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The Armed Strength of Europe. TABLE SHOWING RESOURCES IN THE EVENT OF A GENERAL CONFLICT. The military and naval statistics embraced in the following tables were specially prepared for THE WORLD ALMANAC by Capt. W. R. Hamilton, Artillery Corps, United States Army, and corrected from the latest official reports on file at the War Department, December, 1901:

LAND FORCES.

} 154,000 {

} 180,000 {

Ger-
CLASSES.

France.

Austria-
Italy.

Russia,

Great many.

Hungary.

Britain,

Turkey. ACTIVE ARMY & RES. Officers.... 23,850 22,005 14,084

21.203 37,767) 11,036 7,156 Non-com. Offs. & Men.. 2,126,894 1,959, 302 486,929 710, 660 1,086,686 *346, 603 234, 700 Non-combatants.. 159, 812 37.920 10,000 12, 800 42, 315 32,100 Horses........ 148,000 129, 700 52,700 59,312 182,300 80,000

31, 342 Guns..... 3,372 3,270 1,248 1,008 3,354 1,314

712 Vehicles.....

30,110 32,000 14,000 16,000 32,400 6,000 FIRST RESERVE. Officers...

21,340 21,416 18,712 17,600 21,120 Non-com. Offs. & Men.. 2,188,790 2,191,664

9,200 622,309 394, 756 2,611,340 Non-combatants... .. 9,000

500,000 182, 600 3,874

4, 250

18,400 Horses.............. 85.300 83,100 22, 000 23, 912 109,330

65,000 Guns..

2,400 1,872
744 1,200 3,636

784 Vehicles.....

4,000

7,000 SECOND RESERVE. Officers.....

18,600 18,470 9, 200 15,620 17, 200 Non-com.Offs. & Men.. 1,200, 400 962,300 762,300

889,500 1,500,000 Horses....

30,000 Guns.

840 GRAND WAR TOTAL, Officers...... 63,790 61,891 41,992 54,423 76, 037

16,356 Non-com.Offs. & Men.. 5,516, 082 5,133, 786 1,885,412 1,997, 866 5,198, 026 Horses..

233,300 212,800 71,312 83,224 291,660 110,000 96,342 Guns. 5,772 6,064 1,992 2, 208 7,830 2,098

712 PEACE EST'LISHM'T. Infantry

391,928 368,842 223, 805 187, 288 712,537 140,672 141, 200 Cavalry

67, 046 66, 671 24, 760 47,626 147,536 14,238 30,000 Artillery

88, 619 77, 769 33,703 35, 245 155, 030 38,985 19, 265 Engineers and Train... 29, 073 32,680 15,963 14,519 33, 900

9,957 Horses.......

14,500 134,612 121,750 59,312 69, 100 182,300 52,400 31,342 Guns.

3,372 3, 270 1,248 1, 008 3,354 Tot. PEACE EST'M'T.

1,314

712

} 691,639 { 734, 700

1 Men.

576, 666 545, 962 298, 231 284, 678 1,049, 003 347,042 Horses.

204,965 134,612 121, 750 59,312 69, 100 182,300 + 84, 600 31, 342 Guns... 3,372 3, 270 1, 248 1,008 3,354 1,912

712 Artillery in this table does not include fortress guns. *Exclusive of Indian native troops. Including Indian native troops.

LAND FORCES.

CLASSES.

Spain,

Belgium

Denmark.

lands, VINOBS Nether

DANUBIAN

STATES. Bul Sergaria, via,

Roumania.

2,110

Infantry...

56,978 29,709 12,300 8,974 16,132 105,542 41,218 23,168 50,000 30,150 Cavalry

12,716 6,140

2,600
1,478 4.790 3.972 7,800 2,800 6,340

8,853 Artillery 13,587 9,215 7,560 1,280 2,600 21,803 10,670 4,800

3,180 12,062 Engineers and Train.

4,663
1,855
3,478 694 734 8,719 3,848 1,860

6,619 Total Active Army.

87,944 46,919 25,838 12,426 24,256 140,036 63,536 32,628 61,630 57,714 East India Troops...

470 42,678
Sanitary and Administrative
Troops..

3,867 1,354 4,289 5,312
2,500 4,200 1,500 2,000

2,400 2,700 West India Troops.

314 Ist Reserves.

110,000 65,000 64,500 42,400 58,000 102,795 110,300 56,000 42,000 71,000 2d Reserves...

900,000 60,000 80,000 50,000 96,000 275,000 140,000 120,000 150,000 125.000 Total Peace Strength...

91,811 40,743 72,805 18,052 26,756 144,236 65,036 34,628 64,030 60,414 Total War Strength..

1,101,811 173,743 217,305 110,452 160,756 522,031 315,336 180,628 356,030 256,414

1

CONDITIONS OF SERVICE AND AVAILABLE STRENGTH OF POWERS. Throughout Europe and in Japan military service is founded on the principle that all citizens of a country are bound to contribute a certain amount of time in the military organization. Germany was the first country of modern times to put this principle on a scientific basis, and therefore ait systems in Europe may be said to be modifications of the German. The time taken varies in different countries, but all take their young men who are physically able to bear arms and muster them by actual count each year, A certain number of men being required to make up the annual quota to keep the regiments and corps authorized by the law of the country full, the remainder are excused. Some of these serve in the following years and some never serve with the active army but make all their service in the reserves. The active army answers to our regular army and is composed of men who are always under arms and ready for war. The active army generally has a reserve which, upon

THE ARMED STRENGTH OF EUROPE-Continued.

the beginning of hostilities, is used to fill up to their war strength the regiments and corps. The next class is the first reserve, called in Germany the Land wehr. The third period or class is the second reserve and is called the Landsturm. Both the Landwehr and Landsturm require only a certain number of days each year of military service, and each also has its reserve. The activearmy and Landwehr can be used outside of the country; the Landsturm is only turned out for defence of the Fatherland, and its service is entirely within the home country. As a recruit finishes his time, he passes from one class to another, in the manner indicated by the three classes and their reserves. In Austria-Hungary, the soldier spends ten years in the active army, two in Landwehr, and ten in the Landsturm. In France, the first thirteen years are required in the active army and its reserve, the following six in the territorial army, which answers to the Lardwehr, and five in the territorial reserve. In Germany, seven years are spent in the active army and reserve, twelve in the Landwehr, and six in the Landsturm. In Italy, three in the active army, five in its reserve, four in the mobile militia, and seven in the territorial militia. In Russia, there are eighteen years served in the active army and reserve, and four in the Imperial reserve or militia. In Spain, three in the active army, nine in the reserve. In Turkey, six in the active army and reserve, eight in the Redif or Landwehr, and six in the Mustahfiz or Landsturm.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY-The year 1900 saw 339,783 young men attain the age of military service liability. Out of this number but 193,346 were drawn for service, the rest being excused for physical, moral, or mental disability, or for being sole supports of families, heads of financial or manufacturing establishments, or for other good reasons. of the number drawn only 143,000 were required in the active army, while the remainder were either credited with their first period of service or placed directly in the reserve. Obligatory service begins on the first day of January of the year that the young man attains his twenty-first birthday.

GERMAN EMPIRE- The total number of registered young men liable in 1900 to service was 469.320, of which 294,400 were required to fill the annual contingent for the active army. Under the German law, young men who volunteer at the age of eighteer or nineteen are required to serve but one year with the active army, except in time of war. There were 13,000 volunteers in addition to the numbers given above. Liability to service in Germany is termed “wehrpflicht," and this is divided into two classes-namely, dienstpilicht' or service liability, and landsturmpflicht' or landsturm liability.

FRANCE-There were 327,690 young men registered, of whom 227,314 were enrolled in the active army, one-fourth for one year, the rest for two and three years. There were 32,600 re-enlistments for three, four, and five years. The remainder of those registered, but not enrolled, were excused for physical, moral, or mental disability.

ITALY-In Italy the tendency has been in late years to reduce as much as possible the military burden, and of the 283,600 meni registered the past year, only 93,415 were enrolled in the active army, the remainder being either excused or postponed till following years. There were, however, some 46,800 men who had been excused from former years, who were enrolled in addition.

RUSSIA-This great empire has such countless numbers to draw upon that the Russian War Office never ascertains exactly the truth of its own figures. Over a million young men were registered the past year, and of this number 388,500 were enrolled in the ranks. The remainder were divided among the reserves.

GREAT BRITAIN–The military system of Great Britain is peculiar. Military service is not compulsory, though the events following the war in South Africa have caused British statesmen to think seriously of making a compulsory service applicable to all able-bodied men of the empire. The estimates for the past year had provisions in them for carrying on the war in South Africa, but at the same time it was determined to increase the permanent strength of the army, both as to numbers and efficiency. An army of practically 500,000 men was provided. The reserve forces of the empire consist of the militia, the yeomanry cavalry, the volunteers, and the army reserve force. The number of recrụits raised during the year was 42,700 from Great Britain alone. From Australia and other colonies, there was a force of 12,684 in addition.

Rifles and Small Arms. THE re-arming of the military forces of all the civilized powers, that began about 1889, is now practically complete, and the table gives the statistics of most of the countries that have adopted magazine rifles of small calibres for their foot troops. Since the Mexican war, scarce fifty years ago, our troops have had, first, the improved Aintlock musket, which in turn gave way to the percussioncap muzzle loader, and that in turn to the single breech loader, while within the past seven years the small-calibre magazine rifle bas usurped the place of the single loader. To-day the great powers of Europe are considering the advisability of adopting an automatic magazine rifle. Not only has the small-calibre magazine improvement extended to the rifle, but has also been applied to the carbine and pistol. An automatic pistol has in fact been adopted by several powers. In addition to the countries given in the table, the following have armed their troops with modern arms: Abyssinia with the Remington and Berdan rifles, Bolivia with Mausers, Korea with Remingtons and Martini. Henrys, the South African Boer governments with Mausers.

Portugal, with its older system of Kropatchek rifles, is changing to the new Steyr rifle, which weighs 8. 36 pounds and has a calibre of . 256 of an inch, The mechanism of the gun is very siin ple, and its range very great. In Japan the Murata rifle, with its unwieldy tube system, fixed magazine, is to be replaced by the Arisaki rifle, which is both lighter and simpler, and with much greater range and power than the Murata. In Mexico a strange idea took possession of the military authorities as a result of the Spanish-American war; in effect, that the magazine system was exceedingly liable to get out of order, and was too complicated for military purposes. The Mexican Government has therefore placed an order for 32,000 Remington rifles of small calibre. These new Remingtons are: 276 inch calibre,

are sighted up to 2,300 yards, and weigh 844 pounds without bayonet. The cartridge complete weighs 212 grains, has smokeless powder, and an initial velocity of 2,23 feet.

The war in South Africa developed serious defects in the Lee-Metford rifle of the British army. The principal defect was in the poor sights, and 250,000 new sights had to be made and sent out to South Africa to replace those on the rities. The Boers and British have accused each other of using "dum-dum'' bullets in this war. During Lord Kitchener's campaign to Khartoum, it was found that natives struck by the high-velocity bullets continued fighting, and a bullet capable of producing greater shock or stopping power had to be used. Thus was the 'dum-dum'' invented. It consists of

THE ARMED STRENGTH OF EUROPE-Continued.

a bullet of the same calibre and length of the bullet of the Lee-Metford rifle, is of lead, has a jacket of nickel, and its head is countersunk. The nose is soft, and the base is open. The explosive power of the cordite used in the cartridge tends to spread the bullet out flat from the rear. This makes it of much larger diameter, and hence, on striking, it possesses the necessary stopping power.

In Germany the new rifle is an improvement on the old Mauser model of 1888. These improvements are in the sights, adaptation of the magazine for use of the loading clip, new bayonet and method of attachment, and in arrangement for keeping dust from magazine. The Mauser automatic rifle of 1900 is like the pistol of that name. The energy of recoil is utilized for its operation. The breech moves backward upon the firing of a cartridge, and carries the barrel with it, which movement cocks the hammer and tightens a recuperating string. This stops the movement of the barrel, but the breech continuing to move to the rear extracts and ejects the shell and tightens a second spring. The first then expands and shoves forward the breech, which in turn shoves the cartridge, which is at the upper end of the magazine, into the chamber. The breech closes, and in turn the second spring expands, and brings the barrel into the firing position. All that is necessary to do is to press the trigger, and the weapon continues to fire until all the cartridges of the magazine are used up.

Belgium, Denmark, and Austria have also been testing automatic rifles, but perhaps the most remarkable of all is the mitrailleuse automatic rifle of Italy, called the Cei-Rigotti. "In this, also, the powder gases are utilized for continuing the operation of the gun. By pressing thetriggersuccessively the cartridges are fired one by one in the usual manner, but by turning a side lever, at one pull of the trigger all cartridges are discharged in a few seconds. The ammunition is arranged in clips containing from six to twenty-five, according to the kind of fire desired, and the magazine can be filled with a total of fifty. It is claimed that fifteen shots a second can be fired, or twenty-five in two seconds, the detonations following each other so rapidly as to sound like one report, and the bullets following each other at fifty-yard intervals.

The anticipations regarding the wounds inflicted by the high-velocity, small-calibre rifles, like the Mauser and Krag, have not been realized, the South African, Chinese, and Spanish-American wars show. The wounds inflicted are of a merciful nature, producing but little shock, and, unless in a vital part, yielding readily to treatment and recovery: As a matter of fact, the number of casualties for the number of bullets expended is far less with the new rifles than formerly with the largercalibre and slower-burning black gunpowders. The more deadly casualties of war are to-day, as ever, in the fever and ills contracted by the soldier in camp and on the march in campaign.

RIFLES USED BY THE PRINCIPAL POWERS OF THE WORLD.

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Lbs.

Yds.

9.2

Ins. Ins, Ing.
U.S. Army

60.7
Krag-Jorgenson .... 1898 .300 48.9
U.S. Navy
Argentina.... Mauser.

1091 .301 48.62 58.5 Austria-Hung. Mannlicher..

1895 .315 49.92 59.55 Brazil. Mauser..

1894 .276 48.62 60.43 Belgium. Mauser

1889 .301 50.27 60.04 Bulgaria Mannlicher..

1895 296 49.17 68.14 Canada Lee-Enfield..

.303 49.961.45 Colombia.. Mauser

1893.301 48.6 66.11 China .... Lee..

1890 303 49.5 61.7 Chile... Mauser

1895

276 48.62 58.5 Costa Rica Mauser

1890 .276 50.4 i 60 Denmark Krag-Jorgenson 1889 .315 52.36 62.6 Egypt. Lee-Metford..

.303 49.5 61.7 Ecuador.. Mannlicher..

1895 .296 49.1 68.1 France Lebel ..

1993 .315 51.45 71.85 Germany... Mauser...

1898 311 49.20 69.29 Great Britain. Lee-Metford... 1893 .303 49.5

61.45 Greece Gras

1874 433 51.18 72.05 Holland.. Beaumont-Vitali 1888 .433 50.79 72.11 flayti. Mauser

1890.301 48.6 66.11 Italy

Mannlicher-Carcano 1899 .256 50.39 62.6 Japan. Murata..

1887 .315 48.3 59.3 Mexico Mondragon..

1897 .256 48.9 59 Morocco Mauser

1890 .301 50.2 60.04 Norway

Krag-Jorgenson 1893 256 50.6 62.1
Portugal Kropatchek.. 1886 .315 51.96 70.47
Peru
Mannlicher..

1895 315 50.4 60
Persia
Mauser..

1893 .301 50.2 60.04 Paraguay Mauser

1895 276 50.4 60 Roumania Mannlicher.

1895 .25648.38 58.15 Russia .. Mouzin

1891 .300 51.34 68.11 Spain Mauser.

1893 276 48.62 58.58 Servia Koka

1894 .284 51.2 61.3 Sweden Remington (new) 1889 .315 48.82 68.11 Salvador Mauser

256

49.01 68.10 Siam.. Mannlicher..

Lbs.

Gr'ns. 9.25 10.17 5 1,900 Cop. & Nick..

220 2,000 | { Peyton &

1 Dupont. 8.59 9.73 5 2,187 Mailleschort 212 2,083 Ger.S'keless. 8.19 9.76 5 2,460 Steel

244 2,034 Smokeless. 8.18 9.59 5 2,187 Steel

173 2,388 Ger.S'keless. 8.59 10.4 5 2,187 Mailleschort.. 216 1,968 Ger.S'keless. 9.4 10.21 5 2,460 Steel.

253 2,083 Smokeless. 9.25 9.9 5 2,200 Cop. & Nick.. 215 2,000 Cordite. 8.6 10.21 5 2,187 Mailleschort.. 253 2,338 Smokeless. 8.8

10.5 5 2,200 Steel & Lead.. 236 2,000 Smokeless. 8.81 10.01 5 2,187 Steel...

211 2,388 Ger. S'keless. 9.7 10.31 5 2,187 Steel....

211 2,388 Ger.S'keless. 9.5 10.19 5 2,296 Cop. & Nick... 270 1,968 Gun-cotton.

10.19 5 2,200 Cop. & Nick... 245 2,000 Cordite. 9.4 10.04 5 2,187 Steel

253 2,388 Ger.S'keless. 9.22 10.09 8-10 2,187 Mailleschort.. 274 2,073 Vieille. 9.02 9.98 5 2,187 Steel....

269 2,034 Ger.S'keless. 9.25 10.22 8-10 2,800 Cop. & Nick.. 245 2,000 Cordite. 9.26 10.5 1 1,968 Lead & Paper. 258 1,411 Black. 9.96 10.8 4 2,296 Steel & Nick.. 258 1,493 Troisdorf. 8.6 9.9 5 2,187 Mailleschort 253 2,388 Ger.S'keless. 8.43 9.17

6 2,100 Steel..... 190 2,254 Smokeless. 8.41 9.34 8 2,187 Copper...

274 1,850 Wetteren. 8.12 9.15 5 2,187 Cop. & Nick.. 193 2,388 Ger. S'keless. 8.64 9.5 5 2,187 Mailleschort. 269 2,388 Ger. S'keless. 8.6 9.3 5 2,406 Steel..... 182 2,296 Smokeless. 8.81 9. 8 2,406 Copper.,

1,760 Black. 10.22 11.4 5 2,187 Mailleschort. 253 1,891 Smokeless. 9.7 10.5 5 2,187 Mailleschort. 269 2,388 Smokeless. 8.6 9.5

2,187 Mailleschort. 210 2,388 Smokeless. 9.7 10.5 5 2,187 Steel...

286 2,395 Troisdorf. 8.84

9.6 5 2,096 Cop. & Nick.. 246 2,000 Kazan. 8.81 9.48 5 2,187 Steel...

282 2,88 Ger.S'keless. 8.81 9.68 5 2,100 Steel.

270 2,100 Sinokeless. 8.23 9.8 5 2,624 Cop. & Nick.. 276 2,066 Troisdorf. 8.81 9.63 5 2,187 Steel

276 2,388 Smokeless. 8.81 10.3 5 2,187 Steel ..

1495

1895 315 49.01 68.10 Sarawak Mauser

1895 .256 49.01 68.11 Switzerland Schmidt-Rubin. 1889 .296 51.25 62.99 Turkey....... Mauser ..

18901 .301) 48.61 66.73

286 2,388 Smokeless, 9.9 10.8 5 2,187 Steel

276 2,388 Sinokeless. 8.8 10.3 5 2,187 Steel-capped.. 260 1,902 Gun-cotton. 9.48) 10.42) 12 9,187 Cop. & Nick.. 269 2,066 Smokeless.

Penetrative Power of Bullets-United States, Krag-Jorgenson at 3 feet 24.2 inches in dry oak; Canada, Lee-Enfield at 25 yards 42 inches in fur; Great Britain and Egypt, Lee-Metford at 25 yards 42 inches in pine; Belgium, Mauser at 109 yards 32 inches in pine; France, Lebel at 218 yards 24 inches in pine; Germany, Mauser at 109 yards 32 inches in pine; Mexico, Mondragon at 25 yards 42 inches in pine, Russia, Mouzin at 310 yards 20 inches in fir; Spain, Mauser at 13 yards 55 inches in pine; Sweden, New Remington at 109 yards 4 inches in deal; Switzerland, Schmidt-Rubin at 218 yards 23 inches in pine; Turkey, Mauser at 35 yards 49 inches in pine.

ARMED STRENGTH OF EUROPE-Continued.

ARMIES OF MEXICO, SOUTH AMERICA, AND ASIA.
CLASSES.
Japan. China, Mexico. Brazil. Chile,

Argent.

India,
Rep.

Venezuela Infantry. 101,400

18,966 16, 480 14,315 16,356 137,300 6,300 Cavalry.

9,766 100,000 7, 408 2,800 3,000 5,300 38,000 1,100 Artillery.

23,337
2,207 4,600 3,211 2,600 24,670

1,050 Engineers and train.. 5,700 1,323 1,230 1,109 1,000 11,600

700 Total peace strength... | 140, 203 100,000 29,904 25,110 21,635 26, 256 201,570 9,150 First reserves.. 78,500 500,000 28,000 25,000 28,000 24,500

12,000 Second reserves........ 235,000

150,000 55,000 50,000 50,000 200,000 150,000 Total war strength. 453, 703 600,000 207,904 105,110 99,635 100,756 401,570 171,150

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Battle-Ships, First Class...

56 20 14 13 Battle-Ships, Second Class

25 25 26 2 19 Battle-Ships, Third Class

10 4
11

2
Coast-Defence Ships...
14 23 8 5 17

20 5 26 Armored Cruisers. ...

25 21

8 12

5 Cruisers, First Class.

27 24 9

16

1 Cruisers, Second Class.

71 17 20 18 19

5
9 6 12

6 Cruisers, Third Class..

72 24 21
9 15 17 10 39

2 Gunboats, Sea-Going.

55 15 9
11 16 28

37

10 14 Gunboats, River.

49 47 9

16

1 11 2 7 Transports and Despatch Vessels.

28 43 11

18

6 16 21 16 16 13 16 Tugs, Repair, Water, Coal,

Hospital, Depot, and Special
Service..
218 74 57 69 82 24 4 8 6 3

3 9 School and Training Ships.. 9 9 10 13 9 3 11 1 16

10 9 3 Subsidized and Auxiliary Ships.... 32 22 16 12 34

23 11 Hulks and Obsoletes

128 90 64 81 60 19 8 8 17 7 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers.. 108 55 22 14 37

8

27 7 9 11 2 Torpedo-Boats, First Class.

49 56 85 24 98 32 13 26 47 16 34 24 30 Torpedo-Boats, Second and Third Classes.

118 186 60 152 98 46 6 22 36 46 36 9 Officers, Naval and Marine.. 4,958 1,965 1,194 836 2,412 641 712 220 730 6501 192 148 136 Enlisted Men.

108,913 42,316 23,914 21,645 38,140 12,659 8,250 1,652 9,712 22,000 4,426 2,640 2,100 Heavy Guns.

1,112 758 354 160

660

260 184 88 370 168 122 78 86 Secondary and Machine Guns. 9,842 4,298 1,746 2,180 4,392 1,087 354 412 1,186

975

3961 294 348 This and the following table include all ships built or building.

NAVIES OF OTHER POWERS.

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18

Battle-Ships, First Class.
Battle-Ships, Second Class.
Battle-Ships, Third Class...
Coast-Defence Ships..

14 Armored Cruisers.

12 Cruisers, First Class...

16 Cruisers, Other Classes

3
3

19 Gunboats.

10
12

11 Torpedo-Boat Destroyers..

5

37 Torpedo-Boats, First Class..

12

69 Torpedo-Boats, Second and Third Classes..

17

197 Despatch Boats, etc.......

3 Transports and Auxiliaries

8
2

29 Tugs and Hulks

10
18

24
22
5

18 Heavy Guns.

96
68
18 8

562 Secondary and Machine Guns.

534
596

48 40 80 1,186 Smokeless powders are now used by all armies and navies of the world except the army of the United States. In that it is but partially introduced, due, so it is said, to the fact that a satisfactory powder had not been obtained. At last this difficulty has been overcome, and two or three powders and high explosives have given most excellent results.

The virtues of smokeless powders are: First, absence of smoke; second, greater velocities and power to projectile, and therefore greater flatness of trajectory; third, less weight and more regusarity of action. Smokelessness makes it impossible for an enemy to discover or locate satisfactorily opposing forces either on land or sea. Increased velocities give fiatter trajectories and therefore much greater accuracy of fire. Increased energies give greater penetrating power and range, while decrease of weight gives the soldier the means of carrying many more cartridges.

8 40 566

: mi:::::::::

8 50

3 17 11 54 282

11 14 2 9 10 20 322

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