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As will have been seen from the foregoing, the factory inspectors in Europe are of high professional standing. This is further demonstrated by the fact that in many countries the inspectors are frequently called upon to give lectures at technical high schools and colleges, at safety congresses, before scientific and technical associations, etc. In many cases, also, factory inspectors are to be found among the most capable collaborators of technical journals dealing with questions of industrial safety and hygiene or with labor conditions generally.
For several years past it has been current practice in many European countries to arrange for special national conferences of factoryinspection officials to discuss technical matters of general interest and to exchange ideas as to the best practices in inspection work. These conferences have proved very valuable as a further means of training the inspectors, and in some cases, e.g., in the Scandinavian countries and Finland, they have even been organized on an international basis,
In conclusion, it may be mentioned that the International Labor Organization has also taken an active part in the development of the organization and activities of factory inspection. Thus, in 1923 the International Labor Conferences unanimously adopted a “Recommendation concerning the general principles for the organization of systems of inspection to secure the enforcement of the laws and regulations for the protection of the workers."
This recommendation (which has been accepted by most of the European countries) lays down, inter alia, the following principles:
(1) That the inspectorate should be centralized and placed under the direct and exclusive control of a properly qualified State authority (secs. 8-10).
(2) That competent experts should be employed to deal with special medical, engineering, electrical, and other problems arising out of inspection (sec. 11).
(3) That inspectors should be properly trained and qualified; that they should enjoy permanent status; that they should receive adequate remuneration; and that their freedom from external influence should be secured (secs. 13-16).
(4) (a) That one of the essential duties of the inspectors should be to investigate accidents, and more especially those of a serious or recurring character, with a view to ascertaining by what measures they can be prevented;
(b) That inspectors should inform and advise employers respecting the best standards of health and safety;
(c) That inspectors should encourage the collaboration of employers, managing staff, and workers for the promotion of personal caution, safety methods, and the perfecting of safety equipment;
(d) That inspectors should endeavor to promote the improvement and perfecting of measures of health and safety, by the systematic study of technical methods for the internal equipment of undertakings, by special investigation into problems of health and safety, and by any other means (sec. 7).
Further, in October 1935 a Regional Conference of Representatives of Labor Inspection Services was held at The Hague, under the auspices of the International Labor Office, to discuss the “Organization of
factory inspection in industrial undertakings, including the question of collaboration with the employers and workers."
As was indicated above (see footnote 2), this conference was attended by representatives from western Europe. Representatives of the factory inspectorates in the central and eastern European countries will be convened in a second regional conference of the same character and with the same agenda, to be held in Vienna in May 1937.
Minutes of Business Meetings and Reports of Officers
Session of September 24, 1936
President CRAWFORD. I am sure you will all be much gratified to learn that our financial situation is much better at present than it has ever been before. I shall now call on the secretary-treasurer to give us his report for the past year.
Report of the Secretary-Treasurer
United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
Leifur Magnusson, American representative, International Labor Organization. The proceedings of the Asheville convention have been printed as Bulletin No. 619 of the Bureau of Labor Statistics of the United States Department of Labor.
In accordance with recommendations made at the Asheville convention, com-
Committee on unemployment compensation.- Paul A. Raushenbush, Wisconsin
Committee on minimum wage.--Frieda S. Miller, New York Department of
Commitlee on wage-claim colleclion laws.--E. I. McKinley, Arkansas Bureau of
Committee on home work.--Morgan R. Mooney, Connecticut Department of Labor and Factory Inspection, chairman; Frieda S. Miller, New York Department of Labor; Martin P. Durkin, Illinois Department of Labor; W. E. Jacobs, Tennessee Department of Labor; L. Metcalfe Walling, Rhode Island Department of Labor.
Committee on civil service.-E. B. Patton, New York Department of Labor, chairman; Maud Swett, Wisconsin Industrial Commission; W. E. Jacobs, Tennessee Department of Labor; Gerald H. Brown, Canada Department of Labor; Gerard Tremblav, Quebec Department of Labor; Leonard D. White, U. S. Civil Service Commission.
Committee on women in industry.--Mary Anderson, United States Women's Bureau, chairman; Frieda S. Miller, New York Department of Labor; Margaret McIntosh, Canada Department of Labor; Florence A. Burton, Minnesota Departinent of Labor and Industry; Mrs. Louise Q. Blodgett, Rhode Island Department of Labor; Mrs. Daisy L. Gulick, Kansas Commission of Labor and Industry
Committee on child labor.-L. Metcalfe Walling, Rhode Island Department of Labor, chairman; Morgan R. Mooney, Connecticut Department of Labor and Factory Inspection; O. B. Chapman, Ohio Department of Industrial Relations; W. E. Jacobs, Tennessee Department of Labor; Beatrice McConnell, United States Children's Bureau.
Committee on publicity.-- Martin P. Durkin, Illinois Department of Labor, chairman).
During the year the association has continued its representation on various committees of the American Standards Association. Following is a list of safety codes developed or in process of development under the procedure of the American Standards Association in which the I. A. G. L. O. is interested as a sponsor or through representation on sectional committees:
PROJECT FOR WHICH I. A. G. L. 0. IS JOINT SPONSOR
28-1924.-Safety code for laundry machinery and operations.
No revision is under contemplation at present.
HAS REPRESENTATION ON SECTIONAL
PROJECTS FOR WHICH THE 1. A. G. L, 0.
COMMITTEES A9–1935.—Building-erits code.
The last edition of this code was approved by the American Standards Association under date of March 12, 1935. The sectional committee has completed a new edition which it is expected will be submitted to the American Standards Association in the very near future. The new edition includes minor revisions as well as a new section on exits in hotels and apartment houses, which was reported to you as being under development at the time of your last meeting. A10–1934.-American standard for safety in the construction industry,
Drafts of reports from three subcommittees have been prepared on the following subjects: Excavating, foundation work, blasting, and compressed-air work; scaffolding, ladders, temporary guard rails and toe boards, floor openings, sidewalk sheds, temporary stairs, runways and ramps, life lines, and safety belts; steel erection and temporary foors. Plans for holding a meeting of the sectional committee during the annual safety congress are being developed. This progress in the last few months indicates that it can be expected the sectional committee will now proceed with the development of the construction code. A11-1930.—Code of lighting: Factories, mills, and other workplaces.
Advice has been received from the Illuminating Engineering Society, sponsor for this project, that its technical committee has prepared information which will soon be sent to the sectional committee for consideration in connection with & revision of this standard. A12–1932.—Safety code for floor and wall openings, railings, and toe boards.
At the present time, no plans have been made to revise this code. A12–1931.-Safety code for elevators, dumbwaiters, and escalators.
A revision of this code is now out to letter ballot of the sectional committee and should therefore be submitted to the American Standards Association for approval this fall. The Elevator Inspectors' Handbook has been brought into line with the new provisions of the elevator code and will probably be submitted to the American Standards Association for approval with the code. A22.--Safety code for walkway surfaces.
The sectional committee for this code has been entirely inactive during the past year. However, studies are now being made at the National Bureau of Standards to determine whether or not new recommendations can be made to the sectional committee which will permit the development of a new draft of this code. B8–1932.---Safety code for protection of industrial workers in foundries.
No revision of this code is contemplated at this time. B9-1933.-Safety code for mechanical refrigeration.
A revision of this code is now under way. Subcommittees have been appointed to prepare new classifications for refrigerants, the development of a model ordinance for recommendation to municipalities desiring to incorporate regulations for mechanical refrigeration in their building requirements, and to prepare 3 completely revised draft of the code for the consideration of the sectional committee. Difficulty in reaching agreement on the proper classification of refrigerants has been the chief cause of delay in completing this revision. B19.--Safety code for compressed-air machinery.
A number of sectional committee meetings have been held during the past winter, several drafts of the proposed standard have been prepared, and work of the sectional committee has now reached the final stages.