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ERNEST DE KOVEN LEFFINGWELL Joint commander with Captain Mikkelsen of the expedition to discover a new arctic continent

ing in his carcass. By the time the horse- and soundings will be taken, and it is flesh is consumed, the dogs will in turn be thought that much shallow water will be slaughtered and eaten, and when these are found. No explorations have as yet been exhausted the venturesome explorers will made for more than four miles from the haul along the remaining supplies them- shore line, but it is now the intention to go selves.

some three hundred miles out, to 76.30 A very careful study based on many north. The soundings will show whether tests was made with regard to the kind it is necessary to proceed further, though of foods to be carried over this part of the it is expected that land will be found betrip, something of small bulk and yet of fore reaching this point. Should new land sustaining power being called for. It may be struck, it will be noted as precisely as be interesting to note in this connection possible, while in any case the two men that a vegetable diet will be put to a prac- upon giving up their researches will retical test on this trip, and that alcoholic turn to some of the whaling stations as liquors will be dispensed with entirely. A best they can, making perhaps for Barrow noted dietetic expert in England prepared or Wrangel. They concede this trip of foods and had them put up in tins and theirs to be one fraught with peril and sealed, and a Battle Creek firm contributed hardship, but are not to be deterred by a supply of food for use on the two men's the prospect. lonely and perilous journey. Although While Mikkelsen and Leffingwell are enthe vegetable diet is expected to be the gaged in this branch of the work the other main one, the rod and gun will doubtless members of the party will be busy in furnish additional food, it being supposed Banks Land and the islands northwest of that game exists in these latitudes. Melville Sound. Here some ethnological

On their journey over the ice, surveys and geographical investigations will be

made, which will throw much light on the als also contributing toward the under-
life of the natives, the resources of the taking, prominent ones being the Duchess
country, and its general geography. The of Bedford, after whom the little vessel is
edge of the continental shelf will be ex- named, and the Rothschilds.
plored and mapped, and hydrographic If previous experience in the Arctic, as
work done which should be of interest. It well as the determination of the heads of
is also hoped to obtain some tidings of the this exploration to achieve results in the

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Lower row, from left to right: Ejnar Ditlevsen; Ernest De K. Leffingwell; Captain Mikkelsen; Dr. George Howe; Edwards, the sailing

master. Thuerson and Parker, members of the crew, in the background

ill-fated ship, the Investigator, which went practically unknown region for which they
north in 1850, with the McClure expedi- are bound, count for anything, perhaps
tion, after Franklin. The ethnological re- the world will gain much in knowledge
search promises to establish an affinity be- through the efforts of these men, who are
tween the Esquimaux of these islands and without a doubt taking their lives in their
those of Greenland, and prove that both hands.
are descendants of stock from the Asiatic Captain Mikkelsen has accompanied

several Arctic expeditions, being an officer The expedition ship, the Duchess of with the Baldwin-Ziegler party, and also Bedford, will most probably return to Vic. spending some time on the coast of Icetoria in the fall of 1907, some of the scien- land in the service of the Danish governtists stating that they will return to civil

ment; Mr. Leffingwell accompanied him ization by an overland route, while Cap- on two occasions.

The little ship, Duchtain Mikkelsen and Mr. Leffingwell will

ess of Bedford, carries much that is valuremain in the Arctic for another year, able to the present expedition, in the shape

The expedition has received financial of scientific appliances and instruments aid from the American and British Geo

for use in the Arctic, a very complete graphical societies, many private individu- photographic outfit included.






GROHAT rank will the Amer- lead one to attempt now to describe this

ican of the future take final American type in detail. But we can among other peoples of at least get an idea of the elements that the earth ? Will the will contribute to its making, and a reasonfuture American be our ably exact idea of the final product. At

superior or inferior present the formative influences upon BABU

mentally and morally? which the shaping of this product depends

Will he be tall or short, are still in motion. In one decade we are light or dark! These are questions of invaded by Scandinavians, in another fascinating interest which science now comes a horde of Slavs or Celts; later answers with precision.

still, Latins far out-number any other Here is a huge biological laboratory in people in the immigration returns. The which a new family of the human race is way in which the Italian by taking the being made. The Frenchman, the Ger- lower place has literally pushed up the man, the Italian, we know by certain con- Irishman in the social scale is one of the stant characteristics which distinguish curiosities of our class evolution. them from all other peoples. America, The conditions of life are also in a conon the other hand, has not yet developed a stant state of change. The old balance definite, stable type. But in course of between city and country has been time a type must develop here which will destroyed. In Massachusetts seventy-six be as distinctive in its own way as is the out of every hundred people live in cities. Italian in Italy or the yellow man in The percentage of city dwellers is smaller China.

in newer states, but in California forty Before the white man came North per cent of the population is already America had produced the red men, a urban. Our cities are outgrowing themrace of strongly marked individuality. selves, and in time they will become workThere is no reason why another people just shops only, from which the workers will as strongly characteristic should not come scatter widely by means of transportation to dwell here. We have ample evidence of which the 125-mile-an-hour electric already upon which to base such an asser- train gives us a hint. Already people are tion, the evidence of every-day observation crowded into some sections of New York backed up by the conclusions of the scien- at a density which, if continued all over tists. From the scientists we shall hear the city, would mean a population of later on in this article. Here it is only nearly two hundred millions. Nor is New necessary to point to the Roosevelts of the York an exception. So youthful a municiUnited States to show that the Dutchman pality as Cleveland has in spots a ratio of or the Scandinavian, the Italian or the humans to square feet which, if it preSlav of one century becomes the American vailed throughout the city limits, would of the next cycle. So far as racial charac- give a total of eight million people. teristics are concerned there is nothing to The prophecy that our cities will be less distinguish a Dutch Van Cortlandt or a and less the dwelling places of the millions German Astor from the descendants of who work in them, is set down here to early English settlers, who are, I suppose, show that present conditions of life are an the most American Americans of us all. unsafe basis for predictions as to the Nothing but extreme rashness would future American. In all probability he will not dwell in a city, and so the present States is of foreign birth or parentage. conditions of city life do not indicate what The census of 1900 gives the total as 26,he will be. The awful predictions as to the 198,939. Since ther there have been five degradation of the race when New York record-breaking years in which nearly shall have reached 20,000,000 — predic- four million immigrants have come in. tions based upon the baneful results of By far the larger number of these immi3,500,000 people attempting to live in one grants were Austrians, Italians, and Rushive -are false and useless because the sians. After watching this stream many city of 20,000,000 will not to any con- people conclude that a country overspread siderable extent be a dwelling place. by it can not fail to produce an inferior

When Mr. Robert Hunter tells us that in race. But that is not the conclusion either industrial centers fourteen per cent of the of the scientist or any other man who looks people are in “distress” in good times at the matter calmly and logically. and twenty per cent in hard times, and It is perfectly true that many elements that the number of city dwellers living in in the foreign invasion are undesirable; “poverty” rarely falls below twenty-five especially has this been so in very recent per cent, we naturally ask, Will not this years. Nor is there any doubt as to the condition of things produce a race in quality of this immigration aside from its every way inferior to the American of place of origin and national traits. An to-day? A confidently negative answer overwhelming proportion is made up of may be returned to all such questions, not unskilled laborers. Servants, farm labor. only because of the change that is coming ers, tailors, and merchants form the next over the city, but also because we are only largest classes, until we get down to the beginning to learn how to live healthily professional class which is the smallest of either in cities or elsewhere. Sanitary all -- 13,265 in 1904 out of a total of 812,science is new, and what it has discovered 870. But taking our foreign population is applied so far only in the dwelling as a whole, the desirables far outnumber places of the rich. To the poor the results the undesirables. The German stands at have come largely in the form of rare and the head of the list with about 3,000,000, scattered "model tenements” in which over ninety per cent of whom are naturaleven the small number who occupy them ized. Irishmen number about 1,750,have not learned how to profit by their 000, while the Italians of foreign birth improved surroundings. We smile at the or parentage in the United States up to East Siders who keep potatoes in the bath 1900 had reached a total of not more than tub and use the ice box for a clothes press, 732,421, and do not now exceed 1,100,000. but we all have much to learn about Only half of the Italians become citizens, healthful living. Furthermore, preven- and many return to their homes. tive medical science has not, it is fair to It is not, however, the composition assume, exhausted its possibilities for the the immigration we receive that should good of mankind.

make us cheerful. The important fact to It is reasonable to say, then, that the remember in this connection is that only American of the future will live in the the fit will survive. If the Slav and the mass under even more favorable condi. Italian or any other element in our poputions than at present exist. His home will lation can crowd out and dominate be more healthy, and invention, particu- racially and politically the older Amerilarly in the field of electricity, will lighten can it will be because the new predomhis burdens to an extent comparable to inating element is stronger and better than the improvement of the locomotive over the element it succeeds. The large famithe stage coach or the incandescent lamp lies of the lower classes” among our forover a tallow dip.

eign population as compared to the famiTurning now from future conditions of lies of the upper classes of native Amerilife to the stock of the race, there is every cans have caused much alarm for the reason to be optimistic in our forecasts of future. There is no danger to be apprethe future. It is the usual thing to bewail hended from this direction. The Negro the arrival of so many foreigners every family is among the largest, but a death year. They have poured in until now rate twice as high as the death rate for one-third of the population of the United whites, not to mention many other reasons, keeps down the actual proportion of As to the main point under discussion increase. That the “undesirable" will sociologists have the almost unanimous supplant the native American is as impos- support of the anthropologists. They sible as “negro domination."

agree substantially in the prophecy of a Another spectre that haunts the higher and in a sense final American type unthinking is that what is called “Ameri- although their conclusions are reached by can blood” should be tainted by inferior somewhat different routes. Dr. Edward continental infusions. This, to judge by Anthony Spitzka's studies of brain develpresent and past experience, is most opment have led this famous investigator improbable. Few marriages between men to the conclusion that “the American and women of old native and new foreign mind is destined to dominate the human blood take place. When the “immigrant” powers of the earth.'

" For his views upon after a few generations of American train the subject Doctor Spitzka referred the ing has lost his objectionable character writer to an address before the American istics he may marry an American. But so Association for the Advancement of Scilong as the foreigner is in the raw either ence, in which he said: “Nowhere in the as to mental, moral or physical qualities, world is the mixture of races, chiefly the he intermarries only with his own kind. Teutonic, Celto-Roman and Slavonic, goAmerican blood” is not now and is never ing on so actively as in this country. If likely to become a mixture of the inferior we may judge from the present indicaqualities of European strains.

tions of the formation of an American It is, furthermore, to be remembered family of the Aryan race, the conditions that the most undesirable of all our for- governing the population of this continent eign elements remain hewers of wood and seem to have been peculiarly advantadrawers of water. They do not compete geous to the preservation and restoration to any considerable extent even as skilled of the best types, characterized by greater laborers. Their unprogressiveness may be energy, motility and culture.” deplored from one point of view, but it To this statement of his conclusions certainly does not suggest any danger of Doctor Spitzka added especially for this the domination of inferior elements by article: "I have the greatest faith in the sheer force of numbers. If the experience ability of the American people to solve of the past is a prophecy of the future, successfully the problems of future existthe United States will be ruled, as they ence and eventually, domination, tempered have always been, by men of compara- with just indulgence, of the rest of the tively long American descent. Not only world. On the other hand, I am not one of the governing class is thus recruited. Our those who think that in the formation literature, the contributions we have made of an American family of the white race to science and human progress generally, there will occur a retrograde metamorphoare the product of the native American. sis in the direction of the native Indian The foreigner, that is, the lately adopted prototype, through climatic or any other American, has contributed little or noth- conditions, as held by some superficial obing.

servers. This country can and does in a few gen- Professor Ripley of Harvard, Professor erations make good material out of the for- Otis T. Mason of the Smithsonian Institueigners it takes in in a raw state of devel- tion, and Dr. W. J. McGee, now director opment, but it is only when they grow up

of the St. Louis Public Museum, carry to the mental and moral standards long their conclusions as to the ultimate Ameriago established, that they begin to have can type much further. From Professor any influence either politically or socially. Ripley we get the prophecy that the AmerOur standards are not lowered to the level ican of the future will show, physically, of the “undesirable alien,” however the effect of the amalgamation of the numerous. The alien is raised to fixed and neutral and positive characteristics of constantly more exacting standards which European races, the blonde, stolid Gerare physical as well as mental and moral, man counteracting the influence of the for it is in fact impossible to maintain dark, impulsive native of Southern any one of these standards without the Europe, and so producing a others.

medium stature, neutral complexion. unac

race of

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