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hung on Rembrandt's bronze shoulders, or fraternities of artistic folk, with horse, where his statue rises on the plain. foot and wagons, had passed by, our next
From the sublime to the ridiculous, quest of inquiry was the Dutchmen at there being but a step, the American notes night. the star-spangled banner, in this quarter In the State Theater, at 8 P.M., when of numerous restaurants. But always the the Queen Mother and Prince arrived, emblem of law and order is over some and between the “acts” we saw fair Holpalace of "real American drinks," or land in jewels and evening dress. Someabove an “American Billiard Academy,” what heavy and slow to an American, we and oh! strange mixture of associations, confess, were parts of the program. Von“America Royal” peep shows. Surely del's “Joseph in Dothan” was a living the Dutch are as unconscious of a joke Rembrandt in color, pose, grouping and as are the English who gave Archbishop light, while, incidentally, one could be Laud a stained-glass window for promot- easily convinced, if he needed conviction, ing the colonization of New England ! of the nobility of the Dutch vernacular.
But to our wandering sheep! We do Exquisite elocution and a "grand mannot forget that the whole of these street ner'' in solemn diction redeem any tongue tableaux have been gotten up in “the from vulgar associations born of helpless Painters' Quarter”; that is, the space ignorance. To see also the most striking between Ruysdael Kade and the Amstel. of Rembrandt's etchings thrown on the Here the new streets of ever-growing screen in colossal proportions was in it. Amsterdam are named after Holland's self a revelation of the master's power. men of the brush and palette. Names But, on the street, again, among the now become living figures, and in the plain folks, even the world and his wife, group we recognize by some mark or de- one felt again that Holland is but a distail of costume, Van der Helst, Franz guised republic. Intense individualism llals, Ferdinand Bols, Govert Flink, Jan and plenty of freedom, rarely requiring Steen, Ostade, Albert Cuyp, Gerard Don, police interference, showed how heartily Ruysdael, Hobbema, Jacob van Campen, the Dutch people appreciate both their Quellinus, Paul Potter, Sweelinck and political and mental liberty and the men llenony. They stand in pairs, these con- who helped to make it. Rembrandt broke temporaries, pupils or successors of Rem- with Italy, the church traditions and the brandt, but the master receives chief academy, in order to glorify the home, the honor. On the rim of a colossal floral cradle, marriage and common life, and crown surmounting a “float” adorned man. He pictured the real Christ and with fair women, we read the names of the actual Apostles, and he stripped mysthree or four of his masterpieces. Hol- tery--so beloved of ambitious ecclesiaslanders to-day mourn that so many of tics-of its power to enslave. In his love Rembrandt's etchings and paintings are of truth, even to nudity, yes even to reowned outside of the Fatherland. Yet pulsiveness, the Dutch people follow their they gloat over the fact that besides a greatest master. In their homes he still hundred or so of the smaller works, the looks at them from sixty self-portraits three or four greatest of Rembrandt's which tell of a painter's progress from canvases hang on home walls. “The amateurish essay to consummate mastery. Night Watch," the "Anatomy Lesson,
Anatomy Lesson,'' On Rembrandt night, besides illumination the “Syndies of the Cloth Guild” and of the National Museum, eighty-six stere“Elizabeth Bas” are public property; opticon views in open air of the master's while in the house of the professor of finest works delighted myriads. Amsteresthetics in the Amsterdam University dam has no kermiss. So the crowdsDr. Six, the matchless portrait of his except, of course, in the Kalvar Straatancestor, the burgomaster, Jan Six, is still were quiet enough to make sleep easy for the joy of thousands of visiting students those in bed betimes. of the perfect in portraiture.
Music in a score of places and the great After the forty damsels and other flower array in Vondel Park marked the dames of the F.F.F. (fair, fat and forty) fourth and final day of the Rembrandt and the four hundred or so costumed and festival, beginning also the fourth cenhelmeted men, of fifteen or more unions tury of his fame.
ERHAPS nowhere in the Philippines in the war days will remem
world can be found so ber the old Oriente Hotel in Manila and great a variety of won- the huge staircase of rich, glistening, derful hardwoods as in claret-red Tindalo. The Spaniards apprethe Philippine Islands. ciated the wonderful woods of the PhilipEven a layman in woods pines. In remote provinces, in the most is impressed with their unexpected places in the Islands, one will
infinite richness of col- find old mansions built by the Spanish oring, the great size of the timbers, and years ago, with great doors and tables their durability. In the far Cagayan Val- made of single boards, and pieces of ley of Northern Luzon is an old Spanish exquisitely carved furniture that would mansion whose floors are of huge bolted have graced the homes of Washington or planks from thirty inches to three feet Jefferson. Some of these exquisite hardacross, and glistening like plate-glass mir- woods of the Philippines have been taken rors without the aid of any varnish. to England and Spain. Much is used in These planks of different woods are laid China in wood carvings, and in Japan in alternately, and are brilliant in natural decorative cabinet work; but these superb finish of jet black, claret red, and golden woods are comparatively unknown to straw-color. Soldiers who were in the Americans.
The forests of the Philippines are of tract, I spent three weeks in the woods great extent. With an estimated value of examining the different tree species, their two billion dollars — their actual value abundance, and the texture and beauty of has not yet been computed by “timber- the woods. It is difficult for one who has cruisers" – they exceed the hardwood not actually been in the forests to appreforests of India and Borneo in the amount ciate their tremendous possibilities – the of uncut timber; and may be logged vastness of the merchantable timber. cheaper and more easily than the forests The natural growth of the Philippine of South America. They are not found forests is computed by Major Ahern, in swamps. Either from the point of view Chief of the Insular Forestry Bureau, to of the artist and nature-lover, or the capi- be 1,400,000,000 cubic feet — three times talist and lumberman, the woods of the the cut for 1900 in the entire United Philippines perhaps excel the forests of States! At the present time fully ninety, any other portion of the tropical world nine per cent of this natural growth is covering an equal area.
going to waste, and the world is clamor. Standing on the low-lying hills of the ing for the woods - the ebonies, mahouSouthern Peninsula of Luzon recently, I anies, ironwoods, construction woods, all saw a typical Philippine forest, a vast sea manner of precious woods, that need only of interwoven tree tops, a hundred feet modern methods, a maximum of machinabove the ground, stretching for miles and ery and a minimum of handling to make miles in every direction, and in the dis- Monte Cristos of the needed lumbermen. tance growing indistinct and merging into The forests are a delight. Often giant the vista of bright green color that is trees meet in thick crown eighty to one characteristic of the foliage. There with hundred and fifty feet overhead. Some Mr. John Orr, the dean of all lumbermen of the trees run up in clear trunks eighty in the Islands, a commercial forester of or more feet before branching. One may fourteen years' experience in the Philip- walk for miles in their dark shades on a pines, well equipped and operating a vast firm carpet of dry mold, frequently clear of underbrush. Sometimes you may run on a drove of wild boar; sometimes on a troop of chattering monkeys; often you hear the hoarse booming of the callao bird. But, as a rule, the woods are enchantingly still.
With the exception of the most densely settled areas in the Archipelago, of some of the open plateau country of the interior of Northern Luzon, and of the pampas of the great Mindanao valleys, the Philippines are almost entirely covered with forests of immense trees. The biggest average of timber is found where there is the smallest population. On the Island of Cebu, which has the densest population, there is absolutely no commercial timber. On the Island of Mindanao, where there is an average of but one and a half people to the square mile, are found some of the thickest groves of timber in the Islands. Perhaps the finest merchantable forests in the Archipelago are to be found along the west coast of Southern Luzon peninsula, on the Islands of Mindoro and Negros, and on the great island of Mindanao. There are thought to be at least ten million acres of virgin forest on the last named island alone. Major Ahern, of the Forestry Bureau, says there are two million acres of dense virgin forest in Cagayan Province of Northern Luzon.
Practically all of the commercial woods of the Philippines are hardwoods. The
A PHILIPPINE JUNGLE only notable exceptions are the huge calentas or Philippine cedar found almost everywhere, and pines that grow on the underestimated their value. The For mountain slopes of Benget, in Northern estry Bureau of the Philippine Islands Luzon, and like regions.
makes a distinction between timber land The specific gravity of these hardwoods and wood land. The bureau estimates the is so dense that most of them, even when amount of timber land in the forests at dry, will sink in salt water like so much forty million acres.
forty million acres. It has estimated, by lead.
actual measurement, one large tract as The Philippine forests do not grow in having an average “stand” of construc“straight stands” of any one timber, as tion wood of between thirty and forty redwood, pines, spruce, and other species thousand feet, board measurement, of are found growing in the United States. merchantable timber (i. e., over fifteen The species are intermixed; yet it is usual inches in diameter) per acre. These estito find one species predominating. In mates are made from actual count. The many regions narra (or Philippine ma- foresters take long strips running through hogany), which is one of the most valua- a tract of country; every tree in that ble cabinet woods in the world, is found strip is measured by the foresters, and in growing in enormous “stands" of dense that way they gain a very accurate estitimber. For fear of exaggeration, many mate of the entire “stand.” One lumberwriters in touching upon the Philippine man estimates a certain tract at the exforests in their general articles have traordinary average of two hundred and forty thousand feet, board measurement, first, second, third, fourth and fifth per acre. This is perhaps a bit high, but classes. There are 115 species of trees in it indicates that the forests of the Philip- the first three groups, and all the others pines contain far above the average of are classified in the last groups, that is, hardwood timber usually found in the the lower priced timber. On a “stand” hardwood forests in other parts of the of fifty square miles one will find about earth. Indeed, a good “stand” of Phil. four hundred varieties of trees; of these ippine timber will, on the average, yield varieties sixty or seventy will be of the
Philippine hardwoods not only occur in ebonies and mahoganies, from which is made most exquisite furniture, but they possess timbers of wonderful strength for building purposes and peculiarly suited to resist the tropics. There are two kinds of hardwoods in the Islands, known roughly as construction woods and cabinet woods. Even many species of construction woods, which are used in shipbuilding and house-building, take on a brilliant polish and would be deemed adapted to decorative work in any country where hardwood is less abundant. Taking up the construction woods probably the most plentiful commercial building timber is that known as molave. In external appearance the molave resembles a huge oak, growing even larger than the greatest American oaks. In color the wood, after being sawn, is gray. In
markings it has something the appearance HUGE PINE SLAB
of curly maple, but it has more the Carved by the Igorrotes with bolos.
texture of American oak than any other
tree of the tropics. Huge mola ve logs are many more board feet to the acre for the obtained which are forty inches in diamelumber mills than our densest stands of ter and forty to sixty feet long. Molave pine and spruce in the United States. An weighs seventy-six pounds to the cubic average acre in the Rocky Mountain for- foot; thus it sinks even in salt water. It est yields one to two thousand board feet is used for ship-building (and they make of lumber; in the forests of the southern the strongest, finest little ships in the states three to four thousand; in the world in the Philippines); for posts, winnorthern forests like Maine, Michigan dows and joists of houses, and rollers in and Wisconsin, four to six thousand. A
A the old type of sugar mills, it is extremely single redwood tree of the Pacific Coast valuable. In one of the old cathedrals is often yields as much as a hundred thou- an immense molave beam that has stood in sand feet of lumber as much as from place for two hundred years, and is unaftwenty to forty acres of Eastern forest. fected by the white ant or by water. While the huge hardwoods of the Philip- Batitinan is the teak wood of the Phil. pines are not as large as the redwoods, ippines. The wood is really better than they probably rank next in size among the famous teak of India. It is very elasforests in territory of the United States. tic and resists the action of salt water. It
At the present writing there are 665 is one of the finest woods for the planking native tree species now listed by the and decks of ships in the world. It is Insular Forestry Bureau. All the wood found all over the Philippines, and probof the Philippine Islands is classified, ably in appearance resembles black oak largely according to its value, into more closely than any other tree. The groups, the “superior group” and the logs come straight, fifty feet long and