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centuated features, and moderate temper- gone still further in this statement, which ament.
I have his authority to reproduce, claimProfessor Mason's theory as to the dis- ing that our present type of beauty is appearance of the blonde was heatedly dis- higher than that of the world's classical cussed not long ago, so heatedly in fact standards. “Just as cross-fertilization,” that he informed me that he is still in Professor McGee says, “is beneficial to close retreat” from the “hail storm” that plant life, the intermingling of peoples in descended upon him, "resolved that this this country must produce the most beauburnt child has had blonde fire enough.” tiful, most intellectual, and most powerBut Professor Mason has never denied his ful race of the world. Measured in any belief in the altogether reasonable theory manner whatever, the American, even that the blonde type will disappear here. to-day, presents the highest type of beauty It is a matter of common observation that which ever adorned the earth. Through in all countries nature inclines toward our intermixing process we absorb the best certain colors. The Negro in Africa is the features of the other peoples and eliminate most striking example of a rule which those which are objectionable. The Amerapplies to animals as well as to men. ican type of beauty is already higher than "Indian characteristics,” Professor Mason that of the ancient Greeks or Romans.” is quoted as saying, "are those which To this general statement Professor nature loves in America, and the blonde McGee added the injunction that, “Of must decrease. Eventually we will all course, it is to be borne in mind that blood have dark hair, dark hazel eyes, and dark blending is but one of two correlative complexions, depending somewhat upon agencies involved in the development of the altitude in which we live. Of course, excellencies in type; the correlative factor modern artificialities of life remove us or agency being that of intensification and somewhat from natural conditions. We increase of prepotency, which may be modify and control the temperature of (and in stock-breeding is) attained by our houses. We modify ourselves and the segregation and in-and-in breeding. animal kingdom. Transportation facili- Accordingly, it would be erroneous to ties overcome natural tendencies so that ascribe the excellence of the American we do not depend alone upon the food type of beauty solely to the complexity of of one soil. Yet the gradual changes our blood; for in fact the excellence is wrought by our climate continue." due to the complete assimilation of the
As to the stature of the future Ameri. combined strains in such manner that the can, it must vary with his place of resi- resulting stream is intensified no less than dence. Among thousands of men enlisted broadened.” in the northern armies during the civil Here then we have the voice of the war the recruits from the mountainous scientist confirming the logical, states: Vermont, New Hampshire, and common-sense view of what the future Kentucky were unmistakably taller than American will be. Immigration will not the others. Stanley found that the same degrade the race; it will improve it, partly rule prevailed in Africa, where the tallest because the conditions of life here will natives invariably inhabited the mountain- tend to uplift, and partly because only the ous regions, five thousand feet or more fittest will count in the evolution of the above the sea-level. The sturdiest natives ultimate American. We also have the dwelt in altitudes of from three thousand authority of the anthropologists for the to five thousand feet. But there is no need prophecy that the final type of American to enlarge upon the influence of climate will be the peer of any race intellectually, and altitude upon physical development, and that he will possess great beauty and nor to emphasize the uniformly benign, vitality. We also have the strongest though various, natural conditions sur- reasons for believing that he will be of rounding life upon this continent.
dark complexion. Professor W. J. McGee has long With these assurances we can look more defended the theory that the American calmly at the annual reports of the immitype was now and would continue in an gration commissioner, secure in the belief increasing degree to be the most beautiful that the final American type will not found anywhere in the world. He has shame its ancestors.
THE STATE DISPENSARY OF SOUTH
A LESSON IN LIQUOR LEGISLATION
HE history of the Liquor saved the dispensary many times from Dispensary of South its enemies, and more than once from its Carolina is the history friends. In the session of the legislature of the State of South just passed, standing on the Speaker's Carolina for the past desk, in the state capitol at Columbia, the thirteen years. In those senior senator raged, threatened, enthirteen years there has treated and saved the dispensary again
been almost no event of from the defeat that threatened it. consequence within the limits of the state Volumes could be written, not alone of that has not been stamped with the die of the dispensary, but of the Tillman nurthe dispensary. Laws have been enacted, sery in which it was nourished, and the political campaigns have been conducted, Tillman régime under which it flourished men have risen and fallen in public esti- and rottened. Let it suffice to say, that mation, bloody feuds have been fought from its inception, the political fortunes all for or against the powerful machine of Senator Tillman have ever been cast which has been built up around the con- with those of the dispensary; and though trol of the liquor trade by the state. the dispensary has at times been unruly,
It seems incredible to those not familiar and has at times been subjected to brief with the conditions in that belligerent lit- periods of corrective discipline, it has tle commonwealth in which the course of been on the whole a grateful child, and statehood has never run very smoothly, has seldom failed to respond to the call of that for thirteen years the people should the patron. At present it is dutiful, inhave been contentedly dominated by a dustrious and fairly discreet. monster conceived in unwholesome pur- Before the day of the dispensary there pose, and big with the certainty of graft. was, practically, county option in South At times the malfeasance has been so Carolina; that is, it was easy for a Proopen, so impudent, that it seemed that the hibition county to obtain the right from limit of patience had been reached; again the legislature to adopt its own method, the grafters quarreled over the spoils, and though nominally high license prevailed. from purely internecine riot the dispen- There are several counties where the sale sary seemed doomed to fall. At every of liquor has never been in favor. Marlcrisis, however, when there was dangerborough County, for instance, could from the disgusted public, or from the be depended upon to vote prohibition at disgruntled grafters within, the Little every election. When the dispensary Father of the dispensary, the master came on the scene, the counties that were steersman, in the person of Benjamin naturally prohibition suffered a change Ryan Tillman, now senior senator from which will be referred to later. On the South Carolina, took the helm. Keen, re- other hand, the counties which voted for sourceful, confident, with a “wool-hat high license before the coming of the disfollowing that regarded him, and still re- pensary were unquestionably in a bad gards him, with a pathetic adulation condition.
abuses which amounting almost to worship, Tillman has could not
could not be overlooked. There
license in its worst sense in many of the strong. It was necessary to appease both cities. This fact was the original excuse factions, so far as possible, and, with his offered for the dispensary, and undoubt. eyes ever fixed on the United States edly seemed to many sufficient reason Senate, he set about to cement the warwhy the state should don the white apron ring factions of his machine, and to place and become barkeeper for the people. himself unequivocally at the head.
The real reason for the establishment of About this time some one suggested the the system was not far to seek. It must be dispensary system as a means of settling remembered that in South Carolina, as in the disputes of the liquor question and of all the far southern states, there is but creating a line of retainers in the conseone political party. The whites are Dem- quent necessary dispensers, constables ocratic, for reasons which it is unneces- and other officers. The town of Athens, sary to explain. The handful of negro in Georgia, was then trying the experivoters in South Carolina does not make ment of municipal control of the sale of the Republican party in that state a intoxicants, in package, and buying and factor in politics. The negro is practi- retailing through a committee appointed cally disfranchised. So it comes about for that purpose. If this was successful that the one party in the state is divided in Athens, it was argued, why not in into factions, which unite only on na- South Carolina? Why not have the tional issues.
liquor traffic within the borders of the When Benjamin R. Tillman became state under the control of the state? Governor of South Carolina, the “reign Why not regulate in this way the hours of the aristocracy,'' as he termed the pre- during which liquor could be sold, the ceding administrations, came to an end. manner in which it could be sold, and the Tillman had made a remarkable cam- quality to be sold ! paign. He had risen slowly from the It must be confessed that it was a plow, unprepossessing in appearance, roseate scheme. To have no places of uncultured, unskilled in the finesse of resort where liquor could be drunk; to politics; but with a tremendous energy, allow only the best qualities of liquor a keenness in judging men and things to be sold, and those under careful superand a bull-dog tenacity. Tillman, from vision; to place the sale of intoxicants the first, cried out against what he termed on a clean basis -- all this was very satisthe frauds and grafts of the aristocrats. fying in theory and might have been in There may have been something in his practice had it not been for the inevitable charges or there may not; it is not ma- entrance of the political game. terial, for there was certainly no immi- The Dispensary Bill became a law. It nent danger from the aristocrats, who was heralded as a good thing, and Tillwere, in their intentions, at worst, weak. man became famous. A board of control
As a stump-speaker, Tillman at that was selected, dispensers were chosen, contime, as at the present time, had no equal stables were provided to see that there in the state. He stumped South Caro- should be proper enforcement of the law lina in the summer season and convinced and that the state should absolutely conthe farmers that they had been swindled trol the sale. The dispensary came in at the hands of their more cultured breth- with flying colors. From that day until ren. He bitterly attacked Charleston, the present time there has not been a whose people were representative of the single week of peace, actual repose of the traditions of the southern ante-bellum body politic, in South Carolina. days. And he won- little need be said At first Marlborough County, strongly of the gubernatorial contest-won over- prohibition, and which wanted no dispenwhelmingly.
sary, along with several other counties It was after Tillman became governor was exempted from the enforcement of that he was confronted with the old ques- the law. Naturally, there were Tillmantion of the sale of intoxicating liquors. ites in those counties who felt it an impoThe party which had elected him seemed sition there should be nothing for them. doomed to go to pieces on the question of Soon the prohibition counties
counties were high license or prohibition. The expo- crowded against the wall and the dispennents of the latter alternative sary was in full swing. Those places
which did not want a dispensary, had a significant telegram was received by the the dispensary crammed down their captain of the Sumter Light Infantry, throats. It was a state dispensary, and it “Can you be depended upon to uphold was meant to cover the whole state.
the law ? A mob is in possession of DarThe pernicious practice of spying was lington.” Governor Tillman received an begun. Constables were sent out to see affirmative answer. that no liquor was being sold save at the Next morning twelve Tillman condispensaries, and there came the trouble stables, armed with rifles, arrived in Darthat might have been expected. The con lington. Shortly afterward they wired stables were neither wise nor good men. the governor for a Gatling gun and corps, They were out to earn their money; they and troops were brought in from Sumter meant to find illicit liquor; they did find and Florence. On the other hand, white it, but their ungentle conduct made men in sympathy with the people of Dartrouble. There
several killings lington were coming on every train, fully which bore the earmarks of murder on the armed. A mass meeting was held in the part of the constables, and there followed courthouse, at which it was enthusiasticseveral pardonings and reinstatements as ally voted that any attempt to search priconstables, which bore something of a re vate dwellings would be met with armed semblance to an official condonation and resistance. The crowd was not disorappreciation of homicide. Finally the in- derly, but it was certain that only the dignation in several counties approached withdrawal of the constabulary could a white heat, and the sparks were soon avert bloodshed. flying.
The next afternoon, March 30, the longOn March 27, 1904, Governor Tillman, dreaded clash came, and in the shape of who had been with difficulty suppressing a massacre, the cold blooded nature of his fury at the non-enforcement of his which surpassed anything for years in the stringent search orders, burst forth with a history of the state.
history of the state. Just as it seemed characteristic letter to the Mayor of Dar that the danger had been finally escaped, lington, a prosperous city in the Pee-Dee and fourteen constables armed with Winsection. He advanced the proposition chesters were at the railroad depot, five that, “until the state board (of the dis- unarmed citizens were suddenly fired on, pensary) becomes satisfied
without reason and without warning. police are enforcing the law, no part of The firing lasted for five minutes, during the proceeds of the dispensary will be which time armed men came to the assistpaid to your city.” For it was part of ance of the citizens; and when it was the law that each place supporting a dis over four men were dead, several more pensary should share in the proceeds. were dying and others were more or less Not alone Darlington, but Sumter and wounded. After the slaughter, the conFlorence, both in the Pee-Dee, were daily stables disappeared in the woods. expecting trouble.
Something much more like the mob that The following day, the chief spy, Gail had been described by Governor Tillman lard, of the Tillman constabulary, put in as in possession of the city, set out in purhis appearance in Darlington. Several suit, and the memorable Whisky War had public places were raided, without resist begun. From end to end the state was ance, though the crowd which gathered in a tumult. Governor Tillman, in the looked ominous. The report spread that executive chamber at Columbia, wired to three houses, private dwellings, were to every militia company to proceed to Darbe searched; that the whisky spies were lington or to be in readiness. In Columat that moment moving on one house. bia the three companies refused to go, inSoon determined men were on the streets cluding his own Governor's Guards. In armed with rifles and shotguns, and the other places the orders from the Governor spies, scenting danger, returned to their were ignored. Meanwhile men were leavhotel, expecting reinforcements on the ing for Darlington on every train, and morrow. An excited crowd of citizens some were going there afoot. In Florence went to the armory of the Darlington the local dispensary was entered in the Guards and took possession of all of the night and totally wrecked, liquors to the arms, but later put them back. However, value of $15,000 being destroyed.
If the constables had been caught on never admit for a single moment that there that memorable night there would have was anything wrong in his pet institution. been no possibility of escaping a whole- A suggestion, from an individual or a sale lynching. Happily the homicides newspaper, to the prejudice of the diseluded such summary punishment, and pensary, was sure to be met with a vituthere was no further bloodshed for the perative outburst from the senator. He time. Next day Darlington was declared was certain that the charges of fraud by Governor Tillman under martial law, were unfounded. and all the troops who could be persuaded During the past year a remarkable to go to Darlington were hurriedly change has taken place. Foreseeing that massed at the state capitol in readiness to the time had come when the misdoings of move. “You who have sowed the wind the dispensary could no longer be hidden, have now reaped the whirlwind," was the Tillman came to the front with a rather comment of Tillman on the slaughter. He injured air, much like that of a man meant the Darlington people, but there whose children have been caught at miswere those in the state to whom the state- chief, and who is in despair at having ment had more direct application: the such wicked children. Knowing that men behind the passage of the dispensary there had been wholesale stealings in the law.
dispensary, and that they were about to On April 2 Darlington had become an come to light, Tillman hastened to remark armed camp. The telegraph offices had that he thought as much. At the recent been seized, and messages were censored investigation, conducted by a special comwith as much strictness as in Russia. The mittee authorized by the previous session seizure of the telegraph was directed of the legislature, when the searchlight against the newspapers of the state, who was thrown upon the rottenness of the were, with few exceptions, bitter in their liquor traffic conducted by South Carodenunciation of the Governor and his lina, Senator Tillman intimated that the crew. Florence had likewise been invaded administration as a whole was bad, and by state troops, and the whole Pee-Dee needed a thorough reform. He did not was under martial law. Several acts of admit that the system was wrong as a violence that were clearly beyond the con- system. Properly conducted, so as not to trol of the leaders served to aggravate the embitter the public against it, the distroubles.
pensary is just as effective as a political After lasting ten days the Whisky War, machine to-day as when it was established. through the combined pressure of the The recent investigation was conducted more astute Tillmanites, the press of the by a committee composed of seven memstate and of the country, and the federal bers of the legislature. At least five of government, came to an end. There have the seven were earnestly disposed to unnever since been any violations or threats cover whatever wrongdoing had been of violations of the sanctity of the home going on in the dispensary, and two of up in the Pee-Dee, at the hands of the those five, Senator Christensen and Repredispensary. But there have been many sentative Lyon, have Jeromed the inquiry sporadic homicides growing out of the en- just as far as it was possible for them forcement of the law, or which may be directly charged up against it.
It was found that there had been reIt may be confidently said that the dis- bates by the hundred; that public bids pensary is now in its declining years. It had been tampered with; that extortionwas not defeated this year, as had been ate prices were paid for bottles, for labels, hoped; possibly it will endure two or for the liquor and for everything that had three years longer. Tillman says that he been bought in the name and at the exwill stump the state this summer in the pense of the state; it was discovered that defense of his institution. The natural some of the dispensers had been guilty question as to why it should need defense of actual theft from the state, and yet had from its sponsor entails another explana- been kept in the employ of the state. The tion.
investigation revealed just what every In twelve long years of patent corrup- one who knew the conditions existing in tion in the dispensary, Tillman would the dispensary expected to be revealed;