel under the Detroit River, ers carried seven million passengers, more now happily under way, is completed, than three times the combined total of there will be no more congestion of passengers carried by Chicago, Mil. traffic. The tunnel will cost in the waukee, Grand Ilaven, Port Huron and neighborhood of $7,000,000 and will be Marquette steamers. Detroit's vessels, completed in about two years. It will with two or three exceptions, were of local be brilliantly lighted by electricity and manufacture. provided with automatic block signals. Commerce, to the amount of 39,328,689 Electrical engines of the latest type of tons, passed through the Detroit River construction will be used to haul the trains during the year ending June 30, in eight through the tunnel. When the work is months of navigation. This is approxicompleted there will be no break in the mately twice the amount that passes continuity of the double track service of through the Suez Canal during the entire twelve months each year. In exports De- If we assume that the average selling troit leads all the ports on the chain of price per machine is only $500 this will lakes and northern frontier from Maine give us a total valuation of the output of to Montana. The aggregate is over $22,- $5,000,000. But when we consider that 000,000 per annum, an increase of two the expensive touring-car has been mostly hundred and ninety per cent in eleven in demand and that comparatively few years.
runabouts are shipped from Detroit, it is
plain that these figures are too conservative and that we would probably arrive nearer the truth by doubling them. In addition to the companies engaged in the manufacture of complete automobiles, there are over thirty companies in the Michigan metropolis that manufacture parts of the machines and automobile equipments and supplies. The manufacture of computing machines is of less than two years' growth, but it already represents an investment of $5,000,000, and Detroit has also become the center of that industry.
This record-breaking period in Detroit's industrial life was also marked by the construction of the first cokeovens, initial enterprise in a business which gives promise of taking a foremost place. An open-hearth steel plant is also in process of construction. The manufacture of rubber goods on a large scale
is another interesting element THE STATUE OF EX-GOVERNOR HAZEN S PINGREE
of growth, and a company Erected by the citizens of Michigan in Grand Circus Park, Detroit
from Chicago is erecting a
huge plant on the river front The remarkable industrial growth of that will give employment to several hunthe past five years has been more than a
dred men. mere expansion; it has been a reaching But Detroit was a mercantile city long out into new fields. Detroit was almost before it aspired to any manufacturing unheard of as an “automobile city” five importance. In days of yore the meryears ago. To-day it enjoys the distinc- cantile business was the most striking evition of being the center of the automobile dence of commercial activity that the town industry of the world. Altogether there afforded. With the building of railroads are eleven automobile factories in the City in more modern times, Detroit has been of the Straits, with a total capital of about obliged to share the Michigan trade with $6,000,000. Two of these are not in “the other cities, but as an offset to this a trust,” but the rest are said to be in the much wider territory has become accesassociation. The total annual output of sible to its enterprising jobbers. In every these establishments may be safely esti- line of wholesaling Detroit merchants mated at ten thousand machines, which now claim as their territory the whole of vary from $375 to $5,000 in market value. Michigan, northern Ohio and Indiana,